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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2404073, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757622

RESUMO

Ferroptosis plays important roles both in normal physiology and multiple human diseases. It is well known that selenoprotein named glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is a crucial regulator for ferroptosis. However, it remains unknown whether other selenoproteins responsible for the regulation of ferroptosis, particularly in gut diseases. In this study, it is observed that Selenoprotein I (Selenoi) prevents ferroptosis by maintaining ether lipids homeostasis. Specific deletion of Selenoi in intestinal epithelial cells induced the occurrence of ferroptosis, leading to impaired intestinal regeneration and compromised colonic tumor growth. Mechanistically, Selenoi deficiency causes a remarkable decrease in ether-linked phosphatidylethanolamine (ePE) and a marked increase in ether-linked phosphatidylcholine (ePC). The imbalance of ePE and ePC results in the upregulation of phospholipase A2, group IIA (Pla2g2a) and group V (Pla2g5), as well as arachidonate-15-lipoxygenase (Alox15), which give rise to excessive lipid peroxidation. Knockdown of PLA2G2A, PLA2G5, or ALOX15 can reverse the ferroptosis phenotypes, suggesting that they are downstream effectors of SELENOI. Strikingly, GPX4 overexpression cannot rescue the ferroptosis phenotypes of SELENOI-knockdown cells, while SELENOI overexpression can partially rescue GPX4-knockdown-induced ferroptosis. It suggests that SELENOI prevents ferroptosis independent of GPX4. Taken together, these findings strongly support the notion that SELENOI functions as a novel suppressor of ferroptosis during colitis and colon tumorigenesis.

2.
Bull Entomol Res ; : 1-12, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751346

RESUMO

The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) are among the top 100 invasive alien species globally, causing significant ecological and economic harm. Therefore, it is crucial to study their potential geographic distribution worldwide. This study aimed to predict their global distribution under current and future climate conditions. We used distribution data from various sources, including CABI, GBIF, and PIAKey, and key climate variables selected from 19 environmental factors to model their potential geographic distribution using MaxEnt. The AUC values were 0.925 and 0.937 for L. humile and W. auropunctata, respectively, indicating good predictive performance. Suitable areas for L. humile were mainly in southern North America, northern South America, Europe, central Asia, southern Oceania, and parts of Africa, while W. auropunctata suitable areas were mostly in southern North America, most of South America, a small part of Europe, southern Asia, central Africa, and some parts of Oceania. Under climate change scenario, suitable areas for L. humile increased, while highly suitable areas for W. auropunctata decreased. The top four countries with the largest areas of overlapping suitable habitat under current climate were Brazil, China, Australia, and Argentina, while under future SSP585 climate scenario, the top four countries were Brazil, China, Indonesia, and Argentina. Some countries, such as Estonia and Finland, will see an overlapping adaptation area under climate change. In conclusion, this study provides insight into controlling the spread and harm of L. humile and W. auropunctata.

3.
Exp Dermatol ; 33(5): e15093, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742821

RESUMO

Senile skin hyperpigmentation displays remarkable histopathological features of dermal aging. The crosstalk between melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts plays crucial roles in aging-related pigmentation. While senescent fibroblasts can upregulate pro-melanogenic factors, the role of anti-melanogenic factors, such as dickkopf1 (DKK1), and the upstream regulatory mechanism during aging remain obscure. This study investigated the roles of yes-associated protein (YAP) and DKK1 in the regulation of dermal fibroblast senescence and melanogenesis. Our findings demonstrated decreased YAP activity and DKK1 levels in intrinsic and extrinsic senescent fibroblasts. YAP depletion induced fibroblast senescence and downregulated the expression and secretion of DKK1, whereas YAP overexpression partially reversed the effect. The transcriptional regulation of DKK1 by YAP was supported by dual-luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, YAP depletion in fibroblasts upregulated Wnt/ß-catenin in melanocytes and stimulated melanogenesis, which was partially rescued by the re-supplementation of DKK1. Conversely, overexpression of YAP in senescent fibroblasts decreased Wnt/ß-catenin levels in melanocytes and inhibited melanogenesis. Additionally, reduced levels of YAP and DKK1 were verified in the dermis of solar lentigines. These findings suggest that, during skin aging, epidermal pigmentation may be influenced by YAP in the dermal microenvironment via the paracrine effect of DKK1.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Senescência Celular , Fibroblastos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Melaninas , Melanócitos , Comunicação Parácrina , Envelhecimento da Pele , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Melaninas/biossíntese , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Derme/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Melanogênese
4.
Adv Mater ; : e2403792, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742953

