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1.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493020913557, 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223541

RESUMO

In China, stroke is a major cause of mortality, and long-term physical and cognitive impairment. To meet this challenge, the Ministry of Health China Stroke Prevention Project Committee (CSPPC) was established in April 2011. This committee actively promotes stroke prevention and control in China. With government financial support of 838.4 million CNY, 8.352 million people from 536 screening points in 31 provinces have received stroke screening and follow-up over the last seven years (2012-2018). In 2016, the CSPPC issued a plan to establish stroke centers. To shorten the pre-hospital period, the CSPPC established a stroke center network, stroke map, and stroke "Green Channel" to create three 1-h gold rescue circles, abbreviated as "1-1-1" (onset to call time <1 h; pre-hospital transfer time < 1 h, and door-to-needle time < 1 h). From 2017 to 2018, the median door-to-needle time dropped by 4.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-9.4) from 50 min to 48 min, and the median onset-to-needle time dropped by 2.8% (95% CI, 0.4-5.2) from 180 min to 175 min. As of 31 December 2018, the CSPPC has established 380 stroke centers in mainland China. From 1 November 2018, the CSPPC has monitored the quality of stroke care in stroke center hospitals through the China Stroke Data Center Data Reporting Platform. The CSPPC Stroke program has led to a significant improvement in stroke care. This program needs to be further promoted nationwide.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215825

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a high-risk pregnancy, and placental dysfunction is the main cause of FGR. The upregulation of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is linked to FGR pathology, but the mechanism needs to be investigated. METHODS: The levels of ADMA and other related molecules were measured in human biological samples. We further used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to reveal the mechanism of ADMA-induced FGR in vitro. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, FGR patients had higher placental resistance, and ADMA levels were increased in the maternal blood, cord blood, and placenta; additionally, nitric oxide (NO) production decreased, accompanied by a decreased expression of endogenous NO synthase (eNOS). The expression of vascular growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PLGF) in the maternal blood during the third trimester and umbilical cord of the FGR group was lower than the control group. The PLGF levels in the placentas of the FGR group were also reduced, while the expression of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) increased. In in vitro cell experiments, NO production was obviously lower when the cells were exposed to 100 µM of ADMA, with no difference in eNOS expression. There was a dose-dependent decrease in PLGF expression with increasing doses of ADMA, and the levels of sFlt-1 increased. Moreover, we confirmed that tube formation in HUVECs was lower after ADMA treatment compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The accumulation of ADMA during pregnancy has an adverse effect on fetal development via interference with placental endothelial function and angiogenesis.

3.
Neuropharmacology ; : 108042, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147454

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, which seriously affects human health and cannot be stopped by current treatments. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for AD. Our recent studies reported the neuroprotective effects of a GLP-1/GIP/Glucagon receptor triagonist (Triagonist), a novel unimolecular anti-diabetic drug, in cognitive and pathological improvements of 3xTg-AD mice. However, the detailed electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms underlying neuroprotection remain unexplored. The present study investigated the underlying electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms further by using whole-cell patch clamp techniques. Our results revealed that chronic Triagonist treatment effectively reduced working memory and reference memory errors of 3xTg-AD mice in a radial maze test. In addition, the Triagonist increased spontaneous excitatory synaptic activities, differentially modulated voltage- and chemically-gated Ca2+ flux, and reduced the over-excitation of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices of 3xTg-AD mice. In addition, chronic Triagonist treatment also up-regulated the expression levels of synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. These results indicate that the Triagonist could improve memory formation, as well as synaptic transmission, Ca2+ balance, and neuronal excitability in 3xTg-AD mice. These neuroprotective effects of Triagonist may be involved in the up-regulation of synaptophysin and PSD-95. Therefore, the study suggests that multi-receptor agonists might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD.

