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1.
Clin Chim Acta ; 503: 19-34, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923423

RESUMO

Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for a series of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) family, especially ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8, which regulate lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, play pivotal roles in triglyceride (TG) metabolism and related diseases/complications. There are many transcriptional and post-transcriptional factors that participate in physiological and pathological regulation of ANGPTLs to affect triglyceride metabolism. This review is intended to focus on the similarity and difference in the expression, structural features, regulation profile of the three ANGPTLs and inhibitory models for LPL. Description of the regulatory factors of ANGPTLs and the properties in regulating the lipid metabolism involved in the underlying mechanisms in pathological effects on diseases will provide potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of dyslipidemia related diseases.

2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(43): 6416-6429, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal metabolites are associated with gut visceral sensitivity, mucosal immune function and intestinal barrier function, all of which have critical roles in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the metabolic profile and pathophysiology of IBS are still unclear. We hypothesized that altered profiles of fecal metabolites might be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS with predominant diarrhea (IBS-D). AIM: To investigate the fecal metabolite composition and the role of metabolites in IBS-D pathophysiology. METHODS: Thirty IBS-D patients and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent clinical and psychological assessments, including the IBS Symptom Severity System (IBS-SSS), an Italian modified version of the Bowel Disease Questionnaire, the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Visceral Sensitivity Index. Visceral sensitivity to rectal distension was tested using high-resolution manometry system by the same investigator. Fecal metabolites, including amino acids and organic acids, were measured by targeted metabolomics approaches. Correlation analyses between these parameters were performed. RESULTS: The patients presented with increased stool water content, more psychological symptoms and increased visceral hypersensitivity compared with the controls. In fecal metabolites, His [IBS-D: 0.0642 (0.0388, 0.1484), HC: 0.2636 (0.0780, 0.3966), P = 0.012], Ala [IBS-D: 0.5095 (0.2826, 0.9183), HC: 1.0118 (0.6135, 1.4335), P = 0.041], Tyr [IBS-D: 0.1024 (0.0173, 0.4527), HC: 0.5665 (0.2436, 1.3447), P = 0.018], Phe [IBS-D: 0.1511 (0.0775, 0.3248), HC: 0.3967 (0.1388, 0.7550), P = 0.028], and Trp [IBS-D: 0.0323 (0.0001, 0.0826), HC: 0.0834 (0.0170, 0.1759), P = 0.046] were decreased in IBS-D patients, but isohexanoate [IBS-D: 0.0127 (0.0060, 0.0246), HC: 0.0070 (0.0023, 0.0106), P = 0.028] was significantly increased. Only Tyr was mildly correlated with BSFS scores in all subjects (r = -0.347, P = 0.019). A possible potential biomarker panel was identified to correlate with IBS-SSS score (R 2 Adjusted = 0.693, P < 0.001). In this regression model, the levels of Tyr, Val, hexanoate, fumarate, and pyruvate were significantly associated with the symptom severity of IBS-D. Furthermore, visceral sensation, including abdominal pain and visceral hypersensitivity, was correlated with isovalerate, valerate and isohexanoate. CONCLUSION: Altered profiles of fecal metabolites may be one of the origins or exacerbating factors of symptoms in IBS-D via increasing visceral sensitivity.

