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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 268, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Turning the TAMs against their host tumor cells is an intriguing therapeutic strategy particularly attractive for patients with immunologically "cold" tumors. This concept was mechanistically demonstrated on in vitro human and murine lung cancer cells and their corresponding TAM models through combinatorial use of nanodiamond-doxorubicin conjugates (Nano-DOX) and a PD-L1 blocking agent BMS-1. Nano-DOX are an agent previously proved to be able to stimulate tumor cells' immunogenicity and thereby reactivate the TAMs into the anti-tumor M1 phenotype. RESULTS: Nano-DOX were first shown to stimulate the tumor cells and the TAMs to release the cytokine HMGB1 which, regardless of its source, acted through the RAGE/NF-κB pathway to induce PD-L1 in the tumor cells and PD-L1/PD-1 in the TAMs. Interestingly, Nano-DOX also induced NF-κB-dependent RAGE expression in the tumor cells and thus reinforced HMGB1's action thereon. Then, BMS-1 was shown to enhance Nano-DOX-stimulated M1-type activation of TAMs both by blocking Nano-DOX-induced PD-L1 in the TAMs and by blocking tumor cell PD-L1 ligation with TAM PD-1. The TAMs with enhanced M1-type repolarization both killed the tumor cells and suppressed their growth. BMS-1 could also potentiate Nano-DOX's action to suppress tumor cell growth via blocking of Nano-DOX-induced PD-L1 therein. Finally, Nano-DOX and BMS-1 achieved synergistic therapeutic efficacy against in vivo tumor grafts in a TAM-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1/PD-1 upregulation mediated by autocrine and paracrine activation of the HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB signaling is a key response of lung cancer cells and their TAMs to stress, which can be induced by Nano-DOX. Blockade of Nano-DOX-induced PD-L1, both in the cancer cells and the TAMs, achieves enhanced activation of TAM-mediated anti-tumor response.

2.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105865, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474102

RESUMO

Histone methylation is a vital post-translational modification process in epigenetic regulation. The perturbation of histone methylation accounts for many diseases, including malignant cancers. Although achieving significant advances over past decades, orthosteric inhibitors targeting histone methyltransferases still suffer from challenges on subtype selectivity and acquired drug-resistant mutations. As an alternative, new compounds targeting the evolutionarily less conserved allosteric sites, exemplified by HKMTs and PRMTs inhibitors, offer a promising strategy to address this quandary. Herein, we highlight the allosteric sites and mechanisms in histone methyltransferases along with representative allosteric modulators, expecting to facilitate the discovery of allosteric modulators in favor of epigenetic therapy.

3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 108: 188-200, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465432

RESUMO

Environment-friendly nano-catalysts capable of activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) have received increasing attention recently. Nevertheless, traditional nano-catalysts are generally well dispersed and difficult to be separated from reaction system, so it is particularly important to develop nano-catalysts with both good catalytic activity and excellent recycling efficiency. In this work, magnetically recoverable Fe3O4-modified ternary CoFeCu-layered double hydroxides (Fe3O4/CoFeCu-LDHs) was prepared by a simple co-precipitation method and initially applied to activate PMS for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize morphology, structure, specific surface area and magnetism. In addition, the effects of several key parameters were evaluated. The Fe3O4/CoFeCu-LDHs exhibited high catalytic activity, and RhB degradation efficiency could reach 100% within 20 min by adding 0.2 g/L of catalyst and 1 mmol/L of PMS into 50 mg/L of RhB solution under a wide pH condition (3.0-7.0). Notably, the Fe3O4/CoFeCu-LDHs showed good super-paramagnetism and excellent stability, which could be effectively and quickly recovered under magnetic condition, and the degradation efficiency after ten cycles could still maintain 98.95%. Both radicals quenching tests and electron spin resonance (ESR) identified both HO• and SO4•- were involved and SO4•- played a dominant role on the RhB degradation. Finally, the chemical states of the sample's surface elements were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the possible activation mechanism in Fe3O4/CoFeCu-LDHs/PMS system was proposed according to comprehensive analysis.


