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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2057: 103-112, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595474

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N2) is the most necessary element in the atmosphere, it is an energetic micronutrient for plant growth and development after water, besides its key role in chlorophyll production, which is crucial for photosynthesis process. Biological nitrogen fixation is measured to be the most potent method to deliver a fixed way of nitrogen to the plants. Plant depends on free-living and symbiotic microbes present in the soil for nitrogen because it cannot be absorbed by the plant itself directly from the atmosphere. Many techniques were reported in the laboratory for nitrogen estimation till now, but Kjeldahl digestion and acetylene reduction assay (ARA) techniques became the most popular. In this chapter, we focus on the most common and popular methods used to determine plant N2; awareness obtained through the wide application of these methods should offer the source for the N2 fixation rate in agriculture system.

2.
Talanta ; 206: 120204, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514833

RESUMO

As a rapid and facile means for foodborne bacteria detection in situ, lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) still has intrinsic limitations in the construction of the existing sandwich LFA format, e.g. screening difficulties of paired antibodies (Abs), poor stability of Ab probe, etc. Here, combined the strong affinity of antibiotic with the superior specificity of antibody molecules, a novel and robust LFA based on a dual recognition strategy and magnetic separation was designed to achieve specific and sensitive determination of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis). In this work, ampicillin (Amp), a broad-spectrum antibiotic against bacteria, was employed as an ideal Ab replacer to anchor cells of target bacteria. By coating Amp on magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), the Amp-MNPs showed remarkable binding, separation and enrichment capacities toward bacteria even under complex sample matrices. To ensure the selectivity of this protocol, anti-S. enteritidis monoclonal antibody was then adopted as the second anchoring agent to form a sandwich complex with Amp-MNPs. Based on these facts, S. enteritidis, as low as 102-103 CFU/mL, could be detected by naked eyes in food samples. Therefore, this creative antibiotic-bacteria-antibody LFA sandwich pattern shows great application potential in the monitoring of food contamination and infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. Compared to the common paired Abs based sandwich method, the proposed approach was cost-effective, non-labor intensive, stable, sensitive and efficient.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 334-341, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate mental and physical health comorbidity with chronic back or neck pain in the Chinese population, and assess the level of disability associated with chronic back or neck pain. METHODS: Data were derived from a large-scale and nationally representative community survey of adult respondents on mental health disorders in China (n = 28,140). Chronic back or neck pain, other chronic pain conditions and chronic physical conditions were assessed by self-report. Mental disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Role disability during the past 30 days was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS-II). RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of chronic back or neck pain was 10.8%. Most of respondents with chronic back or neck pain (71.2%) reported at least one other comorbid condition, including other chronic pain conditions (53.4%), chronic physical conditions (37.9%), and mental disorders (23.9%). It was found by logistic regression that mood disorders (OR = 3.7, 95%CI:2.8-4.8) showed stronger association with chronic back or neck pain than anxiety disorders and substance disorders. Most common chronic pains and physical conditions were significantly associated with chronic back or neck pain. Chronic back or neck pain was associated with role disability after controlling for demographics and for comorbidities. Physical and mental comorbidities explained 0.7% of the association between chronic back or neck pain and role disability. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic back or neck pain and physical-mental comorbidity is very common in China and chronic back or neck pain may increase the likelihood of other physical and mental diseases. This presents a great challenge for both clinical treatment and public health education. We believe that further study needs to be conducted to improve the diagnostic and management skills for comorbidity conditions.