3.
Trials ; 20(1): 735, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence, mortality, and prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are high in China. Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are important events in the management of COPD because they negatively impact health status, rates of hospitalization and readmission, and disease progression. AECOPD have been effectively treated with Chinese medicine for a long time. The aim of this proposed trial is to assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicine (CM) on AECOPD. METHODS/DESIGN: This proposed study is a multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT). We will randomly assign 378 participants with AECOPD into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. On the basis of health education and conventional treatment, the intervention group will be treated with CM, and the control group is given CM placebo according to CM syndrome. Patients are randomized to either receive CM or placebo, 10 g/packet, twice daily. The double-blind treatment lasts for 2 weeks and is followed up for 4 weeks. The main outcome is the COPD Assessment Test; secondary outcomes are treatment failure rate, treatment success rate, length of hospital stay, AECOPD readmission rate, intubation rate, mortality, dyspnea, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and the COPD patient-reported outcome scale. We will document these outcomes faithfully at the beginning of the study, 2 weeks after treatment, and at the 4 weeks follow-up. DISCUSSION: This high-quality RCT with strict methodology and few design deficits will help to prove the effectiveness of CM for AECOPD. We hope this trial will provide useful evidence for developing a therapeutic schedule with CM for patients with AECOPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03428412. Registered on 4 February 2018.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 72(4): 1145-1157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of zinc, iron, copper, and selenium intakes with cognitive function is poorly understood so far. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of dietary and total zinc, iron, copper, and selenium intakes with low cognitive performance. METHODS: Cross-sectional study data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 was used. Zinc, iron, copper, and selenium intakes from foods and supplements were estimated from two non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Cognitive function was measured by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) Word Learning sub-test, Animal Fluency test, and Digit Symbol Substitution test (DSST). For each cognitive measurement, people whose score were lower than the age group stratified lowest quartile were defined as low cognitive performance. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were applied to examine the associations of dietary and total zinc, iron, copper, and selenium intakes with different measures of low cognitive performance. RESULTS: A total of 2,332 adults aged 60 years or older were included. The association between zinc, iron, copper, and selenium intake and low cognitive performance was significant in different test. Compared with the lowest quartile of total copper intake, the weighted multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CI) of the highest quartile were 0.34 (0.16-0.75) for low cognitive performance in DSST. L-shaped associations between total copper or selenium and low cognitive performance in DSST and animal fluency were found. CONCLUSION: Dietary and total zinc, copper, and selenium intakes might be inversely associated with the prevalence of low cognitive performance.

5.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H ; 233(12): 1310-1317, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617820

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the safety and accuracy of mixed reality-based intraoperative three-dimensional navigated pedicle screws in three-dimensional printed model of fractured upper cervical spine. A total of 27 cervical model from patients of upper cervical spine fractures formed the study group. All the C1 and C2 pedicle screws were inserted under mixed reality-based intraoperative three-dimensional image-guided navigation system. The accuracy and safety of the pedicle screw placement were evaluated on the basis of postoperative computerized tomography scans. A total of 108 pedicle screws were properly inserted into the cervical three-dimensional models under mixed reality-based navigation, including 54 C1 pedicle screws and 54 C2 pedicle screws. Analysis of the dimensional parameters of each pedicle at C1/C2 level showed no statistically significant differences in the ideal and the actual entry points, inclined angles, and tailed angles. No screw was misplaced outside the pedicle of the three-dimensional printed model, and no ionizing X-ray radiation was used during screw placement under navigation. It is easy and safe to place C1/C2 pedicle screws under MR surgical navigation. Mixed reality-based navigation is feasible within upper cervical spinal fractures with improved safety and accuracy of C1/C2 pedicle screw insertion.

6.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; : 1-13, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510870

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported controversial results about the association between rs6296 and alcoholism. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to further explore this association. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify relevant case-control or cohort studies (up to December 1, 2017). A fixed- or random-effect model was selected as a pooling method depending on the heterogeneity among studies. The heterogeneity was measured by Q test and I2 statistic. The Harbord and Peters test was used to estimate publication bias. Fifteen English articles with 16 outcomes and 5,429 participants were included in this meta-analysis. A fixed-effect model was chosen, and the pooled result showed that rs6296 was not related to alcoholism (z = 1.93, p = .053). The Harbord and Peters test showed that there was no publication bias. This meta-analysis indicated that rs6296 may be not be significantly associated with alcoholism, which needs to be further confirmed by future research.