4.
Database (Oxford) ; 20202020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159764

RESUMO

Mulberry is an important economic crop plant and traditional medicine. It contains a huge array of bioactive metabolites such as flavonoids, amino acids, alkaloids and vitamins. Consequently, mulberry has received increasing attention in recent years. MMHub (version 1.0) is the first open public repository of mass spectra of small chemical compounds (<1000 Da) in mulberry leaves. The database contains 936 electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS2) data and lists the specific distribution of compounds in 91 mulberry resources with two biological duplicates. ESI-MS2 data were obtained under non-standardized and independent experimental conditions. In total, 124 metabolites were identified or tentatively annotated and details of 90 metabolites with associated chemical structures have been deposited in the database. Supporting information such as PubChem compound information, molecular formula and metabolite classification are also provided in the MS2 spectral tag library. The MMHub provides important and comprehensive metabolome data for scientists working with mulberry. This information will be useful for the screening of quality resources and specific metabolites of mulberry. Database URL: https://biodb.swu.edu.cn/mmdb/.

5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 112, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sand burial plays an irreplaceable and unique role in the growth and distribution of vegetation on the Shell Dike Island in the Yellow River Delta. There are still some unknown on the effects of sand burial on the morphology, biomass, and especially the stoichiometry of Periploca sepium, as well as the relationship between these factors. RESULTS: Shell sand burial depth had a significant influence on seedling emergence, growth, and biomass of P. sepium. Shallow sand burial shortened the emergence time and improved the emergence rate, morphological and biomass of P. sepium compared to deep burial and the control. Burial depth significantly affected the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents of the leaves. With deep burial, the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) and carbon/phosphorus (C/P) ratios decreased firstly and then increased with depth, while the nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (N/P) presented the contrary trend. Correlation analysis showed that the stoichiometry of N/P was positively correlated to morphology and biomass of P. sepium at different burial depths. Structural equation model analysis revealed that N was the largest contributor to P. sepium biomass. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal burial depth is beneficial to the seedling emergence, growth and nutritional accumulation of P. sepium. Stoichiometry has an important influence on the morphological formation and biomass accumulation.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230000, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placental protein expression plays a crucial role during pregnancy. We hypothesized that: (1) circulating levels of pregnancy-associated, placenta-related proteins throughout gestation reflect the temporal progression of the uncomplicated, full-term pregnancy, and can effectively estimate gestational ages (GAs); and (2) preeclampsia (PE) is associated with disruptions in these protein levels early in gestation; and can identify impending PE. We also compared gestational profiles of proteins in the human and mouse, using pregnant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) heterozygote (Het) mice, a mouse model reflecting PE-like symptoms. METHODS: Serum levels of placenta-related proteins-leptin (LEP), chorionic somatomammotropin hormone like 1 (CSHL1), elabela (ELA), activin A, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), and placental growth factor (PlGF)-were quantified by ELISA in blood serially collected throughout human pregnancies (20 normal subjects with 66 samples, and 20 subjects who developed PE with 61 samples). Multivariate analysis was performed to estimate the GA in normal pregnancy. Mean-squared errors of GA estimations were used to identify impending PE. The human protein profiles were then compared with those in the pregnant HO-1 Het mice. RESULTS: An elastic net-based gestational dating model was developed (R2 = 0.76) and validated (R2 = 0.61) using serum levels of the 6 proteins measured at various GAs from women with normal uncomplicated pregnancies. In women who developed PE, the model was not (R2 = -0.17) associated with GA. Deviations from the model estimations were observed in women who developed PE (P = 0.01). The model developed with 5 proteins (ELA excluded) performed similarly from sera from normal human (R2 = 0.68) and WT mouse (R2 = 0.85) pregnancies. Disruptions of this model were observed in both human PE-associated (R2 = 0.27) and mouse HO-1 Het (R2 = 0.30) pregnancies. LEP outperformed sFlt-1 and PlGF in differentiating impending PE at early human and late mouse GAs. CONCLUSIONS: Serum placenta-related protein profiles are temporally regulated throughout normal pregnancies and significantly disrupted in women who develop PE. LEP changes earlier than the well-established biomarkers (sFlt-1 and PlGF). There may be evidence of a causative action of HO-1 deficiency in LEP upregulation in a PE-like murine model.