4.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-13, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670996

RESUMO

Background: Circulating B cells are crucial for the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). This study aimed at investigating the relationship between frequency of different subsets of circulating B cells and clinical measures in IgAN patients.Methods: The percentages of different subsets of circulating B cells in 23 IgAN patients and 14 healthy controls (HC) were determined by flow cytometry. Their serum IL-6 levels were measured by Cytometric Bead Array (CBA). Clinical parameters in five patients were measured before and after treatment for 8-12 weeks. The potential relationship between variants was analyzed.Results: In comparison with the HC, the frequency of CD3-CD19+ CD27+ IgD+IgM+ non-switched memory B cells (P = .0038) and CD3-CD19+ CD27hiCD38hi plasmablasts (P = .0467) and serum IL-6 (P = .0392) levels significantly increased in IgAN patients. The percentages of non-switched memory B cells were positively correlated with plasmablasts (R = 0.5781, P = .0039) and serum IL-6 levels (R = 0.6663, P = .0005) in the patients. The percentages of non-switched memory B cells (R = 0.8399, P < .0001), plasmablasts (R = 0.4486, P = .0318) and the levels of serum IL-6 (R = 0.5461, P = .0070) were positively correlated with the values of 24-h urine proteins in IgAN patients. The serum levels of IL-6 were negatively correlated with the eGFR values. Following standard treatment, the frequency of non-switched memory B cells and plasmablasts and the levels of 24-h urine proteins (P = .0317, P = .0079, P < .05) significantly decreased in IgAN patients.Conclusions: Abnormally higher frequency of non-switched memory B cells and plasmablasts may contribute to the pathogenesis of IgAN and be potential biomarkers for IgAN.

5.
Immunol Lett ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669380

RESUMO

In addition to expressing inhibitory cytokines and suppressive molecules, Treg cells could downplay inflammation by releasing cytotoxic molecules and eliminating proinflammatory immune cells. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy that has led to many cancer-related deaths. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic aspect of Treg cells in CRC patients. Data showed that tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ Treg cells expressed granzyme B immediately following resection, indicating that granzyme B-expressing Treg cells were present directly ex vivo. In the tumor-associated lymph nodes (LNs) and circulating lymphocytes, however, granzyme B-expressing Treg cells were only scarcely found. We then attempted to stimulate granzyme B expression in circulating Treg cells. Granzyme B upregulation in Treg cells could not be activated by standard T cell receptor (TCR) activation through anti-CD3/CD28 and IL-2 but required stimulation with bacterial products, such as with heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, granzyme B expression was highly concentrated in TIM-3+ Treg cells, a Treg subset previously shown to be enriched in the tumor microenvironment and presented increased suppressive capacity. These TIM-3+ Treg cells presented higher cytolytic capacity toward autologous T conventional cells than the TIM-3- Treg cells, in a manner that was dependent on granzyme B but not TIM-3. Overall, we found that granzyme B-expressing Treg cells were enriched in the tumors from CRC patients and had the potential to eliminate autologous T conventional cells.

6.
Spine J ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Minimally invasive lateral lumbar intervertebral fusion (LLIF) procedure has been reported as a feasible alternative to the traditional anterior approach for patients with lumbar tuberculosis. However, there is still no study in the existing literature comparing LLIF to traditional surgeries in the treatment of such patients. PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical, radiological, and functional outcomes of LLIF versus the traditional anterior approach for treating localized lumbar tuberculosis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. PATIENT SAMPLE: A total of 60 patients with single-level localized lumbar tuberculosis. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome parameters included incision length, operation time, blood loss, complications, segmental lordosis, fusion status, Frankel grade, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). METHODS: We matched 20 patients treated by LLIF with 40 patients undergoing traditional anterior surgery (ratio, 1:2) by age, sex, lesion level, and radiographic features. The LLIF group consisted of 12 men and 8 women with a mean age of 42.2 ± 11.1 years, while the traditional group consisted of 22 men and 18 women with a mean age of 40.0 ± 14.5 years. Both the demographics and radiographic data were reviewed. Pre- and postoperative segmental lordosis Cobb angle was measured on lateral X-ray films, while fusion status was assessed on computed tomography scans. The VAS and ODI were used to evaluate functional outcomes. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 24 months in the LLIF group and 39 months in the traditional group. Incision length, operation time, and blood loss were significantly less in the LLIF group than in the traditional group. A similar improvement in segmental lordosis after operation was found in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in neurological recovery, blood infection markers (ESR, CRP), functional outcome, or fusion rate, except for the postoperative VAS score, which was significantly lower in the LLIF group than in the traditional group (2.7 ± 1.0 vs. 3.6 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Four patients in the traditional group received a transfusion and 4 patients had a superficial wound infection, while no patient in the LLIF group received a transfusion or experienced any infection; however, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.291). CONCLUSIONS: Both LLIF and traditional anterior surgery are sufficient for treating patients with localized lumbar tuberculosis, but the LLIF approach results in significantly shorter operation time and less blood loss.