7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(11): 2331-2337, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the dose-response relationships between alcohol consumption and functional limitations in older European men, and explore the role of muscle strength as a mediator of these relationships. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of older men participating in the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). SETTING: Urban and rural households in 17 European countries and Israel. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 17 870 men aged 65 years and older from the SHARE (Wave 6, 2015) were included in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome variables were functional limitations: mobility limitation, arm function limitation, and fine motor limitation. Main exposure variable was alcohol consumption. Mediating factor was grip strength. Basic demographics, life habits, and health status were considered as potential confounders. Dose-response analyses with restricted cubic splines and the Karlson/Holm/Breen method were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 17 870 participants were included in this study. Dose-response analyses revealed that moderate alcohol consumption was related to the lower odds of reporting mobility limitation (≤35 units/wk) and arm function limitation (≤41 units/wk), with a minimum odds ratio (OR) occurring at 10 units/week drinks for mobility limitation (OR = .71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .62-.81) and arm function limitation (OR = .66; 95% CI = .59-.75). The odds of reporting the fine motor limitation monotonically increased with alcohol consumption when alcohol consumption was beyond 15 units/week. No significant mediating effect of grip strength on the relationships between alcohol consumption and mobility limitation and arm function limitation was found. CONCLUSION: Moderate alcohol consumption has a protective role in mobility and arm function limitation in older European men. Grip strength is not the main mediator of these associations, suggesting that the protective effect is independent of muscle strength. Alcohol consumption is associated with higher odds of reporting fine motor limitation in older European men. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2331-2337, 2019.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 737, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333459

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and is still a formidable challenge for clinicians. It is urgent to find new compounds for minimizing the risk of disease progression and exacerbation especially in the early phase of COPD. A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, Chuan Bei Pi Pa dropping pills (CBPP), was tested in this study to investigate its potential mechanisms in preventing the exacerbation of COPD. Phosphoproteomics analysis for a smog stimulated early stage COPD mice model was employed to detect the underlying molecular mechanisms of CBPP. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) and bioinformatics analyses were included to analyze the key proteins and predict the key bioactive compounds. The results indicated that peiminine (PEI) target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) prevented the exacerbation of COPD by inhibiting the EGFR signaling pathway, and ursolic acid (UA) can alleviate inflammation disorders via inhibition of CASP3 on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. After in vivo and in vitro evaluations, we revealed that PEI from CBPP, as a lead compound, can improve lung function and alleviate pulmonary fibrosis by acting on the EGFR and MLC2 signaling pathways. Furthermore, the approach described here is an effective way to analyze and identify the bioactive ingredients from a mixture by functional proteomics analysis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294676

