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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232018, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352972

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In many African countries, laboratory reference values are not established for the local healthy adult population. In Mozambique, reference values are known for young adults (18-24yo) but not yet established for a wider age range. Our study aimed to establish hematological, biochemical and immunological reference values for vaccine trials in Mozambican healthy adults with high-risk for HIV acquisition. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort and site development study in Mozambique between November 2013 and 2014 enrolled 505 participants between 18 to 35 years old. Samples from these healthy participants, were analyzed to determine reference values. All volunteers included in the analysis were clinically healthy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C virus, and syphilis negative. Median and reference ranges were calculated for the hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters. Ranges were compared with other African countries, the USA and the US National Institute of Health (NIH) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) toxicity tables. RESULTS: A total of 505 participant samples were analyzed. Of these, 419 participants were HIV, hepatitis B and C virus and syphilis negative including 203 (48.5%) females and 216 (51.5%) males, with a mean age of 21 years. In the hematological parameters, we found significant differences between sex for erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH and MCHC as well as white blood cells, neutrophils and platelets: males had higher values than females. There were also significant differences in CD4+T cell values, 803 cells/µL in men versus 926 cells/µL in women. In biochemical parameters, men presented higher values than women for the metabolic, enzymatic and renal parameters: total and direct bilirubin, ALT and creatinine. CONCLUSION: This study has established reference values for healthy adults with high-risk for HIV acquisition in Mozambique. These data are helpful in the context of future clinical research and patient care and treatment for the general adult population in the Mozambique and underline the importance of region-specific clinical reference ranges.

2.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363709

RESUMO

In the well-known legume-rhizobia symbiosis, flavonoids released by legume roots induce expression of the Nod factors and trigger early plant responses involved in root nodulation. However, it remains largely unknown how the plant-derived flavonoids influence the physiology of non-symbiotic beneficial rhizobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the flavonoids apigenin and/or phloretin enhanced the swarming motility and production of cellulose and curli in Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24, both traits of which are essential for root colonization. Using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach, we showed that apigenin and phloretin significantly reduced the biosynthesis of the antifungal metabolite 2,4-DAPG and further identified a novel flavonoid-sensing TetR regulator PhlH, which was shown to modulate 2,4-DAPG production by regulating the expression of 2,4-DAPG hydrolase PhlG. Although having similar structures, apigenin and phloretin could also influence different physiological characteristics of P. fluorescens 2P24, with apigenin decreasing the biofilm formation and phloretin inducing expression of proteins involved in the denitrification and arginine fermentation processes. Taken together, our results suggest that plant-derived flavonoids could be sensed by the TetR regulator PhlH in P. fluorescens 2P24 and acts as important signalling molecules that strengthen mutually beneficial interactions between plants and non-symbiotic beneficial rhizobacteria.

3.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433824

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional modification of mRNA sequences through RNA editing can increase transcriptome and proteome diversity in eukaryotes. Studies of fetal and adult tissues showed that A-to-I RNA editing plays a crucial role in early human development, but there is a lack of global understanding of dynamic RNA editing during mammalian early embryonic development. Therefore, here we used RNA sequence data from human, pig, and mouse during early embryonic development to detect edited genes that may regulate stem cell pluripotency. We observed that although most of the RNA editing sites are located in intergenic, intron and untranslated regions (UTR), a few editing sites are in coding regions (CDS), and may result in non-synonymous amino acid changes. Some editing sites are predicted to change the structure of a protein. We also report that HNF1A, TBX3, ACLY, ECI1 and ERDR1 are related to embryonic development and cell division.

