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1.
Exp Cell Res ; 438(1): 114029, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608805

RESUMO

Aberrant expression of airway epithelial E-cadherin is a key feature of asthma, yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Ferroptosis is a novel form of regulated cell death involved in asthma pathogenesis. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of ferroptosis and to investigate whether ferroptosis mediates E-cadherin disruption in mixed granulocyte asthma (MGA). Two murine models of MGA were established using toluene diisocyanate (TDI) or ovalbumin with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (OVA/CFA). Specific antagonists of ferroptosis, including Liproxstatin-1 (Lip-1) and Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) were given to the mice. The allergen-exposed mice displayed markedly shrunk mitochondria in the airway epithelia, with decreased volume and denser staining accompanied by down-regulated GPX4 as well as up-regulated FTH1 and malondialdehyde, which are markers of ferroptosis. Decreased pulmonary expression of E-cadherin was also observed, with profound loss of membrane E-cadherin in the airway epithelia, as well as increased secretion of sE-cadherin. Treatment with Lip-1 not only showed potent protective effects against the allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammatory responses, but also rescued airway epithelial E-cadherin expression and inhibited the release of sE-cadherin. Taken together, our data demonstrated that ferroptosis mediates airway epithelial E-cadherin dysfunction in MGA.

2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1366472, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500502

RESUMO

Pulmonary Mucormycosis is a fatal infectious disease with high mortality rate. The occurrence of Mucormycosis is commonly related to the fungal virulence and the host's immunological defenses against pathogens. Mucormycosis infection and granulation tissue formation occurred in the upper airway was rarely reported. This patient was a 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus, who was admitted to hospital due to progressive cough, sputum and dyspnea. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and bronchoscopy revealed extensive tracheal mucosal necrosis, granulation tissue proliferation, and severe airway stenosis. The mucosal necrotic tissue was induced by the infection of Rhizopus Oryzae, confirmed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in tissue biopsy. This patient was treated with the placement of a covered stent and local instillation of amphotericin B via bronchoscope. The tracheal mucosal necrosis was markedly alleviated, the symptoms of cough, shortness of breath, as well as exercise tolerance were significantly improved. The placement of airway stent and transbronchial microtube drip of amphotericin B could conduce to rapidly relieve the severe airway obstruction due to Mucormycosis infection.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Mucormicose , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Mucormicose/microbiologia , Mucormicose/patologia , Rhizopus oryzae , Necrose/patologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/patologia , Tecido de Granulação/patologia , Tosse/patologia
3.
Respiration ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction (ELVR) with endobronchial valves has been widely recognized for treating hyperinflation in advanced COPD and emphysema patients. The main challenges include the technical complexity of upper lobe implantation and the number of endobronchial valves required. These issues might be addressed by placing larger-diameter valves in the lobar bronchus. This study evaluated the feasibility, efficiency, and safety of the new valve PulmValve (model PV-13) in porcine models. METHODS: Six PV-13 valves were bronchoscopically implanted into the caudal lobe bronchus of six healthy pigs. The procedure time, valve deployment, and removability were recorded. Follow-up examinations included blood tests, chest CT scans, and bronchoscopy at 30 minutes, 14 days, 28 days, and 84 days post-procedure, with necropsy and pathological evaluations after the final follow-up examination. RESULTS: The successful in vivo deployment and removal of PV-13 valves was established, with a median procedure time of 6.5 minutes. The distal lung volume reduction was evident at 30 minutes post-operation and was persistently monitored on day 84. No migration or malfunction of any PV-13 valves was detected, but a mild angle deviation was found in three cases. Coughing was observed in four pigs within the first seven days, and localized granulation tissue was observed in all pigs. No cases of pneumothorax, diffuse pneumonia, or hemoptysis were detected. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we report the successful implantation and removal of a new valve PulmValve in a short operation time. Complete lobar atelectasis was induced without device migration, malfunction, or severe complications. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term, sustained effects, and potential benefits in human patients.