7.
Hip Int ; : 1120700019880818, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570008

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the surgical techniques, clinical outcomes, rates of revision and conversion to arthroplasty and complications between a repaired and unrepaired capsulotomy after hip arthroscopy. METHODS: A search of the PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar databases was performed to identify comparative articles published prior to 10 July 2019 that reported the capsule management strategy and clinical outcomes after hip arthroscopy. A narrative analysis and meta-analysis were performed to integrate and compare the results of the 2 groups. RESULTS: 12 comparative studies (n = 1185 hips) with an average (methodological index for non-randomized studies) MINORS score of 17.45 ± 2.02 were identified for analysis, of which 5 were included in the meta-analysis. The pre- to postoperative improvements in the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SS), and Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) revealed no significant differences between the repaired and unrepaired groups (p = 0.40, 0.26 and 0.61, respectively). The risk ratio of the revision rate for the 2 groups was 0.66 (p = 0.21). Evaluation of the MRI scans and the rate of heterotopic ossification also showed no significant differences. The most preferred capsulotomy techniques were interportal and T-shape. No postoperative hip instability was reported in any of the 12 studies. CONCLUSION: The currently published evidence is still not strong enough to confirm the superiority of repairing the capsule after hip arthroscopy; hence, routine repair of the capsule during surgery cannot be suggested.

9.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 29(10): 937-941, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients measured by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and to describe the distribution of fibrosis and inflammation in different steatosis grading. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China, from January 2017 to December 2018. METHODOLOGY: CHB patients who were evaluated with transient elastography (TE) for liver fibrosis and steatosis were included. Liver biochemical testing was performed within 3 days of TE measurements. Steatosis grading was assessed as S0 (no steatosis, CAP 0-247 dB/m), S1 (mild steatosis, CAP 248-267 dB/m), S2 (moderate steatosis, CAP 268-279 dB/m) and S3 (severe steatosis, CAP >=280 dB/m). Statistically comparisons of continuous variables or percentages were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1,621 CHB patients were included. The frequencies of liver steatosis in CHB patients were 35.4% (574 patients), of which 314 patients (19.3%) were diagnosed as severe steatosis (grading S3). Comparisons of age, gender and liver fibrosis in different steatosis grading revealed no statistical differences (p=0.109, 0.075 and 0.269, respectively). However, ALT values in patients with severe steatosis (grading S3) were higher than those patients with steatosis grading S0 (p<0.001) and S2 (p=0.047). CONCLUSION: Steatosis is common in CHB patients. Liver fibrosis seemed not discrepant in different steatosis grading. More obvious hepatic inflammation is seen in CHB patients with severe steatosis.