7.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(1): 77-82, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144914

RESUMO

The electrical characteristics of meridians and acupoints have been being one of the hot topics discussed by scholars, because of many influencing factors and inconsistent research results. In the present article, we collected papers published in Chinese or English in recent 10 years from PubMed, CNKI, and VIP databases by using key words of"acupuncture""meridian""resistance""capacitance""electrodermal"and"impedance". Then, we make an analysis about its development from three aspects, 1) manifestations of electrical properties of acupoints (low dermal resistance under pathological state, imbalance between left and right sides of the synonym acupoints), 2) clinical application of acupoint electrical characteristics for diagnosis of clinical disorders and evaluation of therapeutic effect, and 3) current situations of development of meridian detection instruments based on electrical characteristics (improving stability of instruments,expansion of the detected regions and measuring time, realization of visualization, and operational automation). In the process of coming studies, we highly recommend that more attention should be paid to the acupoints' "dynamic changes", and forming a standardized research plan, strengthening domestic and international academic exchanges and cooperation are definitely necessary in order to validate the objectivity and specificity of electrical characteristics of meridians and acupoints, further expanding its clinical application.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Meridianos , PubMed
8.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(2): 157-63, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the specific regularity of body surface resistance at different acupoints of the meridians associated with the uterus in reflecting menstrual cycle by observing the change in body surface resistance at source points, cleft points, confluent points, and non-specific points of three yin meridians of the foot in different menstrual cycles in normal female college students, to lay a foundation for the in-depth research on the mechanism of acupoints reflecting the function of zang-fu, and to provide a reference for the clinical and scientific research on the biophysical characteristics of menstrual cycle-related acupoints in normal female. METHODS: A total of 90 normal female college students were recruited. The source points, cleftpoints, confluent points, and non-specific points of three yin meridians of the foot which were located in the adjacent spinal segments of the uterus were selected, and body surface resistance was monitored for 30 consecutive minutes at the same time-points of menstrual phase, follicular phase, ovulation phase, and luteal phase to observe the change in the resistance of each acupoint during the menstrual cycle. RESULTS: There was no significant change in the resistance value of unilateral acupoints during the menstrual cycle (P>0.05). In the same period, there was no significant difference in resistance value between unilateral three source points, three cleftpoints, different acupoints of the spleen meridian, and different acupoints of lumbar 4 dermatomere (P>0.05). As for the comparison of resistance of the same acupoint at the left and right sides, Taichong (LR3) at the left side had a higher resistance value than that at the right side in the menstrual phase (P<0.05); Taibai (SP3) at the left side had a higher resistance value than that at the right side in the ovulation phase (P<0.05); Zhongdu (LR6) at the left side had a higher resistance value than that at the right side in the follicular phase, the ovulation phase, and the luteal phase (P<0.05); Taixi (KI3), Diji (SP8), and Sanyinjiao (SP6) at the left side had a higher resistance value than those at the right side in the menstrual phase, the follicular phase, the ovulation phase, and the luteal phase (P<0.05); Shuiquan (KI5) at the left side had a lower resistance value than that at the right side in these four phases (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The change trend of the resistance of the acupoints at the left and right sides associated with the three yin meridians of the foot can specifically reflect the change in qi and blood in the uterus during the menstrual cycle. The change trend of the source and cleft points of the liver meridian in the menstrual phase is different from that in the other phases, and the change trend of SP3, a source point of the spleen meridian, in the ovulation phase is different from that in the other phases, which suggests the specificity of meridian points in reflecting function. The mechanism by which meridian points reflect the function of zang-fu is associated with the meridian points and the spinal cord segments of zang-fu, and meanwhile, it has a specific relationship with the meridians to which meridian points belong and the attributes of acupoints.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Meridianos , Feminino , Humanos , Medula Espinal , Útero
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(8): 828-838, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation and nutrition status play an important role in cancer metastasis. The combined index of hemoglobin, albumin, lymphocyte, and platelet (HALP), consisting of haemoglobin, albumin, lymphocytes, and platelets, is considered as a novel marker to reflect both systemic inflammation and nutrition status. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between HALP and survival of patients with pancreatic cancer following radical resection. AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative HALP in pancreatic cancer patients. METHODS: The preoperative serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin, lymphocyte counts, and platelet counts were routinely detected in 582 pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent radical resection. The relationship between postoperative survival and the preoperative level of HALP was investigated. RESULTS: Low levels of HALP were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002), poor tumor differentiation (P = 0.032), high TNM stage (P = 0.008), female patients (P = 0.005) and tumor location in the head of the pancreas (P < 0.001). Low levels of HALP were associated with early recurrence [7.3 mo vs 16.3 mo, P < 0.001 for recurrence-free survival (RFS)] and short survival [11.5 mo vs 23.6 mo, P < 0.001 for overall survival (OS)] in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A low level of HALP was an independent risk factor for early recurrence and short survival irrespective of sex and tumor location. CONCLUSION: Low levels of HALP may be a significant risk factor for RFS and OS in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