4.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 24(1): 121, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539078

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common adverse events following orthognathic surgery. It's a distressing feeling for patients and continues to be the cause of postoperative complications such as bleeding, delayed healing, and wound infection. This scoping review aims to identify effective PONV prophylaxis strategies during orthognathic surgery that have emerged in the past 15 years. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, and Embase from 2008 to May 2023. Studies meeting the following criteria were eligible for inclusion: (1) recruited patients undergo any orthognathic surgery; (2) evaluated any pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic method to prevent PONV. Studies meeting the following criteria were excluded: (1) case series, review papers, or retrospective studies; (2) did not report our prespecified outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were included in this review. Pharmacological methods for PONV prevention include ondansetron and dexamethasone (3 studies), peripheral nerve block technique (4 studies), dexmedetomidine (1 study), pregabalin (2 studies), nefopam (2 studies), remifentanil (1 study), propofol (2 studies), and penehyclidine (1 study). Non-pharmacologic methods include capsicum plaster (1 study), throat packs (2 studies) and gastric aspiration (2 studies). CONCLUSIONS: Based on current evidence, we conclude that prophylactic antiemetics like dexamethasone, ondansetron, and penehyclidine are the first defense against PONV. Multimodal analgesia with nerve block techniques and non-opioid analgesics should be considered due to their notable opioid-sparing and PONV preventive effect. For the non-pharmacological methods, throat packs are not recommended for routine use because of their poor effect and serious complications. More prospective RCTs are required to confirm whether gastric aspiration can prevent PONV effectively for patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.


Assuntos
Antieméticos , Cirurgia Ortognática , Humanos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 98(3): 941-955, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489185

RESUMO

Background: As a prodromal stage of dementia, significant emphasis has been placed on the identification of modifiable risks of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Research has indicated a correlation between exposure to air pollution and cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have examined such an association among the MCI population inChina. Objective: We aimed to explore the association between air pollution exposure and MCI risk from the Hubei Memory and Aging Cohort Study. Methods: We measured four pollutants from 2015 to 2018, 3 years before the cognitive assessment of the participants. Logistic regression models were employed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) to assess the relationship between air pollutants and MCI risk. Results: Among 4,205 older participants, the adjusted ORs of MCI risk for the highest quartile of PM2.5, PM10, O3, and SO2 were 1.90 (1.39, 2.62), 1.77 (1.28, 2.47), 0.56 (0.42, 0.75), and 1.18 (0.87, 1.61) respectively, compared with the lowest quartile. Stratified analyses indicated that such associations were found in both males and females, but were more significant in older participants. Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with the growing evidence suggesting that air pollution increases the risk of mild cognitive decline, which has considerable guiding significance for early intervention of dementia in the older population. Further studies in other populations and broader geographical areas are warranted to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
6.
J Thorac Dis ; 16(2): 948-959, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505009

RESUMO

Background: Malignant esophageal stent esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF) is an abnormal communication between esophagus and airway among advanced tumor patients with indwelling esophageal stent, which is devastating and life-threatening. This study aims to provide a new feasible treatment scheme for malignant esophageal stent ERF and report its potential advantage compared with double stenting, which was recommended by European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Guideline. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical data of malignant esophageal stent ERF patients between January 2018 to May 2023 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University and divided them into two groups. Group 1 consisted of patients treated with rigid bronchoscopy to remove the esophageal stent and implant Y silicone trachea stent, while group 2 consisted of patients treated with additional airway stenting without removing the esophageal stent. Demographic parameters, disease diagnoses and treatment, radiological findings before and after the intervention, and complications caused by the stents were obtained and analyzed with chi-squared, Mann-Whitney U, independent-samples t-tests, Kaplan-Meier methods, and log-rank test. Results: Ten patients (seven patients in group 1 and three in group 2) were included. No procedure complications occurred in both groups. The mean Karnofsky Performance Score after the procedure significantly improved compared to the pre-procedure (57.14 vs. 77.14, P=0.001) in group 1, while decreased in group 2 (50 vs. 40, P=0.026). The control of pneumonia in group 1 patients is better than that in group 2. There was significant improvement in the degree of dysphagia after the procedure (3.86 vs. 2.43, P=0.002) in group 1, while no improvement was found in group 2 (4.00 vs. 3.33, P=0.423). The mean survival of group 1 was significantly longer group 2 (381.00 vs. 80.33 days, P<0.001, log-rank test). No patient needed stent repositioning due to migration in both groups. Cause of death in the group 1 included disease progression, novel coronavirus pneumonia, massive hemoptysis, and respiratory insufficiency, while group 2 included severe pneumonia and disease progression. No death was directly attributed to the procedure in both groups. Conclusions: Removing the esophageal stent and implanting Y silicone trachea stent through a rigid bronchoscopy is a safe and feasible treatment for malignant esophageal stent ERF. This procedure can effectively seal the fistula, prevent from recurrent aspiration pneumonia, improve the quality of life, and prolong the survival time.