10.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(19): 2340-2347, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported mitophagy activation in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) in acute kidney injury (AKI). Phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Parkin are involved in mitophagy regulation; however, little is known about the role of PINK1-Parkin mitophagy in septic AKI. Here we investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway is involved in septic AKI and its effects on cell apoptosis in vitro and on renal functions in vivo. METHODS: Mitophagy-related gene expression was determined using Western blot assay in human RTEC cell line HK-2 stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in RTECs from septic AKI rats induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). Autophagy-related ultrastructural features in rat RTECs were observed using electron microscopy. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches were performed to investigate the role of the PINK1-Parkin pathway in HK-2 cell mitophagy. Autophagy activators and inhibitors were used to assess the effects of mitophagy modulation on cell apoptosis in vitro and on renal functions in vivo. RESULTS: LPS stimulation could significantly induce LC3-II and BECN-1 protein expression (LC3-II: 1.72 ±â€Š0.05 vs. 1.00 ±â€Š0.05, P < 0.05; BECN-1: 5.33 ±â€Š0.57 vs. 1.00 ±â€Š0.14, P < 0.05) at 4 h in vitro. Similarly, LC3-II, and BECN-1 protein levels were significantly increased and peaked at 2 h after CLP (LC3-II: 3.33 ±â€Š0.12 vs. 1.03 ±â€Š0.15, P < 0.05; BECN-1: 1.57 ±â€Š0.26 vs. 1.02 ±â€Š0.11, P < 0.05) in vivo compared with those after sham operation. Mitochondrial deformation and mitolysosome-mediated mitochondria clearance were observed in RTECs from septic rats. PINK1 knockdown significantly attenuated LC3-II protein expression (1.35 ±â€Š0.21 vs. 2.38 ±â€Š0.22, P < 0.05), whereas PINK1 overexpression markedly enhanced LC3-II protein expression (2.07 ±â€Š0.21 vs. 1.29 ±â€Š0.19, P < 0.05) compared with LPS-stimulated HK-2 cells. LPS-induced proapoptotic protein expression remained unchanged in autophagy activator-treated HK-2 cells and was significantly attenuated in PINK1-overexpressing cells, but was remarkably upregulated in autophagy inhibitor-treated and in PINK1-depleted cells. Consistent results were observed in flow cytometric apoptosis assay and in renal function indicators in rats. CONCLUSION: PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy might play a protective role in septic AKI, serving as a potential therapeutic target for septic AKI.

11.
ACS Nano ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589020

RESUMO

The relatively low stability and polymorphism of bimolecular G-quadruplexes (bi-G4s) are big difficulties that are faced in employing them to guide DNA assembly, as they are usually subject to a transformation into more stable tetramolecular or G-wire structures favored by K+ or Mg2+. Although bi-G4s benefit by additional duplex handles, a challenge remains in tailoring their intrinsic properties to resolve the above difficulties. Toward this challenge, here we engineer several ultrastable bi-G4s via replacing their nucleotide loops with special mini-hairpins, which consist of a GAA loop and a short GC-paired stem. Such a structural alteration favors the formation of G:C:G:C tetrads in the head-to-head folding topologies of bi-G4s and improves their thermal stability, with an increase in the melting temperature by up to 25 °C. It dramatically reduces their structural conversion into G-wires, verified by atomic force microscopy. These features enable the utilization of two well-chosen bi-G4s to shape a DNA nanotriangle into the desired framework nucleic acid (FNA) architectures such as "bowknot" and "butterfly" that are reversibly switched by the bi-G4s. On this basis, we further build a reconfigurable DNAzyme device to mimic the activation of human telomerase that is modulated by the G4 dimerization. Our designed ultrastable bi-G4s will offer a promising tool for dynamically manipulating intracellular DNA nanoassemblies with endogenous K+ and exploring the relationship between dimerization and function in some physiological processes.