10.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(3): 215-9, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Zusanli"(ST36) on peripheral and central IL-6, IL-10 and IL-10/IL-6 changes in fatigue rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying relief of fatigue. METHODS: Twenty-one male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model and moxibustion groups with 7 rats in each group. The fatigue model was induced by exhausted weight-loaded swimming, once daily for 21 days. Moxibustion was applied to bilateral ST36 once every other day, for successive 11 times. The overall state and the body weight were observed. The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in the serum, gastrocnemius and frontal cortex tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Compared with the normal group, the body weight was significantly reduced on the 7th, 14th, and 21st day in the model group (P<0.05), and considerably increased on the 14th and 21st day in the moxibustion group relevant to the model group (P<0.05). After modeling, the levels of IL-6 in the serum, gastrocnemius and frontal cortex were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), while those of IL-10 was obviously decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the model group relevant to the normal group, and ratio of IL-10/IL-6 was obviously decreased in the serum and frontal cortex of the model group relevant to the normal group (P<0.01). After the moxibustion intervention, the levels of IL-10 in the serum and frontal cortex were significantly increased (P<0.05), and ratio of IL-10/IL-6 in the serum and frontal cortex was significantly increased (P<0.01), while the IL-6 contents in the gastrocnemius and frontal cortex were notably decreased in the moxibustion group relevant to the model group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Moxibustion can inhibit weight-loaded swimming induced decrease of body weight in fatigue rats, which may be associated with its effects in balancing the levels of peripheral and central pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118418

RESUMO

A series of (carbene)Au(I)(aryl) complexes are reported. The nature of the lowest excited state in these complexes changes character from metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) to interligand charge transfer (ICT) with increasing electron-donating strength of the aryl ligand. Complexes that have the MLCT lowest excited state undergo a Renner-Teller bending distortion upon excitation. Such a distortion leads to a large rate of nonradiative decay, on the order of 108 s-1. Renner-Teller-based nonradiative decay does not occur in chromophores with an ICT emissive state. Introducing a julolidine moiety and ortho-methyl substituents to the aryl group makes the molecule rigid and hinders the rotation along the Au-Caryl-coordinate bond. Consequently, the nonradiative decay rates of these ICT emitters are decreased and become lower than the radiative decay rate constants (kr = 105 s-1). Thus, high-luminescent efficiencies (ΦPL = 0.61 and 0.77) along with short lifetimes (τ < 2 µs) are obtained for yellow and green emitters, respectively. Thermally assisted delayed fluorescence behavior is observed, owing to the small exchange energy (ΔEST < 1600 cm-1) in these emitters.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137382, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114228