7.
J Thorac Dis ; 16(2): 1313-1323, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505014

RESUMO

Background: The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly transmissible but causes less severe disease compared to other variants. However, its association with sepsis incidence and outcomes is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of Omicron-associated sepsis, as per the Sepsis 3.0 definition, in hospitalized patients, and to explore its relationship with clinical characteristics and prognosis. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study included adults hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection across six tertiary hospitals in Guangzhou, China from November 2022 to January 2023. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and its components were calculated at hospital admission to identify sepsis. Outcomes assessed were need for intensive care unit (ICU) transfer and mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curves evaluated the predictive value of sepsis versus other biomarkers for outcomes. Results: A total of 299 patients (mean age: 70.1±14.4 years, 42.14% female) with SOFA score were enrolled. Among them, 152 were categorized as non-serious cases while the others were assigned as the serious group. The proportion of male patients, unvaccinated patients, patients with comorbidity such as diabetes, chronic cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease was significantly higher in the serious than non-serious group. The median SOFA score of all enrolled patients was 1 (interquartile range, 0-18). In our study, 147 patients (64.19%) were identified as having sepsis upon hospital admission, with the majority of these septic patients (113, representing 76.87%) being in the serious group, the respiratory, coagulation, cardiovascular, central nervous, and renal organ SOFA scores were all significantly higher in the serious compared to the non-serious group. Among septic patients, 20 out of 49 (40.81%) had septic shock as indicated by lactate measurement within 24 hours of admission, and the majority of septic patients were in the serious group (17/20, 76.87%). Sepsis was present in 118 out of 269 (43.9%) patients in the general ward, and among those with sepsis, 34 out of 118 (28.8%) later required ICU care during hospitalization. By contrast, none of the patients without sepsis required ICU care. Moreover, the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with than without sepsis. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of patients infected with Omicron present with sepsis upon hospital admission, which is associated with a poorer prognosis. Therefore, early recognition of viral sepsis by evaluation of the SOFA score in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients is crucial.

8.
J Thorac Dis ; 16(2): 935-947, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505025

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (PEH) is a rare vascular tumour, and its early diagnosis remains challenging. This study aims to comprehensively analyse the imaging features of PEH and develop a model for predicting PEH. Methods: Retrospective and pooled analyses of imaging findings were performed in PEH patients at our center (n=25) and in published cases (n=71), respectively. Relevant computed tomography (CT) images were extracted and used to build a deep learning model for PEH identification and differentiation from other diseases. Results: In this study, bilateral multiple nodules/masses (n=19) appeared to be more common with most nodules less than 2 cm. In addition to the common types and features, the pattern of mixed type (n=4) and isolated nodules (n=4), punctate calcifications (5/25) and lymph node enlargement were also observed (10/25). The presence of pleural effusion is associated with a poor prognosis in PEH. The deep learning model, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.72], has a differentiation accuracy of 100% and 74% for the training and test sets respectively. Conclusions: This study confirmed the heterogeneity of the imaging findings in PEH and showed several previously undescribed types and features. The current deep learning model based on CT has potential for clinical application and needs to be further explored in the future.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(734): eadi3360, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354225

RESUMO

Adult lung resident stem/progenitor cells, including P63+ progenitor cells, have demonstrated the capacity for regeneration of lung epithelium in preclinical models. Here, we report a clinical trial of intrapulmonary P63+ progenitor cell transplantation in 28 participants with stage II to IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Autologous P63+ progenitor cells were isolated from the airway basal layer of participants in the intervention group via bronchoscopic brushing, cultured for 3 to 5 weeks, and then transplanted back into the lungs via bronchoscopy at 0.7 × 106 to 5.2 × 106 cells per kilogram of body weight. Twenty patients were evaluable at the end of the study (intervention group, n = 17; control group, n = 3). No grade 3 to 5 adverse events (AEs) or serious AEs occurred. Although bronchoscopy-associated AEs were recorded in participants in the intervention group, other AEs were not substantial different between groups. Twenty-four weeks after transplantation, participants in the intervention group displayed improvement in gas transfer capacity [diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) change from baseline: +18.2%], whereas the control group experienced a decrease (DLCO change from baseline: -17.4%; P = 0.008). Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed >30-meter increase in walking distance within 6 minutes. Transcriptomic analysis of progenitor cells isolated from responding and nonresponding individuals in the intervention group showed that higher expression of P63 was associated with treatment efficacy. In conclusion, transplantation of cultured P63+ lung progenitor cells was safe and might represent a potential therapeutic strategy for COPD.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Humanos , Transplante Autólogo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 468: 133833, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401215