RESUMO

Seawater electrolysis is a potentially cost-effective approach to green hydrogen production, but it currently faces substantial challenges for its high energy consumption and the interference of chlorine evolution reaction (ClER). Replacing the energy-demanding oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) represents a promising alternative, as the MOR occurs at a significantly low anodic potential, which cannot only reduces the voltage needed for electrolysis but also completely circumvents the ClER. To this end, developing high-performance MOR catalysts is a key. Herein, we report a novel quaternary Pt1.8Pd0.2CuGa/C intermetallic nanoparticles (i-NPs) catalyst, which shows a high mass activity (11.13 A mgPGM -1), a large specific activity (18.13 mA cmPGM -2), and outstanding stability toward alkaline MOR. Advanced in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), online differential mass spectrometry (DEMS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the introduction of atomically distributed Pd in Pt2CuGa intermetallic markedly promotes the oxidation of key reaction intermediates by enriching electron concentration around Pt sites, resulting in weak adsorption of carbon-containing intermediates and favorable adsorption of the synergistic OH- groups near Pd sites. Using Pt1.8Pd0.2CuGa/C i-NPs as anodic catalysts, we demonstrate MOR-assisted seawater electrolysis that continuously operates under 1.23 V for 240 h in simulated seawater and 120 h in natural seawater without notable degradation, showing great potential for energy-saving and cost-competitive hydrogen production from seawater. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1727: 465011, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776604

RESUMO

Chiral enantiomers, especially the enantiomers of chiral drugs often exhibit different pharmacological activity, metabolism and toxicity, thus it is of great research significance to scientifically and reasonably develop single chiral drugs with low toxicity and high efficiency. Among them, high performance liquid chromatographic techniques based on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has become one of the most attractive methods used to evaluate the enantiomeric purity of single-enantiomers compound of pharmacological relevance. In this work, pillar[5]arene functionalized with L- and D-histidine, respectively, were modified on the surface of mesoporous silica as novel chiral stationary phases called L/DHis-BP5-Sil. Notably, L/D-histidine had the characteristics of low steric hindrance and easy derivatization. Although the π-π interaction of imidazole group was weaker than that of benzene ring, the benzene ring bonding imidazole-conjugated ring in the structure produced better enantioseparation effect. The results showed that L/DHis-BP5-Sil can separate a variety of complex structural enantiomers with excellent reproducibility, thermal stability and separation performance. Hence, the unique advantage of the highly selective separation of L/DHis-BP5-Sil provides new insights into the enantioseparation field.

7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 388, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is commonly seen in bipolar disorder (BD). As the key component and early biological index of Mets, insulin resistance (IR) among BD has received more and more attention. However, little is known about the prevalence of IR and its associated factors in drug-naïve patients with (BD), especially among Han Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 125 drug-naïve patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and 85 healthy controls (HC). The Homeostatic Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated, and IR was defined as HOMA-IR greater than the 75th percentile value for health controls (2.35). Clinical characteristics of BD were collected through semi-structural interview performed by a trained interviewer with background of psychiatric education. RESULTS: Among the measured anthropocentric variables including BMI, waist circumference, abdomen circumference, hipline, and hip-waist ratio, waist circumference was found to be the most closely related to IR (0R = 1.070, 95%CI = 1.031-1.110, P < 0.001). Male was another factor that was associated with IR (OR = 2.281, 95%CI = 1.107-4.702, P = 0.025). After adjusted for gender and waist circumference, the risk of IR was significantly higher in bipolar disorder than in healthy controls (OR = 2.66, 95%CI = 1.364-5.214, P = 0.004). No significant association was found between IR and any of the observed physical and mental comorbidities, any characteristic of illness course including age onset, number of mixed episodes, types of current state, duration of current episode, duration of illness course, rapid cycling, number of mood episodes, and subgroup of BD. Hypersomnia was the only symptomatic feature that was significantly associated with IR (OR = 0.316, 95%CI = 0.124-0.803, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Bipolar disorder increases two-to-three-fold risk of IR, both circumference and male are the risk factors of IR but hypersomnia act as a protective factor.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Resistência à Insulina , Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , China/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Povo Asiático , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , Circunferência da Cintura , Estudos de Casos e Controles , População do Leste Asiático
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11704, 2024 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778121