RESUMO

Low birth weight (LBW) is accompanied by metabolic dysfunction, chronic inflammation and gut microbiota perturbation in piglets during early life. Regulating gut microbiota structure can indirectly or directly affect gut health and the host's metabolism. However, whether gut microbiota dysbiosis impact lipid metabolism and inflammation progression in the LBW pigs later in life is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of gut microbiota on homeostasis in organisms using young pigs as a model. The plasma concentrations of High-density lipoproteins (HDLC) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 18 (IL-18) were increased in LBW pigs. The bacterial composition was modified dramatically in LBW group in association with an increase in propionate, butyrate and Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the ileal digesta. LBW impaired intestine results in damaged Fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP2) and Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expressions, and the inhibition of Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) and G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) expressions, causing inefficient SCFAs absorption. Meanwhile, the physical barrier and chemical barrier related to functional gene expressions of Occludin, Claudin-1, Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Mucin 2 (MUC2) in both ileum and colon were decreased in the LBW pigs. The genera of Blautia, Bifidobacterium, Subdoligranulum and Coprococcus 3 in the ileum were correlated positively with lipid metabolic dysfunction and pro-inflammatory response in LBW pigs. Collectively, the gut microbiota is critical for perturbation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory progression in LBW pigs, which suggests the interventions for modulating bacterial communities may be therapeutically beneficial for metabolic diseases and chronic inflammation.

13.
Environ Res ; 183: 109143, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028180

RESUMO

Formaldehyde poses significant threats to the ecosystem and is widely used as a toxicity indicator to obtain electrical signal feedback in electroactive biofilm (EAB)-based sensors. Although many optimizations have been adopted to improve the performance of EAB to formaldehyde, nearly no studies have discussed the toxicity of formaldehyde to EAB. Here, EABs were acclimated with a stable current density (8.9 ± 0.2 A/m2) and then injected with formaldehyde. The current density decreased by 27% and 98% after the injection of 1 and 10 ppm formaldehyde, respectively, compared with that in the control. The ecotoxicity of formaldehyde caused the irreversible loss of current with 3% (1 ppm) and 81% (10 ppm). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the redox activity was inhibited by formaldehyde, and the number of dead/broken cells increased from 2% to 40% (1 ppm) and 91% (10 ppm). The contents of the total protein and extracellular polymer substances decreased by more than 28% (1 ppm) and 75% (10 ppm) because of the cleavage reaction caused by formaldehyde. Bacterial community analysis showed that the proportion of Geobacter decreased from 81% to 53% (1 ppm) and 24% (10 ppm). As a result, the current production was significantly impaired, and the irreversible loss increased. Toxicological analysis demonstrated that formaldehyde disturbed the physiological indices of cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. These findings fill the gap of ecotoxicology of toxicants to EAB in a bioelectrochemical system.

14.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(8): 127020, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067867

RESUMO

The ent-kaurane diterpenoid chepraecoxin A (CA) obtained in our previous study showed a potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase (IC50 274.5 ± 12.5 µM). In order to figure out the structure-activity relationships (SARs), twenty-two derivatives of chepraecoxin A were synthesized by modifying the ester, allyl, double bond and carboxyl groups, and assayed for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Of them, eight compounds (14-17, 19-22) significantly increased activity with IC50 values ranging from 16.1 to 71.4 µM, even higher than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 130.3 µM). Especially, compounds 17, 19 and 21 could inhibit α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 16.9 ± 3.4, 16.1 ± 1.2, and 17.1 ± 0.6 µM, 17-fold higher than CA. The most active compound 19 was proven to be a non-competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 19.4 µM based on enzyme kinetics study. The primary SARs of CA derivatives were summarized for exploring antidiabetic candidates.