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in bell peppers from Shandong Province, China. A total of 299 samples were collected from 17 cities in 2016. The concentrations of 26 pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that there were 25 pesticides (15 OPs, 7 PYs, 3 CBs) found in 86 bell pepper samples, and the total number of positives was 120. The total frequency was 28.76%. The detection frequency for OPs, PYs and CBs was 16.39%, 12.37% and 3.01%, respectively. The most frequently detected pesticide was bifenthrin, with the frequency of 5.02%. 5.35% of samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by China. 7.36% of samples contained more than one pesticide. The values of %ADI were below 100, while the %ARfD of carbofuran and methidathion exceeded 100 for children. The cumulative risk was highest for OPs. From the public health point of view, the levels of pesticide residues in bell peppers do not pose a serious health risk to adults, but the acute health risk to children should be paid more attention.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Adulto , Criança , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade , Medição de Risco , Extração em Fase Sólida
10.
Gastroenterology ; 157(5): 1413-1428.e11, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. In mice, a high-fat diet (HFD) and expression of oncogenic KRAS lead to development of invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by unknown mechanisms. We investigated how oncogenic KRAS regulates the expression of fibroblast growth factor 21, FGF21, a metabolic regulator that prevents obesity, and the effects of recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21) on pancreatic tumorigenesis. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical analyses of FGF21 levels in human pancreatic tissue arrays, comprising 59 PDAC specimens and 45 nontumor tissues. We also studied mice with tamoxifen-inducible expression of oncogenic KRAS in acinar cells (KrasG12D/+ mice) and fElasCreERT mice (controls). KrasG12D/+ mice were placed on an HFD or regular chow diet (control) and given injections of rhFGF21 or vehicle; pancreata were collected and analyzed by histology, immunoblots, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. We measured markers of inflammation in the pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue. Activity of RAS was measured based on the amount of bound guanosine triphosphate. RESULTS: Pancreatic tissues of mice expressed high levels of FGF21 compared with liver tissues. FGF21 and its receptor proteins were expressed by acinar cells. Acinar cells that expressed KrasG12D/+ had significantly lower expression of Fgf21 messenger RNA compared with acinar cells from control mice, partly due to down-regulation of PPARG expression-a transcription factor that activates Fgf21 transcription. Pancreata from KrasG12D/+ mice on a control diet and given injections of rhFGF21 had reduced pancreatic inflammation, infiltration by immune cells, and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia compared with mice given injections of vehicle. HFD-fed KrasG12D/+ mice given injections of vehicle accumulated abdominal fat, developed extensive inflammation, pancreatic cysts, and high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs); half the mice developed PDAC with liver metastases. HFD-fed KrasG12D/+ mice given injections of rhFGF21 had reduced accumulation of abdominal fat and pancreatic triglycerides, fewer pancreatic cysts, reduced systemic and pancreatic markers of inflammation, fewer PanINs, and longer survival-only approximately 12% of the mice developed PDACs, and none of the mice had metastases. Pancreata from HFD-fed KrasG12D/+ mice given injections of rhFGF21 had lower levels of active RAS than from mice given vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: Normal acinar cells from mice and humans express high levels of FGF21. In mice, acinar expression of oncogenic KRAS significantly reduces FGF21 expression. When these mice are placed on an HFD, they develop extensive inflammation, pancreatic cysts, PanINs, and PDACs, which are reduced by injection of FGF21. FGF21 also reduces the guanosine triphosphate binding capacity of RAS. FGF21 might be used in the prevention or treatment of pancreatic cancer.

11.
Inflammation ; 42(5): 1575-1584, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111299

RESUMO

Integrins can function synergistically with syndecan-4 (SYND4) and bind to the fibronectin (FN) matrix, resulting in the regulation of tissue regeneration. This study aimed to explore the effects of TNF-α on the formation of FN/ITGß1/SYND4 complex and the relative mechanism in NP cells. The expression of FN-ITG-SYND4 at the cellular level under TNF-α stimulation was detected by immunofluorescent staining, western blotting, and RT-PCR. ITGß1 is a crucial component of ITG FN-induced FAK signaling, which was detected using dual mode. And, the involved signaling down stream pathways were also detected. FN is a preferred adhesion substrate for NP cells and that integrin ß1 (ITGß1) and SYND4 work synergistically during ECM engagement in a focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-dependent fashion. The PI3k/Akt pathway is obviously down-regulated, resulting in decreased adherence capacity and increased anoikis. TNF-α induction could weaken FAK activity and downstream levels of phospho-PI3K and Akt, resulting in decreased adherence capacity and increased apoptosis. Thus, TNF-α is essential for the formation of FN/ITGß1/SYND4 complex in NP cells and further elucidates the inflammatory mechanism of NP cells degeneration.

12.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 51(5): 471-483, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950489

RESUMO

Sortilin is closely associated with hyperlipidemia and the risk of atherosclerosis (AS). The role of sortilin and the underlying mechanism in peripheral macrophage are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of macrophage sortilin on ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression, ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, and aortic AS. Macrophage sortilin expression was upregulated by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs) in both concentration- and time-dependent manners. Its expression reached the peak level when cells were incubated with 50 µg/ml ox-LDL for 24 h. Overexpression of sortilin in macrophage reduced cholesterol efflux, leading to an increase in intracellular total cholesterol, free cholesterol, and cholesterol ester. Sortilin was found to bind with ABCA1 protein and suppress macrophage ABCA1 expression, resulting in a decrease in cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The inhibitory effect of sortilin in cholesterol efflux was partially reversed by treatment with chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor. On the contrary, the ABCA1 protein level and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux is increased by sortilin short hairpin RNA transfection. The fecal and biliary cholesterol 3H-sterol from cholesterol-laden mouse peritoneal macrophage was reduced by sortilin overexpression through lentivirus vector (LV)-sortilin in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice, which was prevented by co-treatment with chloroquine. Treatment with LV-sortilin reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein and increased plasma ox-LDL levels. Accordingly, aortic lipid deposition and plaque area were exacerbated, and ABCA1 expression was reduced in mice in response to infection with LV-sortilin alone. These effects of LV-sortilin were partially reversed by chloroquine. Sortilin enhances lysosomal degradation of ABCA1 protein and suppresses ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages, leading to foam cell formation and AS development.