4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(5): 488-493, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of vasovagal syncope (VVS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) in children with neurological symptoms at disease onset. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 88 children with the initial symptoms of the nervous system, such as transient loss of consciousness, dizziness, headache, and convulsion, who were finally diagnosed with VVS or POTS. RESULTS: Of the 88 children, there were 35 boys (40%) and 53 girls (60%), with an age of 4-15 years. The peak age of onset was between 10 and 13 years. All the children had the initial symptoms of transient loss of consciousness, dizziness, headache, and convulsion. Nervous system diseases were excluded by electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid examination, and cranial MRI. Of the 88 children, 53 (60%) were confirmed with VVS, and 35 (40%) with POTS, according to the results of head-up tilt test (HUTT). Five children with the initial symptom of transient loss of consciousness were misdiagnosed with epilepsy. Predisposing factors were determined for 59 children (67%), and prolonged standing was the most common factor, followed by change in body position and strenuous exercise. Premonitory symptoms were observed in 66 children (75%), among which chest discomfort was the most common symptom, followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain) and pale complexion. All 88 children received health education and exercise for autonomic nerve function, among whom 53 children with VVS were given oral rehydration salts and 35 children with POTS were given oral rehydration salts and metoprolol. All 88 children were followed up for 18 months, and the response rates to the above treatment at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months of follow-up were 87%, 93%, 93%, and 90% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to nervous system diseases, functional cardiovascular diseases including VVS and POTS should be considered for children with the initial symptoms of transient loss of consciousness, dizziness, headache, and convulsion. HUTT can be used to make a confirmed diagnosis, and the early treatment can achieve a good outcome.

5.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(5): 505-511, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434649

RESUMO

In order to clearly define the features of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) in Chinese children, this article analyzes and summarizes the epidemiology, clinical features, and key points in the diagnosis and treatment of SDS in Chinese children with review of the clinical data of 27 children with SDS from related articles published previously. A comparative analysis was made between the Chinese and international data related to childhood SDS. The results showed a male/female ratio of about 2:1 in the Chinese children with SDS, with an age of onset of <1 month to 5 years (median 1 month) and an age of 3 months to 12 years (median 12 months) at the time of confirmed diagnosis. Reductions in peripheral blood cells due to myelopoiesis inhibition were observed in all 27 children with SDS, among whom 93% had neutropenia. Chronic diarrhea (85%), liver damage (78%), and short stature (83%) were the three main clinical features of SDS. Supplementation of pancreatin and component blood transfusion may temporarily alleviate the disease, while allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still an effective radical treatment. The comparative analysis of the Chinese and oversea data showed that compared with those in the European and American countries, the children with SDS in China had significantly higher incidence rates of chronic diarrhea, reductions in peripheral blood cells (three lineages), and liver damage, and there were also differences in the type of mutant genes.

6.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; : 1-7, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436404

RESUMO

Oxidative stress (OS) has been proposed to play a role in the development of EMs. Peroxiredoxins are a family of antioxidant proteins that exhibit peroxidase activity in a thioredoxin-dependent manner, protecting cells against OS. The Western blotting results showed that the relative expression of PRDX4 was significantly increased in ectopic endometria compared with the normal endometria of EMs-free (p < .05). The H2O2 concentration was also significantly higher in the ectopic endometrium. PRDX4 siRNA was transfected into primary ectopic endometrial stromal cells (EESCs). The viability of the transfected EESCs was measured by CCK-8 assay, and the results showed significantly decreased cell viability. Furthermore, the apoptosis rate and ROS generation in flow cytometry assays were significantly increased after the knockdown of PRDX4 expression (p < .05). Scratch assays and transwell assays revealed that decreased expression of PRDX4 mediated by siRNA inhibited EESC migration and invasion. In conclusion, these findings indicate the potential role of PRDX4 in the development of EMs and PRDX4 as a possible therapeutic target for EMs treatment.