RESUMO

Chemotherapeutic agents can inhibit the proliferation of malignant cells due to their cytotoxicity, which is limited by collateral damage. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), has a selective anti-cancer effect, whose target and mechanism remain uncovered. The present work aims to examine the selective inhibitory effect of DHA as well as the mechanisms involved. The findings revealed that the Lewis cell line (LLC) and A549 cell line (A549) had an extremely rapid proliferation rate compared with the 16HBE cell line (16HBE). LLC and A549 showed an increased expression of NRAS compared with 16HBE. Interestingly, DHA was found to inhibit the proliferation and facilitate the apoptosis of LLC and A549 with significant anti-cancer efficacy and down-regulation of NRAS. Results from molecular docking and cellular thermal shift assay revealed that DHA could bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) molecules, attenuating the EGF binding and thus driving the suppressive effect. LLC and A549 also exhibited obvious DNA damage in response to DHA. Further results demonstrated that over-expression of NRAS abated DHA-induced blockage of NRAS. Moreover, not only the DNA damage was impaired, but the proliferation of lung cancer cells was also revitalized while NRAS was over-expression. Taken together, DHA could induce selective anti-lung cancer efficacy through binding to EGFR and thereby abolishing the NRAS signaling pathway, thus leading to DNA damage, which provides a novel theoretical basis for phytomedicine molecular therapy of malignant tumors.


Assuntos
Artemisininas , Proliferação de Células , Dano ao DNA , Receptores ErbB , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Proteínas de Membrana , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Células A549 , Camundongos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ligação Proteica
9.
Eye (Lond) ; 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740961

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To further explore the influence of genotype, including mutation type and structural domain, on the severity of macular atrophy, we measured the central retinal thickness (CRT) in patients with ABCA4-related retinopathy. METHODS: A total of 66 patients were included in the cohort. This was a retrospective investigation. The patients were tested using whole exon sequencing and ophthalmic exams, including slip lamp exams, best-corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography, fundus photo, and fundus autofluorescence. RESULTS: In this study, we discovered that mutations on nucleotide binding domains (NBD) lead to less CRT (45.00 ± 25.25µm, 95% CI: 31.54-58.46) had significantly less CRT than the others (89.75 ± 71.17µm, 95% CI: 30.25-149.25, p = 0.032), and could accelerate the rate of CRT decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new perspectives in the understanding of ABCA4-related retinopathy.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733002

RESUMO

In order to efficiently identify early tea diseases, an improved YOLOv8 lesion detection method is proposed to address the challenges posed by the complex background of tea diseases, difficulty in detecting small lesions, and low recognition rate of similar phenotypic symptoms. This method focuses on detecting tea leaf blight, tea white spot, tea sooty leaf disease, and tea ring spot as the research objects. This paper presents an enhancement to the YOLOv8 network framework by introducing the Receptive Field Concentration-Based Attention Module (RFCBAM) into the backbone network to replace C2f, thereby improving feature extraction capabilities. Additionally, a mixed pooling module (Mixed Pooling SPPF, MixSPPF) is proposed to enhance information blending between features at different levels. In the neck network, the RepGFPN module replaces the C2f module to further enhance feature extraction. The Dynamic Head module is embedded in the detection head part, applying multiple attention mechanisms to improve multi-scale spatial location and multi-task perception capabilities. The inner-IoU loss function is used to replace the original CIoU, improving learning ability for small lesion samples. Furthermore, the AKConv block replaces the traditional convolution Conv block to allow for the arbitrary sampling of targets of various sizes, reducing model parameters and enhancing disease detection. the experimental results using a self-built dataset demonstrate that the enhanced YOLOv8-RMDA exhibits superior detection capabilities in detecting small target disease areas, achieving an average accuracy of 93.04% in identifying early tea lesions. When compared to Faster R-CNN, MobileNetV2, and SSD, the average precision rates of YOLOv5, YOLOv7, and YOLOv8 have shown improvements of 20.41%, 17.92%, 12.18%, 12.18%, 10.85%, 7.32%, and 5.97%, respectively. Additionally, the recall rate (R) has increased by 15.25% compared to the lowest-performing Faster R-CNN model and by 8.15% compared to the top-performing YOLOv8 model. With an FPS of 132, YOLOv8-RMDA meets the requirements for real-time detection, enabling the swift and accurate identification of early tea diseases. This advancement presents a valuable approach for enhancing the ecological tea industry in Yunnan, ensuring its healthy development.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Doenças das Plantas , Chá , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Algoritmos , Camellia sinensis , Folhas de Planta/química
11.
Hepatology ; 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are precursors of cancer metastasis. However, how CTCs evade immunosurveillance during hematogenous dissemination remains unclear. APPROACH RESULTS: We identified CTC-platelet adhesions by single-cell RNA sequencing and multiplex immunofluorescence of blood samples from multiple cancer types. Clinically, CTC-platelet aggregates were associated with significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays demonstrated direct platelet adhesions gifted cancer cells with an evasive ability from natural killer (NK) cell killing by upregulating inhibitory checkpoint CD155, therefore facilitating distant metastasis. Mechanistically, CD155 was transcriptionally regulated by the FAK/JNK/c-Jun cascade in a platelet contact-dependent manner. Further competition assays and cytotoxicity experiments revealed that CD155 on CTCs inhibited NK cell cytotoxicity only by engaging with immune receptor TIGIT, but not CD96 and DNAM1, another two receptors for CD155. Interrupting the CD155-TIGIT interactions with a TIGIT antibody restored NK cell immunosurveillance on CTCs and markedly attenuated tumor metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated CTC evasion from NK cell-mediated innate immunosurveillance mainly via immune checkpoint CD155-TIGIT, potentially offering an immunotherapeutic strategy for eradicating CTCs.