13.
Br J Nutr ; 121(11): 1287-1293, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030688

RESUMO

The relationship between serum Mg and blood cell counts in Chinese adult diabetes or central obesity was assessed by investigating 8163 subjects with China Health and Nutrition Survey (mean age 59⋅6 years, 54⋅9 % men). Participants were classified according to blood Mg (below 0⋅65 mmol/l, or 0⋅66-0⋅94 mmol/l or above 0⋅95 mmol/l), type 2 diabetes (yes/no) and central obesity (yes/no). Leucocytes, erythrocytes, platelets (PLT), Hb and glycated Hb (HbA1c) were determined using standardised methods and conditions. HbAc1, leucocytes and PLT were significantly higher among subjects with central obesity than without central obesity (P < 0⋅05). A significant increase for Hb, erythrocytes, PLT, but not leucocytes, across progressive Mg groups was observed in subjects without diabetes (P < 0⋅05). Hb, erythrocytes and HbAc1 were significantly higher among subjects with higher Mg than in subjects with lower Mg with diabetes (P < 0⋅05). Central obesity disturbed the positive association between PLT count and serum Mg. Type 2 diabetes caused metabolism disorder in serum Mg, blood sugar and blood cell count. Hb, erythrocytes and PLT, but not leucocytes, are positively correlated with serum Mg, but this association is somehow disturbed by type 2 diabetes or central obesity.

14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8498603, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016200

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods. Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP (CQVIP), Wanfang Data, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (SinoMed) were comprehensively searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of PR for IPF patients were included. Literature selection and data extraction were conducted by two review authors independently. The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool and RevMan software (version 5.3) were used to evaluate the quality of studies and conduct statistical analysis, respectively. Results. Seven studies (190 participants) were included. PR had a significant effect on six-minute walk distance (6MWD) (MD:48.60; 95%CI: 29.03 to 68.18; Z=4.87, P<0.00001), and 6MWD was improved more in subgroup analysis including studies conducted in Asia (MD: 53.62; 95%CI: 30.48 to 76.66; Z=4.54, P<0.00001) and Europe (MD:54.10; 95% CI: 26.65 to 101.56; Z=2.23, P=0.03). Forced vital capacity (FVC%) was higher (MD: 3.69; 95%CI: 0.16 to 7.23; Z=2.05, P=0.04). St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)/IPF-specific SGRQ (SGRQ-I) total score was lower (MD: -7.87; 95% CI: -11.44 to -4.30; Z=4.32, P<0.0001). No significant effects were found for lung diffusing capacity determined by the single-breath technique (DLCO%) (MD: 3.02; 95%CI: -0.38 to 6.42; Z=1.74, P=0.08). Conclusions: This study suggests that PR may enhance exercise capacity and improve quality of life in IPF patients. Besides, PR may also delay the decline of lung function of patients with IPF. However, further research should more fully assess the efficacy and safety of PR for IPF.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/reabilitação , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(7): 619-624, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grip strength is a well-established predictor of various chronic conditions and all-cause mortality. Body weight and physical activity (PA) are considered potential determinants of muscle strength. This study aimed to investigate gender-specific associations of baseline obesity and physical inactivity with long-term changes in grip strength among middle-aged and older European adults. METHODS: Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe 2004-2015 which was conducted in 12 countries were analysed. Grip strength was repeatedly measured at five follow-up visits with average 2-year intervals. Obesity and physical inactivity at baseline were primary exposures. Generalised estimated equations stratified by gender were fitted. RESULTS: This study included 8616 males and 10 088 females with a median follow-up of 9.42 years. Significant interactions between obesity and time with grip strength were identified in both males (χ2 interaction=16.65, p = 0.002) and females (χ2 interaction=10.80, p = 0.029). No significant interaction between physical inactivity and time with grip strength was identified in males (χ2 interaction=9.42, p = 0.051) or females (χ2 interaction=5.62, p = 0.230). Those who were less physically active at baseline had weaker grip strength from the beginning at baseline (ß = -2.753, p < 0.001 for males and ß = -1.529, p < 0.001 for females) to Visit 6 (ß = -2.794, p < 0.001 for males and ß = -1.550, p < 0.001 for females). Further combined analysis suggested a trend that exposure to both obesity and physical inactivity was related to the fastest decline rate of grip strength. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the additional evidence that PA and obesity prevention earlier in life play an important role in maintaining grip strength during ageing.