7.
Cell Biol Int ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437058

RESUMO

The objective of this project was to find a bronchodilatory compound from herbs and clarify the mechanism. We found that the ethanol extract of Folium Sennae (EEFS) can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM). EEFS inhibited ASM contraction induced by acetylcholine in mouse tracheal rings and lung slices. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay showed that EEFS contained emodin. Emodin had a similar reversal action. Acetylcholine-evoked contraction was also partially reduced by nifedipine (a selective inhibitor of L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, LVDCCs), YM-58483 (a selective inhibitor of store-operated Ca2+ entry, SOCE), as well as Y-27632 (an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase, ROCK). In addition, LVDCC- and SOCE-mediated currents and cytosolic Ca2+ elevations were inhibited by emodin. Emodin reversed acetylcholine-caused increases of phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1). Furthermore, emodin in vivo inhibited acetylcholine-induced respiratory system resistance in mice. These results indicate that EEFS-induced relaxation results from emodin inhibiting LVDCC, SOCE, and Ca2+ sensitization. These findings suggest that Folium Sennae and emodin may be new sources of bronchodilators. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Simaroubaceae) is commonly distributed in the Southeast Asia and Indo China, which has been shown to possess antianxiety, antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial and antioxidant biological activities. 14,15ß-dihydroxyklaineanone is a diterpene isolated from E. longifolia Jack, which is cytotoxic against human lung cancer and human breast cancer cell lines. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of 14,15ß-dihydroxyklaineanone on hepatocellular carcinoma remain unknown. METHODS: Cell viability assay and colony formation assay were used to measure HepG2 cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to analyse cell cycle and apoptosis. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were used to observe cells migration. RNA sequencing and the enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were used to find and determine underlying pathways. KEY FINDINGS: We found that 14,15ß-dihydroxyklaineanone inhibited the growth and migration of HepG2 cells but did not induce cell apoptosis. 14,15ß-dihydroxyklaineanone induced S cell cycle arrest by downregulating the expression levels of cyclin A, p-CDK2, cyclin B1, p21, E2F-1 and PCNA. In addition, RNA sequencing showed that 14,15ß-dihydroxyklaineanone regulated MAPK pathway by increasing the expression levels of phosphor-p38. Downregulating of p38 via both p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and p38-siRNA could antagonize the inhibition of cell proliferation and migration and reverse the changes in p-p38, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and PCNA expression induced by 14,15ß-dihydroxyklaineanone treatment. CONCLUSIONS: 14,15ß-dihydroxyklaineanone inhibited cell proliferation and migration through regulating p38 MAPK pathway in HCC cells.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333194

RESUMO

Transaminase responsible for alienating prochiral ketone compound is applicable to asymmetric synthesis of herbicide L-phosphinothricin (L-PPT). In this work, the covalent immobilization of recombinant transaminase from Citrobacter koseri (CkTA) was investigated on different epoxy resins. Using optimum ES-105 support, a higher immobilized activity was obtained via optimizing immobilization process in terms of enzyme loading, coupling time and initial PLP concentration. Crucially, due to blocking unreacted epoxy groups on support surface with amino acids, the reaction temperature of blocked immobilized biocatalyst was enhanced from 37 to 57 °C. Its thermostability at 57 °C was also found to be superior to that of free CkTA. The Km value was shifted from 36.75 mM of free CkTA to 39.87 mM of blocked immobilized biocatalyst, demonstrating that the affinity of enzyme to the substrate has not been apparently altered. Accordingly, the biocatalyst performed the consecutive synthesis of L-PPT for 11 cycles (yields>91%) with retaining more than 91.13% of the initial activity. The seemingly the highest reusability demonstrates this biocatalyst has prospective for reducing the costs of consecutive synthesis of L-PPT with high conversion.

10.
Anal Chem ; 92(10): 7186-7193, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289219

RESUMO

An electrochemical sensing platform for biomarker detection in complex serum samples with unique long-term antifouling performance was constructed, based on newly designed multifunctional peptides containing anchoring, doping, linking, and antifouling sequences. The designed peptides were first attached onto an electrode surface with the assistance of the anchoring sequences, and the negatively charged doping sequences as dopants for conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were then precisely doped into the electropolymerized PEDOT to form a conducting and stable substrate, leaving the linking and antifouling sequences exposed on the PEDOT substrate surface. The linking sequence of the peptide between the doping and antifouling parts was designed to be beneficial for enhancing the antifouling performance. After the biorecognizing probe immobilization, the obtained biosensor was able to detect targets with a low limit of detection of 2.3 fM and high specificity in complex biological fluids. More importantly, the electrochemical biosensor exhibited incomparable long-term antifouling performances over previous reports and retained their antifouling capabilities for 20 days, indicating a promising feasibility of this design strategy for the construction of biosensors and bioelectronics to be used or implanted in real biological systems.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238401