12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 22(20): 4153-4156, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715475

RESUMO

An efficient and scalable method for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones through benzylic oxidation of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives using a catalytic amount of cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) and a stoichiometric amount of NaBrO3 as oxidants was developed. The reaction is significantly influenced by the substituent groups on the phenyl ring. While electron-withdrawing groups on the phenyl ring can lower the reactivities of the substrates, electron-donating groups on the phenyl ring can dramatically promote the oxidation rate.

13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1870(6): 167234, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750769

RESUMO

The 5-year survival for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains <20 %, primarily due to the early symptoms of lung cancer are inconspicuous. Prompt identification and medical intervention could serve as effective strategies for mitigating the death rate. We therefore set out to identify biomarkers to help diagnose NSCLC. CircRNA microarray and qRT-PCR reveal that sputum circ_0006949 is a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis and therapy of NSCLC, which can enhance the proliferation and clone formation, regulate the cell cycle, and accelerate the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Circ_0006949 and miR-4673 are predominantly co-localized in the cytoplasm of NSCLC cell lines and tissues; it upregulates GLUL by adsorption of miR-4673 through competing endogenous RNAs mechanism. The circ_0006949/miR-4673/GLUL axis exerts pro-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Circ_0006949 can boost GLUL catalytic activity, and they are highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and correlate with poor prognosis. In summary, circ_0006949 is a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis and therapy of NSCLC. This novel sputum circRNA is statistically more predictive than conventional serum markers for NSCLC diagnosis. Non-invasive detection of patients with early-stage NSCLC using sputum has shown good potential for routine diagnosis and possible screening.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening with anti-Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) serology and endoscopy decreased nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mortality in Guangdong in a randomized trial. We conducted a secondary analysis of this trial using local incidence and cost data to optimize screening programs, hypothesizing that screening could be cost-effective in southern China. METHODS: Screening costs and life-years after NPC diagnosis were obtained from the Guangdong trial's intent-to-screen population (men and women age 30-69). Seropositive subjects were rescreened annually for five years. Thereafter, we evaluated 12 screening strategies in Guangdong and Guangxi using a validated model. Strategies used combinations of serology, nasopharyngeal swab PCR (NP PCR), endoscopy, and MRI from trial sub-cohorts. Incidence data and costs were obtained from local cancer registries and the provincial healthcare system. RESULTS: In the intent-to-screen population, screening with serology and endoscopy was cost-effective (¥42,366/life-year, 0.52 GDP per-capita). Screening for 5-15 years between ages 35-59 met a willingness-to-pay threshold of 1.5 GDP/QALY in all modeled populations. Despite doubling costs, adding MRI could be cost-effective via improved sensitivity. NP PCR triage reduced endoscopy/MRI referrals by 37%. One lifetime screen could reduce NPC mortality by pproximately 20%. CONCLUSIONS: EBV-based serologic screening for NPC is likely to be cost-effective in southern China. Among seropositive subjects, the preferred strategies use endoscopy alone or selective endoscopy triaged by MRI with or without NP PCR. These data may aid the design of screening programs in this region. IMPACT: These findings support population-based screening in southern China by defining the target population, cost effectiveness, and optimized screening approach.