16.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 53: 41-48, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association of serum zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) with the risk of hypertension (HT) remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationships. METHODS: We searched relevant literatures on PubMed and Web of Science up to September 2018. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by random effects model.I2 was used to evaluate heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: 25 articles of serum Zn and 22 articles of serum Cu were included in meta-analysis. HT patients had lower serum Zn [SMD (95%CI): -0.612(-0.951, -0.274), z = 3.54, Pfor z <0.001; I2 = 97.0%, PforI2 <0.001], whereas no significant difference of serum Cu was shown between HT patients and controls [SMD (95%CI): 0.153(-0.101, 0.407)]. Also, male HT patients had lower serum Zn [SMD (95%CI): -1.443(-2.868, -0.017), z = 1.98, Pfor z = 0.047; I2 = 98.8%, PforI2 <0.001]. In subgroup analysis, a lower serum Zn was observed in HT patients in studies conducted in Europe [-1.066(-1.759, -0.374)], in case-control studies [-0.718(-1.294, -0.142)], in matched case-control studies [-0.939(-1.646, -0.233)] and studies involving treated patients [-1.416(-2.195, -0.638)]. Meanwhile, a higher serum Cu was found in HT patients in studies conducted in Africa [1.96(1.402, 2.518)], and in matched case-control studies [0.655(0.204, 1.107)]. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis indicates that serum Zn level in HT patients was significantly lower than that in controls, while no significantly different serum Cu level was found between HT patients and controls. Future studies are needed to confirm these results in future research.


Assuntos
Cobre/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723509

RESUMO

Background: Cell apoptosis is an important mechanism underlying skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, and mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a central aspect contributing to skeletal muscle deterioration. Bufei Jianpi granules have been confirmed effective for improving motor function in COPD patients, but the specific mechanism for this improved function remains unknown. This study explored the mechanisms by which Bufei Jianpi granules improve cell apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in COPD. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control, model, Bufei Jianpi, and aminophylline groups. A stable COPD rat model was induced with respective repeated cigarette smoke inhalation and intragastric bacterial infection, and rats were sacrificed after 20 weeks; the quadriceps muscle was harvested from each rat. Skeletal muscle mitochondria were extracted for measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore openings (mPTPs). ATP levels were determined with a firefly luciferase-based ATP assay kit. The rates of cell apoptosis were determined by the transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Cyto C and caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels were measured by qPCR and western blotting. Results: ATP, MMP, and mPTPs were markedly decreased in COPD rats, while cell apoptosis, caspase-3, and Cyto C were increased (P<0.01). All aforementioned parameters were improved in treatment groups (P<0.05). ATP, MMP, and mPTPs were significantly higher in the Bufei Jianpi group than in the aminophylline group, while cell apoptosis, caspase-3, and Cyto C were lower (P<0.05). Conclusions: Bufei Jianpi granules can inhibit mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis in peripheral muscles, which might be the mechanism involved in improving skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