12.
Heart Surg Forum ; 22(5): E380-E384, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of endovascular reconstruction of aortic root including aortic valve, sinus of valsalva and ascending aorta by a single stent-graft, a novel valved stent-graft with two fenestrae for preserving the coronary arteries was designed and performed in-vitro on a pig heart based circulation simulating system. METHODS: Pig hearts were harvested from 30 healthy adult female pigs weighing between 60-65 kilograms. Before sacrifice, all the pigs received aortic computed tomography angiography (CTA) examinations and morphologic parameters of aortic root were measured. Then we customized the valved stent-grafts according to the CTA measurements. After the pig heart was fixed on the special platform according to the original orientation and connected to the circulation system, the stent graft was delivered through transapical access and covered the segment from aortic annulus to proximal part of aortic arch under DSA (digital subtraction angiography) guidance. Then changes of coronary flow before and after the procedure and fenestration alignment with coronary ostia were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall technical success rate was 100%. The valve functions tested by ultrasound were in good condition under 120 mmHg circulation pressure. The flow of left coronary artery (LCA) did not decrease, but increased after the stent-graft implantation (340 ± 2.06 mL/min versus 288 ± 5.29 mL/min, P < .05). Similarly, the flow of right coronary artery (RCA) also increased (392 ± 9.17 mL/min versus 348 ± 8.01 mL/min; P < .05). The final angiography confirmed that both coronary arteries were patent. When generally observed from outer wall of valsalva sinus, both RCA and LCA orifices were aligned with the fenestrae. In 4 cases, the autologous valve leaflets blocked nearly 20% of the LCA fenestra's area, but the flow did not significantly decrease in these cases. CONCLUSION: Stimulated on a pig heart-based circulation simulation system, the one-piece valved-fenestrated stent graft with a branch could be delivered via the transapical access and deployed accurately, which achieved endovascular reconstruction of aortic valve, sinus of valsalva and ascending aorta while preserving the coronary artery perfusion by fenestrations. More in-vivo experiments on animal models are mandatory to further verify its efficacy and safety.

13.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 22(4): 172-176, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The ideal alternative for tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) in patients with severe isolated tricuspid regurgitation remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the outcomes of using bioprosthetic and mechanical valves at the tricuspid position. METHODS: A total of 98 consecutive patients without left-side cardiac disease or history of heart surgery who underwent first-time TVR between January 2010 and March 2017 at the West China Hospital, China were included in the study. Patient data, including all-cause death and need for tricuspid valve reoperation as the main end points, were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 76 patients were enrolled into the study. The mean follow-up period was 43.3±21.9 (10-87) months. The mean age of the patients was 45.7±13.4 years. The study comprised 32.9% of male patients. During the follow-up period, 4, 3, 12, and 3 cases of death, reoperation, prosthesis dysfunctions, and prosthesis-related thrombosis were noted, respectively. Biological and mechanical valves were used in 56.6% and 43.4% of the patients, respectively. However, there was no significant difference between mechanical and biological valves with respect to echocardiographic date and survival, reoperation, prosthetic valve dysfunction, and thromboembolism rate. CONCLUSION: TVR is not a very high-risk procedure in patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation, and the decision for prosthesis implantation in TVR should be made on an individual basis according to suitable clinical judgment.

14.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 20(3): 179-186, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601092

RESUMO

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathyis a rare form of inherited cerebral small vessel disease associated with mutations in the high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 gene. As of now, only about 50 cases have been reported. In 2012, our group reported a family with a novel mutant of the high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 gene in China for the first time. To further explore the molecular pathogenesis of cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, a recombination mouse model expressed human high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 gene mutant identified by our group was generated using the Donor & Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9 system and termed the Mut-high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 geneL364P mouse model. Results show that Mut-high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 geneL364P mice present similar pathological characteristics to patients with cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, suggesting that the Mut-high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 geneL364P mouse model was generated successfully. Moreover, apoptosis was induced in mouse brain vascular smooth muscle cells derived from Mut-high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 geneL364P mice. In summary, the cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy mouse model described in this study will be beneficial to demonstrate the pathological mechanism of cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy and provide new therapeutic targets for clinical treatment.