RESUMO

Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common renal malignancy of childhood and accounts for 6% of all childhood malignancies. With current therapies, the 5-yr overall survival (OS) for children with unilateral favorable histology WT is greater than 85%. The prognosis is worse, however, for the roughly 15% of patients who relapse, with only 50%-80% OS reported in those with recurrence. Herein, we describe the extended and detailed clinical course of a rare case of a child with recurrent, pulmonary metastatic, favorable histology WT harboring a BRAF V600E mutation. The BRAF V600E mutation, commonly found in melanoma and other cancers, and previously undescribed in WT, has recently been reported by our group in a subset of epithelial-predominant WT. This patient, who was included in that series, presented with unilateral, stage 1, favorable histology WT and was treated with standard chemotherapy. Following the completion of therapy, the patient relapsed with pulmonary metastatic disease, that then again recurred despite an initial response to salvage chemotherapy and radiation. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the metastatic pulmonary nodule revealed a BRAF V600E mutation. After weighing the therapeutic options, a novel approach with dual BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapy was initiated. Complete radiographic response was observed following 4 months of therapy with dabrafenib and trametinib. At 12 months following the start of BRAF/MEK combination treatment, the patient continues with a complete response and has experienced minimal treatment-related side effects. This represents the first case, to our knowledge, of effective treatment with BRAF/MEK molecularly targeted therapy in a pediatric Wilms tumor patient.

12.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(3): 234-8, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical therapeutic effect of midnight-noon ebb-flow acupuncture combined with rehabilitation therapy and simple rehabilitation therapy in severe craniocerebral trauma patients with vegetative state. METHODS: A total of 100 patients were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 50 cases in each one. Basic treatment of medication, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and specialized nursing were given in both groups. In the control group, rehabilitation therapy was adopted for 30 min each time, once a day. On the basis of the control group, midnight-noon ebb-flow acupuncture was applied in the observation group, the needles were sustained for 30 min, once a day, 5 times a week. The treatment was for 30 days in both groups. Before treatment and after 10, 20, 30 days of treatment, scores of Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R) were observed, and the conscious rate after treatment was calculated in both groups. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the GCS and CRS-R scores after 10, 20, 30 days of treatment were increased in both groups (P<0.01), and the scores in the observation group were superior to those in the control group (P<0.01). After treatment, the conscious rate was 20.0% (10/50) in the observation group, which was superior to 12.0% (6/50) in the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Midnight-noon ebb-flow acupuncture combined with rehabilitation therapy can effectively treat the severe craniocerebral trauma patients with vegetative state, improve the consciousness level, and have superior therapeutic effect compared with simple rehabilitation therapy.

13.
Life Sci ; 253: 117700, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335164

RESUMO

AIMS: Although previous studies elaborated that selective autophagy was involved in quality control of some organelles, including nucleus, mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, it remained unclear whether the selective autophagy of the Golgi apparatus (Golgiphagy) existed or not. MAIN METHODS: In this study, H9c2 cells, HUVECs, HA-VSMCs and HEK293T cells were treated with autophagy inducers, Golgi stress inducers and cardiomyocytes hypertrophy stimulators. The Golgiphagy was evaluated by analysing the co-localization of Golgi markers and LC3B. Furthermore, the transmission electron microscope was used to observe the occurrence of Golgiphagy. The co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to evaluate the interaction of GOLPH3 and LC3B. KEY FINDINGS: Results showed that starvation promoted the co-localization of both GM130-positive and TGN46-positive Golgi fragments with LC3B-positive autophagosomes in H9c2 cells, HUVECs, HA-VSMCs and HEK293T cells. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Golgi apparatus was sequestered into the autophagosomes in the starvation group. Moreover, Golgi stress inducers also facilitated the co-localization of Golgi markers and LC3B in H9c2 cells, HUVECs, HA-VSMCs and HEK293T cells. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy stimulators also triggered the appearance of Golgiphagy in H9c2 cells. Importantly, the co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated endogenous GOLPH3 interacted with LC3B in H9c2 cells, HUVECs, HA-VSMCs. However, knocking down GOLPH3 inhibited the Golgiphagy. SIGNIFICANCE: This study unveiled a new selective autophagy of the Golgi apparatus (Golgiphagy). In addition, GOLPH3 might act as a novel cargo receptor to regulate Golgiphagy. Maintaining homeostasis of the Golgi apparatus via GOLPH3-mediated autophagy was indispensable for cell survival.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117815