15.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(1): 76-81, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mutation rate and distribution of Homo sapiens neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS) gene in the patients with acute myeloid leukemia. METHODS: The genomic DNA of bone marrow was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for NRAS mutations. At the same time, the mutations of ASXL1, DNMT3A, TET2, CEBPA, FLT3, IDH2, NPM1 and c-KIT genes were also detected to analyze the relation with NRAS mutations. RESULTS: A total of 11 NRAS mutations were found in 108 patients with initial acute myeloid leukemia and the mutation rate was 10.2%, including 6 cases of G12D, 3 cases of G13D, and 2 cases of G61K. In the mutation group, the peripheral blood leukocyte count was higher (P<0.05), more likely to occur in the M4 subtype, and the M2 subtype was mutually exclusive (P<0.05). Moreover, the mutant group was more likely to express CD13 than the non-mutation group (P<0.05), while no statistic difference was found in age, gender, hemoglobin level, platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase level, bone marrow blast, cytogenetics, complete remission rate and overall survival (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mutation of NRAS gene has no effect on the prognosis of AML patients.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 39, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of 3 mg drospirenone and 20 µg ethinyl estradiol tablet (3 mg DRSP/20 µg EE) in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: This single center, prospective observational study was conducted in 140 patients with PCOS. They were prescribed 3 mg DRSP/20 µg EE in a 24/4/ regimen for 3 months. Patients were instructed to take oral DRSP/EE tablets (once daily) on the 2nd day of menstruation, for 28 consecutive days for 1 cycle. After 3 months of treatment, anthropometric assessments along with variations in sex hormones related index, glucolipid metabolic index, changes in bilateral ovarian volume, as well as adverse effect of the combination were evaluated. RESULTS: When compared to baseline, body mass index (BMI, 22.07 ± 4.09 vs. 21.35 ± 3.22, p < 0.001) and waist hip ratio (WHR, 0.86 ± 0.07 vs. 0.854 ± 0.06, p = 0.026) decreased significantly after treatment. Sex-hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH) (10.88 vs. 5.81 U/L), testosterone (T) (1.85 vs. 1.51 nmol/L) and free androgen index (FAI) (5.37 vs. 1.50) decreased significantly after treatment (p < 0.001). Follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) increased significantly at 3 months as compared to before treatment (5.13 vs. 5.42 U/L, p = 0.009). Plasma insulin (11.03 vs. 11.10 pmol/L), fasting (4.97 vs. 4.93 mmol/L) and 2 h-blood glucose levels (7.18 vs. 7.04 mmol/L) did not change when compared to baseline. Plasma triglycerides (TG, 1.32 vs. 1.65 mmol/L) significantly increased 3 months after treatment when compared to before treatment (p < 0.001). However, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels increased significantly after treatment (1.41 vs. 1.57 mmol/L, p < 0.001). It was seen that, when compared to baseline, bilateral ovarian volume (left and right) was significantly lower after treatment (p < 0.05). It was seen that 81 patients reported no adverse reactions. Of the common discomforts reported, breast swelling and pain, gastrointestinal disorder and dizziness and headache were most frequent. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of PCOS patients with3 mg DRSP/20 µg EE has shown beneficial hormonal and lipid profile along with considerable safety profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR1900022001, March 2019, retrospectively registered.

17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 22, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alisol A-24-acetate (AA-24-a) is one of the main active triterpenes isolated from the well-known medicinal plant Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juz., which possesses multiple biological activities, including a hypoglycemic effect. Whether AA-24-a is a hypoglycemic-active compound of A. orientale (Sam.) Juz. is unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the effect and potential mechanism of action of AA-24-a on glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. METHOD: Effects of AA-24-a on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane were evaluated. Glucose uptake was determined using a 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) uptake assay. Cell membrane proteins were isolated and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein was detected by western blotting to examine the translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. To determine the underlying mechanism, the phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in the insulin and 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways were examined using western blotting. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of key enzymes in AMPK signaling pathway were used to examine the role of these kinases in the AA-24-a-induced glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation. RESULTS: We found that AA-24-a significantly promoted glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in C2C12 myotubes. AA-24-a increased the phosphorylation of AMPK, but had no effect on the insulin-dependent pathway involving insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT). In addition, the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the AKT substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), two proteins that act downstream of AMPK, was upregulated. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, blocked AA-24-a-induced AMPK pathway activation and reversed AA-24-a-induced glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane, indicating that AA-24-a promotes glucose metabolism via the AMPK pathway in vitro. STO-609, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKKß) inhibitor, also attenuated AA-24-a-induced glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation. Moreover, STO-609 weakened AA-24-a-induced phosphorylation of AMPK, p38 MAPK and AS160. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that AA-24-a isolated from A. orientale (Sam.) Juz. significantly enhances glucose uptake via the CaMKKß-AMPK-p38 MAPK/AS160 pathway.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098188