15.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653583

RESUMO

The SNAP25 gene is involved in the development of antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) or metabolic syndrome during antipsychotics use in Americans and Europeans, but its role in Asians remains unknown. To identify common variants in SNAP25 associated with schizophrenia and evaluate their effects on AIWG and antipsychotic responses in Han Chinese individuals with schizophrenia, we conducted a two-stage case-control study of 3,243 patients and 6,154 healthy controls. 2128 inpatients in the replication stage have received conventional treatment with an antipsychotic monotherapy (Haloperidol, Olanzapine or Risperidone) for 10 weeks at least. Weight change, antipsychotic responses and metabolic indices change were assessed during treatments. Three SNPs were significantly associated with schizophrenia in samples (rs6039769, P = 6.64 × 10-7; rs3787283, P = 0.004283; rs3746544, P = 2.51 × 10-6). Of these, rs6039769 is a novel schizophrenia-associated SNP and is uncorrelated with the other two variants, which have previously been associated with schizophrenia in European-ancestry samples. Rs6039769 was significantly associated with AIWG (P < 0.001), but not with antipsychotic responses or metabolic indices. Another two SNPs were not associated with AIWG or antipsychotic responses or metabolic indices. Overall, there were significant differences in antipsychotic responses and metabolic indices among the three treatment groups. Our findings suggest that SNAP25 gene may contribute to the susceptibility of AIWG and even metabolic disturbances. A prior identification of high-risk of patients with rs6039769 would contribute to a better precision of the pharmacological treatment.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623074

RESUMO

As the subunits of the SWI/SNF (mating-type switching (SWI) and sucrose nonfermenting (SNF)) chromatin-remodeling complexes (CRCs), Swi3-like proteins are crucial to chromatin remodeling in yeast and human. Growing evidence indicate that AtSWI3s are also essential for development and response to hormones in Arabidopsis. Nevertheless, the biological functions of Swi3-like proteins in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) have not been investigated. Here we identified four Swi3-like proteins from tomato, namely SlSWI3A, SlSWI3B, SlSWI3C, and SlSWI3D. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that all SlSWI3s are localized in the nucleus. The expression patterns showed that all SlSWI3s are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues and organs, and SlSWI3A and SlSWI3B can be induced by cold treatment. In addition, we found that SlSWI3B can form homodimers with itself and heterodimers with SlSWI3A and SlSWI3C. SlSWI3B can also interact with SlRIN and SlCHR8, two proteins involved in tomato reproductive development. Overexpression of SlSWI3C increased the leaf size in transgenic Arabidopsis with increased expression of GROWTH REGULATING FACTORs, such as GRF3, GRF5, and GRF6. Taken together, our results indicate that SlSWI3s may play important roles in tomato growth and development.

17.
Eur Spine J ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624908

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Choosing an optimal distal fusion level for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is still controversial. To compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes of distal fusion to L5 versus the sacrum in ASD, we conducted a meta-analysis. METHODS: Relevant studies on long fusion terminating at L5 or the sacrum in ASD were retrieved from the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases. Then, studies were manually selected for inclusion based on predefined criteria. The meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: Eleven retrospective studies with 1211 patients were included in meta-analysis. No significant difference was found in overall complication rate (95% CI 0.60 to 1.30) and revision rate (95% CI 0.59 to 1.99) between fusion to L5 group (L group) and fusion to the sacrum group (S group). Significant lower rate of pseudarthrosis and implant-related complications (95% CI 0.29 to 0.64) as well as proximal adjacent segment disease (95% CI 0.35 to 0.92) was found in L group. Patients in S group obtained a better correction of lumbar lordosis (95% CI - 7.85 to - 0.38) and less loss of sagittal balance (95% CI - 1.80 to - 0.50). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggested that long fusion terminating at L5 or the sacrum was similar in scoliosis correction, overall complication rate, revision rate, and improvement in pain and disability. However, fusion to L5 had advantages in lower rate of pseudarthrosis, implant-related complications, and proximal adjacent segment disease, while fusion to the sacrum had advantages in the restoration of lumbar lordosis, maintenance of sagittal balance, and absence of distal adjacent segment disease. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(11): 163, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637600