RESUMO

Increasing use of chemical dispersants for oil spills highlights the need to understand their adverse effects on marine microalgae and nutrient assimilation because the toxic components of crude oil can be more bioavailable. We employed the crude oil water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) to compare different responses in marine microalgae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) coupled with stable isotopic signatures. The concentration and proportion of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs), which are key toxic components in crude oil, increased after dispersant addition. CEWAF exposure caused higher percent growth inhibition and a lower chlorophyll-a level of microalgae than those after WAF exposure. Compared with WAF exposure, CEWAF led to an enhancement in the self-defense mechanism of P. tricornutum, accompanied by an increased content of extracellular polymeric substances. 13C-depletion and carbon assimilation were altered in P. tricornutum, suggesting more HMW PAHs could be utilized as carbon sources by microalgae under CEWAF. CEWAF had no significant effects on the isotopic fractionation or assimilation of nitrogen in P. tricornutum. Our study unveiled the impact on the growth, physiological response, and nutrient assimilation of microalgae upon WAF and CEWAF exposures. Our data provide new insights into the ecological effects of dispersant applications for coastal oil spills.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Microalgas , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Petróleo/toxicidade , Petróleo/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Carbono
12.
Respiration ; 103(3): 111-123, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342097

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Benign airway stenosis (BAS) is a severe pathologic condition. Complex stenosis has a high recurrence rate and requires repeated bronchoscopic interventions for achieving optimal control, leading to recurrent BAS (RBAS) due to intraluminal granulation. METHODS: This study explored the potential of autologous regenerative factor (ARF) for treating RBAS using a post-intubation tracheal stenosis canine model. Bronchoscopic follow-ups were conducted, and RNA-seq analysis of airway tissue was performed. A clinical study was also initiated involving 17 patients with recurrent airway stenosis. RESULTS: In the animal model, ARF demonstrated significant effectiveness in preventing further collapse of the injured airway, maintaining airway patency and promoting tissue regeneration. RNA-seq results showed differential gene expression, signifying alterations in cellular components and signaling pathways. The clinical study found that ARF treatment was well-tolerated by patients with no severe adverse events requiring hospitalization. ARF treatment yielded a high response rate, especially for post-intubation tracheal stenosis and idiopathic tracheal stenosis patients. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that ARF presents a promising, effective, and less-invasive method for treating RBAS. ARF has shown potential in prolonging the intermittent period and reducing treatment failure in patients with recurrent tracheal stenosis by facilitating tracheal mucosal wound repair and ameliorating tracheal fibrosis. This novel approach could significantly impact future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Estenose Traqueal , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Estenose Traqueal/etiologia , Estenose Traqueal/cirurgia , Constrição Patológica , Projetos Piloto , Traqueia/patologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1870(3): 167040, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281711

RESUMO

Asthma is quite heterogenous and can be categorized as eosinophilic, mixed granulocytic (presence of both eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways) and neutrophilic. Clinically, mixed granulocytic asthma (MGA) often tends to be severe and requires large doses of corticosteroids. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is one of the epithelium-derived alarmins that contributes to type 2 inflammation and asthma. This study was aimed to investigate the role of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in modulation of airway epithelial HMGB1 production in MGA. Induced sputum and bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from healthy subjects and asthma patients. BALB/c mice, the airway epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, or primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were immunized with allergens. Intracellular and extracellular HMGB1 were both detected. The role of GLUT1 was assessed by using a pharmacological antagonist BAY876. MGA patients have a significant higher sputum HMGB1 level than the health and subjects with other inflammatory phenotypes. Nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 was also observed in the bronchial epithelia. Allergen exposure markedly induced GLUT1 expression in murine lungs and cultured epithelial cells. Pharmacological antagonism of GLUT1 with BAY876 dramatically decreased airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation, as well as type 2 inflammation in murine models of MGA. Besides, the allergen-induced up-regulation of HMGB1 was also partly recovered by BAY876, accompanied by inhibited secretion into the airway lumen. In vitro, treatment with BAY876 relieved the allergen-induced over-expression and secretion of HMGB1 in airway epithelia. Taken together, our data indicated that GLUT1 mediates bronchial epithelial HMGB1 release in MGA.