15.
Orthop Surg ; 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The micro-nano structure of 3D-printed porous titanium (Ti) alloy with excellent performance in avoiding stress shielding and promoting bone tissue differentiation provides a new opportunity for the development of bone implants, but it necessitates higher requirements for bone tissue differentiation and the antibacterial properties of bone implants in clinical practice. METHODS: This study investigated the preparation, antimicrobial properties, and osteogenesis-promoting ability of the 3D printed porous Ti alloy anodic oxidized Ag-carrying (Ag@3D-TiO2) scaffolds. The 3D printed porous Ti alloy (3D-Ti), anodized 3D printed porous Ti alloy (3D-TiO2), and Ag@3D-TiO2 scaffolds were synthesized using electron beam melting. The antimicrobial properties of the scaffolds were examined using antibacterial tests and their cytocompatibility was assessed using a cell proliferation assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining. In vitro cellular assays were used to investigate the effects of the scaffold microstructural features on cell activity, proliferation, and osteogenesis-related genes and proteins. In vivo animal experiments were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and osteogenesis-promoting abilities of the scaffolds. RESULTS: The Ag@3D-TiO2 scaffolds exhibited sustained anti-microbial activity over time, enhanced cell proliferation, facilitated osteogenic differentiation, and increased extracellular matrix mineralization. In addition, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type I (COL-I), and osteocalcin (OCN)-related genes and proteins were upregulated. In vivo animal implantation experiments, the anti-inflammatory effect of the Ag@3D-TiO2 scaffolds were observed using histology, and a large amount of fibrous connective tissue was present around it; the Ag@3D-TiO2 scaffolds were more bio-compatible with the surrounding tissues compared with 3D-Ti and 3D-TiO2; a large amount of uniformly distributed neoplastic bone tissue existed in their pores, and the chronic systemic toxicity test showed that the 3D-Ti, 3D-TiO2, and Ag@3D-TiO2 scaffolds are biologically safe. CONCLUSION: The goal of this study was to create a scaffold that exhibits antimicrobial properties and can aid bone growth, making it highly suitable for use in bone tissue engineering.

16.
Phytother Res ; 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761036

RESUMO

Enhancement of malignant cell immunogenicity to relieve immunosuppression of lung cancer microenvironment is essential in lung cancer treatment. In previous study, we have demonstrated that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a kind of phytopharmaceutical, is effective in inhibiting lung cancer cells and boosting their immunogenicity, while the initial target of DHA's intracellular action is poorly understood. The present in-depth analysis aims to reveal the influence of DHA on the highly expressed TOM70 in the mitochondrial membrane of lung cancer. The affinity of DHA and TOM70 was analyzed by microscale thermophoresis (MST), pronase stability, and thermal stability. The functions and underlying mechanism were investigated using western blots, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and rescue experiments. TOM70 inhibition resulted in mtDNA damage and translocation to the cytoplasm from mitochondria due to the disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis. Further ex and in vivo findings also showed that the cGAS/STING/NLRP3 signaling pathway was activated by mtDNA and thereby malignant cells underwent pyroptosis, leading to enhanced immunogenicity of lung cancer cells in the presence of DHA. Nevertheless, DHA-induced mtDNA translocation and cGAS/STING/NLRP3 mobilization were synchronously attenuated when TOM70 was replenished. Finally, DHA was demonstrated to possess potent anti-lung cancer efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data confirm that TOM70 is an important target for DHA to disturb mitochondria homeostasis, which further activates STING and arouses pyroptosis to strengthen immunogenicity against lung cancer thereupon. The present study provides vital clues for phytomedicine-mediated anti-tumor therapy.