RESUMO

There is currently no consensus regarding the effects of passive smoking exposure on cognitive function in older adults. We evaluated 7000 permanent residents from six regions within Zhejiang Province, China, aged ≥60 years, without cognitive impairment at baseline and during follow-up examinations for two years. The Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was used to assess the participants' cognitive function. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out to calculate the adjusted relative risks (RRs) as measures of the association between passive smoking exposure and cognitive impairment after adjusting for potential confounders. The results showed an association between passive smoking exposure in the living environment and increased risk of cognitive impairment (RR: 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.35). No dose-response relationship between the cumulative dose of passive smoking exposure (days) and cognitive impairment was observed. The results of stratified analyses suggested a harmful effect of passive smoking exposure on cognitive function in non-smokers (RR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06-1.46), but not in smokers (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.71-1.92). Therefore, passive smoking exposure increased the risk of cognitive impairment in older adults, especially non-smokers. More effective measures to restrict smoking in the living environment should be developed and implemented.

19.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051240

RESUMO

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a wide variety of host organisms, including humans. The sporoplasm is the initial stage of microsporidian infection and proliferation, but its morphological and molecular characteristics are poorly understood. In this study, the sporoplasm of Nosema bombycis was successfully isolated and characterized after the induction of spore germination in vitro The sporoplasm was spherical, 3.64 ± 0.41 µm in diameter, had the typical two nuclei, and was nonrefractive. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that the sporoplasm was surrounded by a single membrane, and the cytoplasm was usually filled with relatively homogeneous granules, possibly ribosomes, and contained a vesicular structure comprising a concentric ring and coiled tubules. Propidium iodide staining revealed that the sporoplasm membrane showed stronger membrane permeability than did the cell plasma membrane. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the sporoplasm can gain entry to the host cell by phagocytosis. Transcriptome analysis of mature spores and sporoplasms showed that 541 significantly differentially expressed genes were screened (adjusted P value [P adj] < 0.05), of which 302 genes were upregulated and 239 genes were downregulated in the sporoplasm. The majority of the genes involved in trehalose synthesis metabolism, glycolysis, and the pentose phosphate pathway were downregulated, whereas 10 transporter genes were upregulated, suggesting that the sporoplasm may inhibit its own carbon metabolic activity and obtain the substances required for proliferation through transporter proteins. This study represents the first comprehensive and in-depth investigation of the sporoplasm at the morphological and molecular levels and provides novel insights into the biology of microsporidia and their infection mechanism.IMPORTANCE Once awoken from dormancy, the cellular matter of microsporidia is delivered directly into the host cell cytoplasm through the polar tube. This means that the microsporidia are difficult to study biologically in their active state without a contaminating signal from the host cell. Sporoplasm is a cell type of microsporidia in vitro, but relatively little attention has been paid to the sporoplasm in the past 150 years due to a lack of an effective separation method. Nosema bombycis, the first reported microsporidium, is a type of obligate intracellular parasite that infects silkworms and can be induced to germinate in alkaline solution in vitro We successfully separated the N. bombycis sporoplasm in vitro, and the morphological and structural characteristics were investigated. These results provide important insight into the biology and pathogenesis of microsporidia and potentially provide a possible strategy for genetic manipulation of microsporidia targeting the sporoplasm.

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