Assuntos
Asma , Proteína HMGB1 , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Asma/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Inflamação , Alérgenos
15.
Thorax ; 79(2): 135-143, 2024 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38124156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare interstitial lung disease characterised by the accumulation of lipoprotein material in the alveoli. Although dyslipidaemia is a prominet feature, the causal effect of lipid traits on PAP remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the role of lipid traits in PAP and evaluate the potential of lipid-lowering drug targets in PAP. METHODS: Clinical outcomes, lipid profiles and lung function tests were analysed in a clinical cohort of diagnosed PAP patients and propensity score-matched healthy controls. Genome-wide association study data on PAP, lipid metabolism, blood cells and variants of genes encoding potential lipid-lowering drug targets were obtained for Mendelian randomisation (MR) and mediation analyses. FINDINGS: Observational results showed that higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were associated with increased risks of PAP. Higher levels of TC and LDL were also associated with worse PAP severity. In MR analysis, elevated LDL was associated with an increased risk of PAP (OR: 4.32, 95% CI: 1.63 to 11.61, p=0.018). Elevated monocytes were associated with a lower risk of PAP (OR 0.34, 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.66, p=0.002) and mediated the risk impact of LDL on PAP. Genetic mimicry of PCSK9 inhibition was associated with a reduced risk of PAP (OR 0.03, p=0.007). INTERPRETATION: Our results support the crucial role of lipid and metabolism-related traits in PAP risk, emphasising the monocyte-mediated, causal effect of elevated LDL in PAP genetics. PCSK9 mediates the development of PAP by raising LDL. These finding provide evidence for lipid-related mechanisms and promising lipid-lowering drug target for PAP.


Assuntos
Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar , Humanos , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
16.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 84: 102284, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of E-cadherin in the airway epithelial cells is a critical contributor to the development of ALI/ARDS. Yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Increasing evidences have revealed the significance of ferroptosis in the pathophysiological process of ALI/ARDS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ferroptosis in dysregulation of airway epithelial E-cadherin in ALI/ARDS. METHODS: BALB/c mice were subjected to intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish an ALI model. Two inhibitors of ferroptosis, liproxstatin-1 (Lip-1, at the dose of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) and ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1, at the dose of 1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg), were respectively given to the mice through intraperitoneal injection after LPS challenge. The expression of ferroptotic markers, full-length E-cadherin and soluble E-cadherin (sE-cadherin) were both detected. RESULTS: LPS exposure dramatically down-regulated pulmonary expression of E-cadherin in mice, with profound loss of membrane E-cadherin in the airway epithelial cells and increased secretion of sE-cadherin in the airway lumen. At the same time, we found that the mitochondrial of airway epithelial cells in LPS-exposed mice exhibited significant morphological alterations that are hallmark features of ferroptosis, with smaller volume and increased membrane density. Other makers of ferroptosis were also detected, including increased cytoplasmic levels of iron and lipid peroxidates (MDA), as well as decreased GPX4 expression. 30 mg/kg of Lip-1 not only showed potent protective effects against the LPS-induced injury, inflammation, edema of the lung in those mice, but also rescued airway epithelial E-cadherin expression and decreased the release of sE-cadherin through inhibiting ferroptosis. While no noticeable changes induced by LPS were observed in mice treated with Lip-1 at 10 mg/kg nor Fer-1 at 1 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data demonstrated that ferroptosis mediates airway epithelial E-cadherin dysfunction in LPS-induced ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Ferroptose , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Animais , Camundongos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Caderinas , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 510, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38102590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transbronchial lung forceps biopsy (TBFB) is recommended before a surgical lung biopsy (SLB) when a definitive diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is required for patients without any additional confirmatory features. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBCB) has been suggested as replacement test in patients considered eligible to undergo SLB for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. The efficacy and safety of TBCB were compared with that of TBFB and SLB in the diagnosis of LAM. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 207 consecutive patients suspected with LAM in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from 2005 to 2020. RESULTS: The difference in diagnostic rate of patients suspected with LAM between TBCB (20/30, 66.7%) and TBFB (70/106, 66.0%) groups was not significant (p = 0.949). One patient performed TBCB with negative pathological results could be diagnosed exclusively after SLB. LAM diagnosis was confirmed by surgical pathological findings in 3 TBFB-negative patients. More patients with minimal cystic profusion were diagnosed with LAM by TBCB (5/19, 26.3%) and SLB (11/39, 28.2%) than by TBFB (3/61, 4.9%) (TBCB vs TBFB: p = 0.04, SLB vs TBFB, p < 0.001). The difference between the severity of cystic lung disease in patients diagnosed with LAM through TBCB and SLB was not significant (p > 0.05). One pneumothorax, 8 mild bleeding and 1 moderate bleeding were observed in TBCB. One pneumothorax, 15 mild bleeding and 1 moderate bleeding occurred after TBFB. CONCLUSION: Compared to TBFB, TBCB is safe and effective in diagnosing LAM at a higher diagnostic rate in patients with minimal cystic profusion.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Linfangioleiomiomatose , Pneumotórax , Humanos , Linfangioleiomiomatose/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Biópsia/métodos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Hemorragia/patologia
19.
J Thorac Dis ; 15(10): 5454-5465, 2023 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37969283