17.
Nat Aging ; 4(5): 727-744, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622407

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle aging is a key contributor to age-related frailty and sarcopenia with substantial implications for global health. Here we profiled 90,902 single cells and 92,259 single nuclei from 17 donors to map the aging process in the adult human intercostal muscle, identifying cellular changes in each muscle compartment. We found that distinct subsets of muscle stem cells exhibit decreased ribosome biogenesis genes and increased CCL2 expression, causing different aging phenotypes. Our atlas also highlights an expansion of nuclei associated with the neuromuscular junction, which may reflect re-innervation, and outlines how the loss of fast-twitch myofibers is mitigated through regeneration and upregulation of fast-type markers in slow-twitch myofibers with age. Furthermore, we document the function of aging muscle microenvironment in immune cell attraction. Overall, we present a comprehensive human skeletal muscle aging resource ( https://www.muscleageingcellatlas.org/ ) together with an in-house mouse muscle atlas to study common features of muscle aging across species.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Músculo Esquelético , Humanos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Adulto , Idoso , Sarcopenia/patologia , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Masculino , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(40): 5274-5277, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591991

RESUMO

An efficient electrochemical dual C(sp3)-H amination was developed under metal-free and chemical oxidant-free conditions. A series of imidazo[1,5-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-ones and 5-oxo-4,5-dihydroimidazo[1,5-a]quinazoline-3-carbonitriles can be obtained in high yields and the product distribution can be modulated by virtue of this method. The reaction mechanism was investigated and the corresponding intermediates were studied. The reaction features a broad substrate scope, regulation of the product distribution, mild conditions and scalable preparation.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 277: 116372, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669875

RESUMO

Environmental pollution, including air pollution, plastic contamination, and heavy metal exposure, is a pressing global issue. This crisis contributes significantly to pollution-related diseases and is a critical risk factor for chronic health conditions, including cancer. Mounting evidence underscores the pivotal role of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) as a crucial regulatory mechanism in pathological processes and cancer progression. Governed by m6A writers, erasers, and readers, m6A orchestrates alterations in target gene expression, consequently playing a vital role in a spectrum of RNA processes, covering mRNA processing, translation, degradation, splicing, nuclear export, and folding. Thus, there is a growing need to pinpoint specific m6A-regulated targets in environmental pollutant-induced carcinogenesis, an emerging area of research in cancer prevention. This review consolidates the understanding of m6A modification in environmental pollutant-induced tumorigenesis, explicitly examining its implications in lung, skin, and bladder cancer. We also investigate the biological mechanisms that underlie carcinogenesis originating from pollution. Specific m6A methylation pathways, such as the HIF1A/METTL3/IGF2BP3/BIRC5 network, METTL3/YTHDF1-mediated m6A modification of IL 24, METTL3/YTHDF2 dynamically catalyzed m6A modification of AKT1, METTL3-mediated m6A-modified oxidative stress, METTL16-mediated m6A modification, site-specific ATG13 methylation-mediated autophagy, and the role of m6A in up-regulating ribosome biogenesis, all come into play in this intricate process. Furthermore, we discuss the direction regarding the interplay between pollutants and RNA metabolism, particularly in immune response, providing new information on RNA modifications for future exploration.


Assuntos
Adenosina , Carcinogênese , Poluentes Ambientais , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Carcinogênese/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Metilação , Animais , RNA/genética , Metilação de RNA
20.
Cell Stem Cell ; 31(5): 694-716.e11, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631356

RESUMO

Understanding cellular coordination remains a challenge despite knowledge of individual pathways. The RNA exosome, targeting a wide range of RNA substrates, is often downregulated in cellular senescence. Utilizing an auxin-inducible system, we observed that RNA exosome depletion in embryonic stem cells significantly affects the transcriptome and proteome, causing pluripotency loss and pre-senescence onset. Mechanistically, exosome depletion triggers acute nuclear RNA aggregation, disrupting nuclear RNA-protein equilibrium. This disturbance limits nuclear protein availability and hinders polymerase initiation and engagement, reducing gene transcription. Concurrently, it promptly disrupts nucleolar transcription, ribosomal processes, and nuclear exporting, resulting in a translational shutdown. Prolonged exosome depletion induces nuclear structural changes resembling senescent cells, including aberrant chromatin compaction, chromocenter disassembly, and intensified heterochromatic foci. These effects suggest that the dynamic turnover of nuclear RNA orchestrates crosstalk between essential processes to optimize cellular function. Disruptions in nuclear RNA homeostasis result in systemic functional decline, altering the cell state and promoting senescence.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Homeostase , RNA Nuclear , Animais , RNA Nuclear/metabolismo , Camundongos , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Humanos
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