RESUMO

Bacterial infection remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide due to the continuous rise of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Focusing solely on bacteria as the drug targets is a major limitation inherent in the conventional antibiotic therapy. Recently, host-directed therapies have become such an innovative approach to modulate the host defense system and the interplay of innate and adaptive immunity. Our previous studies showed that memantine (MEM), an α7 nAChR antagonist, could efficiently block multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli-caused bacteremia and meningitis in a mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms that govern the antibacterial effects of MEM are still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that MEM is able to significantly suppress E. coli infection by enhancing E. coli-induced formation and release of NETs in vitro and in vivo. MEM could promote the trapping and bactericidal activities of the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in a manner dependent on α7 nAChR, since knockdown of this receptor noticeably reduces the survival ability of bacteria in PMNs while MEM no longer affects the survival of bacteria in PMNs. Our results also showed that when the expression of S100A9, an antiseptic protein, is inhibited, pathogen survival rates in PMNs increase significantly. MEM reverses this effect in a concentration-dependent manner. MEM stimulates the production of MPO, S100A9, and DNA in PMNs and accelerates the release of depolymerized chromatin fibers into the extracellular space, suggesting the formation of NETs. Taken together, our data suggest that MEM effectively blocks bacterial infection through the promotion of the antibacterial function of NETs induced by E. coli.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4296, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152338

RESUMO

The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), produced by the Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24, is active against various soil-borne bacterial and fungal pathogens that cause plant diseases. Biosynthesis of 2,4-DAPG is controlled by regulating expression of the phlACBD operon at the post-transcriptional level. The phlG gene is located between the phlF and phlH genes, upstream of the phlACBD biosynthetic operon. Herein, we cloned the phlG gene, generated a phlG deletion mutant, and investigated its regulatory role in 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis. The results showed that deletion of phlG had no effect on the biosynthesis of 2,4-DAPG, but it affected conversion of 2,4-DAPG to its precursor monoacetylphloroglucinol (MAPG). The global regulatory factor encoded by gacS positively regulated expression of phlG, while rsmE negatively regulated its expression. Deleting phlG did not alter the ability of the bacterium to colonise plants or promote plant growth. These results suggest that phlG collaborates with other factors to regulate production of the antibiotic 2,4-DAPG in P. fluorescens 2P24.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4714735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149108

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic enteric parasite that can infect humans and a number of animal species including rabbits with a worldwide distribution. Infection with G. duodenalis can cause serious public health problems and significant economic losses to animal husbandry. So accurate understanding of the prevalence and genotype distribution of G. duodenalis in rabbits is necessary. In the present study, a total of 616 fecal samples were collected from rabbits in Shandong province, eastern China, and examined in G. duodenalis prevalence and genotypes by nested PCR amplification of ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene loci of G. duodenalis. Sixty-nine (11.2%) of the examined rabbit fecal samples were G. duodenalis-positive. Of them, the prevalence of G. duodenalis is 8.4% (41/490) in Rizhao city and 22.2% (28/126) in Weihai city. Breeds, region, and feeding modes were highly correlated with G. duodenalis infection in rabbits. Moreover, three genotypes (assemblages A, B, and E) were identified in rabbits at three gene loci, and the assemblage E was the dominant genotype, while the assemblage A was reported in rabbits in China for the first time. It is noticeable that two rabbits were found to be infected with two different G. duodenalis assemblages (assemblages A and E, assemblages B and E, respectively). These findings enrich the genotype distribution of G. duodenalis in rabbits and provide baseline data for preventing and controlling G. duodenalis infection in rabbits in eastern China.