18.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 80(5): 1284-1291, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It was unclear whether an increased number of common nevi (moles) predicts melanoma death. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively examined the association between number of common nevi and risk of melanoma death. METHODS: Our study used data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 77,288 women) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 32,455 men). In 1986, participants were asked about the number of moles they had with a ≥3-mm diameter on the upper extremity, and we stratified their answers into 3 categories (none, 1-2, or ≥3) on the basis of data distribution. RESULTS: During follow-up (1986-2012), 2452 melanoma cases were pathologically confirmed; among these, we identified 196 deaths due to melanoma. Increased number of nevi was associated with melanoma death; the hazard ratio (HR) for ≥3 nevi compared with no nevi was 2.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-4.12) for women and 3.97 (95% CI 2.54-6.22) for men. Among melanoma cases, increased number of nevi was associated with melanoma death in men (≥3 nevi, HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.17-3.05) but not in women. Similarly, the number of nevi was positively associated with Breslow thickness in men only (Ptrend = .01). LIMITATIONS: This is an epidemiologic study without examination into mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Increased number of cutaneous nevi was significantly associated with melanoma death. High nevus count might serve as an independent prognostic factor to predict the risk of melanoma death particularly among male melanoma patients.


Assuntos
Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Nevo/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevo/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Carga Tumoral , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 217-224, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several host characteristics, including pigmentary traits (hair color, sunburn susceptibility and tanning ability), number of common nevi (moles), and family history of melanoma, have been associated with risk of melanoma. METHODS: We prospectively examined the associations between host characteristics and risk of incident melanoma by Breslow thickness (≤1 mm, thin melanoma; or >1 mm, "thicker melanoma") based on the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 86,380 women), NHS II (n = 104,100 women), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, n = 46,934 men). RESULTS: During 22-30 years' follow-up, a total of 1,813 incident melanoma cases were identified with information on Breslow thickness, 1,392 (76.8%) of which had thin melanoma. No significant differences were observed for thin and thicker melanoma in associations with hair color, sunburn susceptibility, and tanning ability. However, we found significant differences for the association with family history of melanoma, with a higher risk estimate for thicker melanoma [HR = 2.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.91-3.42] than thin melanoma (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.21-2.08; P heterogeneity = 0.02). Interestingly, women and men displayed differential associations between nevi count and risk of melanoma by Breslow thickness, with the association appearing stronger for thicker melanoma than thin melanoma in men (P heterogeneity = 0.01), but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with family history of melanoma may be more likely to develop thicker melanoma. Men with high number of common nevi may tend to develop thicker melanoma, which was not found for women. IMPACT: The findings further stress the risk of thicker melanoma for individuals with a family history of melanoma and men with a high nevi count.

20.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(1): 93-99, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of baseline grip strength and cognition on the trajectory of functional limitation over time. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of older adults participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). SETTING: Urban and rural households in 11 European countries and Israel. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older from SHARE (2004-2015) (N=14,073; 52.5% female). MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes were functional limitation scores from five panel wave. Main exposure variables were grip strength and cognitive measures including memory, verbal fluency, and numeracy at baseline. Basic demographic characteristics, life habits, and health status were considered as potential confounders. Mixed-effect linear regression models were fitted. RESULTS: Functional limitation increased significantly over time (follow-up range 0.9-11.6 years) (ß = 0.051, P < .001). Mixed-effect linear regression models identified significant interactions between grip strength (ß = -0.001, P < .001), numeracy (ß = -0.012, P < .001), verbal fluency (ß = -0.003, P < .001), word recall (ß = -0.006, P < .001) and time on functional limitation. CONCLUSION: Stronger baseline grip strength and better cognition predicted a slower rate of increase in functional limitation over time in older adults. Grip strength and cognitive function appeared to be useful indicators of the functional limitation process and attested to their value in monitoring functional change in European older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:93-99, 2019.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Aposentadoria
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