RESUMO

To simplify industrial mushroom cultivation, we introduced a bacterial Pseudomonas sp. UW4 acdS gene, encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase (AcdS), into fungus Agaricus bisporus. Transformant A. bisporus-acdS14 cased with sterilized-vermiculite generated primordia 5 days sooner than wild-type strain, confirming the specific role of the AcdS enzyme. Being consistent with the AcdS enzyme activity increased by 84%, the mycelium growth rate was increased by 25%; but, the ACC and ethylene concentrations were reduced by 71% and 36%, respectively, in the A. bisporus-acdS14 transformant. And the bacterium P. sp. UW4 attachment on the mycelium of the A. bisporus-acdS14 transformant was drastically reduced. We conclude that the heterogeneously expressed bacterial acdS gene degrades ACC and reduces ethylene-synthesis, eliminating ethylene inhibition on the mycelium growth and primordium formation in A. bisporus. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism underlying casing soil bacterium, and help formulate a casing-less cultivation for the next-generation mushroom industry.

19.
ACS Sens ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645102

RESUMO

In this work, we introduce our recent finding that the carbon fiber paper (CFP) treated by simple air annealing (OCFP) could be used for exceptionally high-performance electrochemical nitrite sensing. The air-annealing process endows the pristine CFP with higher defective edge/plane sites, more oxygen-containing functional groups, higher roughness, and improved wettability. The electrochemical studies show that the OCFP exhibits excellent sensing performance for nitrite, with ultra-low determination limit of 0.1 µM and detection limit of 0.07 µM, an ultra-wide linear determination range of 0.1-3838.5 µM, a fast current response of 1 s, and a high sensitivity of 930.4 µA mM-1 cm-2. These performance values are comparable or even superior to those for most reported noble- or transition-metal based advanced nitrite sensors. Besides, this electrode also presents satisfactory stability, reproducibility, and feasibility of nitrite sensing in food samples. As an ideal monolithic and metal-free catalyst with ultrahigh and stable detection performance, the OCFP has the high potential to be integrated into next-generation electrochemical sensing devices.

20.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582423

RESUMO

At concentrations found in human after ingestion of 1-2 cups of green tea, Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) modulates Na/K-ATPase conformation and activity. Akin to ouabain, an archetypal Na/K-ATPase ligand of the cardiotonic steroids (CTS) family, ECG also activates PKCɛ translocation and increases the force of contraction of the rat heart. This study evaluated whether, like ouabain, ECG also modulates Na/K-ATPase/Src receptor function and triggers pre- and post-conditioning against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In vitro, ECG activated the purified Na/K-ATPase/Src complex. In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, sub-micromolar concentrations of ECG administered either before or after ischemia reduced infarct size by more than 40%, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release, and improved the recovery of cardiac function. ECG protection was blocked by PKCɛ inhibition and attenuated by mitochondrial KATP channel inhibition. In a unique mammalian cell system with depleted Na/K-ATPase α1 expression, ECG-induced PKCɛ activation persisted but protection against I/R was blunted. Taken together, these results reveal a Na/K-ATPase- and PKCɛ-dependent mechanism of protection by ECG that is also distinct from the mechanism of action of ouabain. These ECG properties likely contribute to the positive impact of green tea consumption on cardiovascular health and warrant further investigation into the role of cardiac Na/K-ATPase signaling in the cardioprotective effect of green tea consumption. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Consumption of green tea, the richest dietary source of ECG, is associated with a reduced risk of cardiac mortality. Anti-oxidant effects of ECG and other tea polyphenols are well known, but reported for concentrations well above dietary levels. Therefore, the mechanism underlying the cardioprotective effect of green tea remains incompletely understood. This study provides experimental evidence that ECG concentrations commonly detected in human after consumption of a cup of tea trigger Na/K-ATPase/Src receptor in a cell-free system, activate a CTS-like signaling pathway, and provide PKCε-dependent protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts. Mechanistic studies in mammalian cells with targeted Na/K-ATPase depletion revealed that although Na/K-ATPase does not mediate ECG-induced PKCɛ activation, it is required for ECG-induced protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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