18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 817-826, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212956

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with increasing spread. Currently SFTS transmission has expanded beyond Asian countries, however, with definitive global extents and risk patterns remained obscure. Here we established an exhaustive database that included globally reported locations of human SFTS cases and the competent vector, Haemaphysalis longicornis (H. longicornis), as well as the explanatory environmental variables, based on which, the potential geographic range of H. longicornis and risk areas for SFTS were mapped by applying two machine learning methods. Ten predictors were identified contributing to global distribution for H. longicornis with relative contribution ≥1%. Outside contemporary known distribution, we predict high receptivity to H. longicornis across two continents, including northeastern USA, New Zealand, parts of Australia, and several Pacific islands. Eight key drivers of SFTS cases occurrence were identified, including elevation, predicted probability of H. longicornis presence, two temperature-related factors, two precipitation-related factors, the richness of mammals and percentage coverage of water bodies. The globally model-predicted risk map of human SFTS occurrence was created and validated effective for discriminating the actual affected and unaffected areas (median predictive probability 0.74 vs. 0.04, P < 0.001) in three countries with reported cases outside China. The high-risk areas (probability ≥50%) were predicted mainly in east-central China, most parts of the Korean peninsula and southern Japan, and northern New Zealand. Our findings highlight areas where an intensive vigilance for potential SFTS spread or invasion events should be advocated, owing to their high receptibility to H. longicornis distribution.

19.
Injury ; 51(4): 850-855, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinically important mechanical properties of three techniques used to fix transverse olecranon fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen and Orthopaedic Trauma Association class 2U1B1): (1) intramedullary (IM) screw, (2) locking plate, and (3) tension band wire in a realistic loading protocol using a cadaveric model. METHODS: Fresh frozen cadaveric transverse olecranon fracture models were fixed with an IM screw (n = 6), a locking plate (n = 6), or a tension band (n = 6). Compression after fixation was recorded using a pressure sensor in the fracture before samples were loaded through the triceps tendon for 500 cycles of 0-500 N, assessing implant survival. The primary outcome measure was compression force before loading. The secondary outcome was frequency of implant failure defined as breakage of the implant itself or fracture gapping >5 mm. Binary outcomes were compared with χ2, and continuous variables were compared with unadjusted analysis of variance and a multivariable regression model adjusting for age, sex, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score, and testing order. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was shown in fracture compression between IM screw (mean, 162 N; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27-297 N), locking plate (mean, 125 N; 95% CI, -9-260 N), and tension band (mean, 163 N; 95% CI, 29-298 N) in unadjusted (p = 0.89) and adjusted (p = 0.82) analyses. A 100% implant failure rate was observed with tension band compared with 0% implant failure with IM screw or locking plate (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: We found no statistically significant differences in compression across the fracture site among techniques. We did find a higher risk of implant failure with tension band compared with IM screw and locking plate during cyclic loading in cadaveric bone.

20.
Immunology ; 160(2): 209-219, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149403

RESUMO

CD100 is an immune semaphorin constitutively expressed on T-cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) is an important mediator of membrane-bound CD100 (mCD100) cleavage to generate soluble CD100 (sCD100), which has immunoregulatory activity in immune cell responses. The aim of the study was to investigate the level and role of sCD100 and mCD100 in modulating CD8+ T-cell function in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). sCD100 and MMP-14 levels in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and mCD100 expression on peripheral and lung-resident CD8+ T-cells were analysed in NSCLC patients. The ability to induce sCD100 and the effect of MMP-14 on mCD100 shedding for the regulation of non-cytolytic and cytolytic functions of CD8+ T-cells were also analysed in direct and indirect contact co-culture systems. NSCLC patients had lower serum sCD100 and higher mCD100 levels on CD8+ T-cells compared with healthy controls. BALF from the tumour site also had decreased sCD100 and increased mCD100 on CD8+ T-cells compared with the non-tumour site. Recombinant CD100 stimulation enhanced non-cytolytic and cytolytic functions of CD8+ T-cells from NSCLC patients, whereas blockade of CD100 receptor CD72 attenuated CD8+ T-cell activity. NSCLC patients had lower MMP-14 in the serum and in BALF from the tumour site. Recombinant MMP-14 mediated mCD100 shedding from CD8+ T-cell membrane, and led to promotion of CD8+ T-cell response in NSCLC patients. Overall, decreased MMP-14 resulted in insufficient CD100 shedding, leading to suppression of peripheral and lung-resident CD8+ T-cell activity in NSCLC.

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