RESUMO

Background: Umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCMNCs) show broad immune-modulation effects, which may be helpful for treating asthma. Effects of UCMNCs on asthma were investigated with mouse model in present study. Methods: Asthma was induced in BALB/c mice by ovalbumin (OVA) immunization and challenge. Asthmatic mice were then treated on days 7 and 20 with intravenous injections of UCMNCs in doses of 4×105, 2×106, and 107 cells per mouse for the low-dose UCMNC (UCMNCL), medium-dose UCMNC (UCMNCM), and high-dose UCMNC (UCMNCH) groups, respectively. Fetal mouse blood mononuclear cells (FMMNCs) were administered to FMMNC group at a dose of 2×106 cells per mouse as approximate allograft control. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation indexes, and CD4/CD8 T cell subsets were measured at day 25. Results: Compared with the model group, AHR in the UCMNCL group, inflammation score of lung tissue in the UCMNCM group, interleukin (IL)-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in UCMNCL group, IL-5 and IL-13 in BALF in UCMNCM group, and IL-17 in serum in UCMNCH group were significantly inhibited. Compared with the model group, CD4+CD8+ T cells were reduced in the UCMNCL group, while decrease of CD4-CD8- T cells and increase of CD4+CD8- T cells were further strengthened in UCMNCM group. FMMNC treatment significantly reduced the IL-13 and IL-17 in serum, decreased CD4-CD8- and CD4+CD8- T cells, and increased the CD4+CD8+ and CD4-CD8+ T cells in BALF. Conclusions: UCMNCs can modulate AHR, T-helper (Th)2 inflammation, and airway injury in experimental asthma at appropriate dose.

20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 961: 176185, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37944848

RESUMO

Dysfunction of epithelial barrier is crucial for the development of acute lung injury (ALI). This study was aimed to evaluate the role of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in dysregulation of epithelial tight junction in ALI. GLUT1 was inhibited with specific antagonists WZB117 or BAY876 to see the effects on epithelial tight junction in a well-established LPS-induced mouse ALI model as well as in vitro cultured epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of GLUT1 with WZB117 at either a low or high dose had no effects on lung injury and inflammation 24 h after LPS challenge, but significantly decreased the pulmonary inflammatory responses induced by LPS at 72 h with a high dose, which was verified by treatment with BAY876. WZB117 or BAY876 also recovered the expression of epithelial tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. In cultured BEAS-2B and A549 cells, LPS induced increased GLUT1 expression, accompanied by decreased expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 and occludin. Blockade of GLUT1 restored LPS-induced disruption of ZO-1 and occludin in BEAS-2B rather than A549. Taken together, our results showed that GLUT1 is responsible for dysfunction of epithelial tight junctions in the late phase of LPS-induced ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Junções Íntimas , Camundongos , Animais , Ocludina/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
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