Assuntos
Hidróxidos , Peróxidos , Rodaminas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Annu Rev Genet ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530641

RESUMO

CRISPR-based genome editing holds promise for genome engineering and other applications in diverse organisms. Defining and improving the genome-wide and transcriptome-wide specificities of these editing tools are essential for realizing their full potential in basic research and biomedical therapeutics. This review provides an overview of CRISPR-based DNA- and RNA-editing technologies, methods to quantify their specificities, and key solutions to reduce off-target effects for research and improve therapeutic applications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genetics, Volume 55 is November 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

5.
Se Pu ; 39(10): 1065-1076, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505428

RESUMO

The miniaturization of liquid chromatography equipment is among the most important focus areas in chromatographic technology. It involves the miniaturization of the physical dimensions of the instrument, size of the separation material, and inner diameter of the column. The advantages of a reduced inner diameter of the column have been investigated for several decades, and can be summarized as follows. First, the sample consumption is lower, which is particularly beneficial when a limited amount of sample is available, as is the case with natural products, and in biochemistry and biomedicine. Second, the consumption of the mobile phase is reduced, making the process environmentally friendly and facilitating green chemistry. This allows the addition of more expensive solvent additives, such as chiral additives or isotopic reagents, while maintaining a low analysis cost. Moreover, the degree of band dilution in the column is lower than that with conventional liquid chromatography under the same sample injection conditions. Thus, enhanced mass sensitivity is achieved. Other benefits of a reduced inner diameter of the column include temperature control due to effective heat transfer through the columns and easier coupling to mass detectors, which is particularly advantageous for analyzing complex samples. Typically, the term “nano liquid chromatography” is associated with liquid chromatography, which employs capillary columns of inner diameters less than 100 μm and flow rates in the range of tens to hundreds of nanoliters per minute. Because of the extremely low flow rates and small column volume, the extra-column effect becomes more prominent. Thus, the requirements for every component of liquid chromatographs are augmented toward improving their performance and optimizing the extra-column band broadening of the entire system. The solvent delivery equipment should be able to pump mobile phases accurately and steadily at nanoliter-level flow rates. A gradient mode is required to achieve this, which implies that the lowest flow rate for a single pump unit should reach a few nanoliters per minute. A certain operating pressure is also necessary to employ columns with different inner diameters and particle sizes. A precise and repeatable sample injection procedure is essential for nano liquid chromatography. The injection volume and mode should be suitable for capillary columns, without inducing a significant extra-column effect. A higher-sensitivity detector should be employed, and sample dispersion should be limited. The improved tubing and connection method in nano liquid chromatography should offer stability, reliability, and ease of operation. The extra-column volume should also be restricted to suit nanoliter-level flow rates. Considering that most nano liquid chromatographic instruments have been coupled with a mass detector, this review mainly focused on nanoliter solvent delivery modules, sample injection modules, and tubing and connection modules. By searching and summarizing research articles, technical patents, and brochures of instrument manufacturers, technical routes and research progress on these modules were described in detail. The pump designs can be classified into four types. Pneumatic amplifying pumps have been used in ultra-high-pressure applications. The flow-splitting delivery system, though easy to realize, may lead to a large amount of solvent wastage. Splitless pumps, which are classified based on two main principles, are widely used. Some pumps based on other physical phenomena have been suggested; however, they lacked stability and robustness. Two types of injection modes have been utilized in nano liquid chromatography. The direct nanoliter injection mode typically takes advantage of the groove on the rotor of a switching valve. The trapping injection mode uses trap columns to enable the introduction of large sample volumes. As for the tubing and connection, a few appropriate designs can be acquired from commercial suppliers. The robustness has been improved using some patented technologies. The optimization principles and research progress on optical absorption detection are briefly introduced. Finally, commercial nano liquid chromatographic systems are compared by considering the pumps and injectors.


Assuntos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Tamanho da Partícula , Solventes
6.
Chem Res Chin Univ ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511841

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO) has emerged as a viable treatment in severe cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute respiratory failure, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. However, thromboembolic events stemming from the use of ECMO devices results in significant morbidity and mortality rates; the inner surface of the ECMO tubing comes into contact with the blood and can readily initiate coagulation. In addition, the tubing needs to be continually replaced due to thromboses on the inner tube wall, which not only increases the risk of infection but also the economic burden. Despite considerable effort, a surface modification strategy that effectively addresses these challenges has not yet been realized. In this study, we developed an integrated hollow core-shell-shell hydrogel tube of gelatin/alginate/acrylamide-bacterial nanocellulose(GAA) that meets the anticoagulant requirements for the inner tubing layer as well as the highly elastic soft material needed for the outer layer. Using static blood from healthy volunteers, we confirmed that the platelets or coagulation is not stimulated by the GAA tubing. Importantly, experiments with dynamic blood also demonstrated that the inner layer of the tubing does not elicit blood clotting. The one-pot-synthesized process may provide guidance for the design of anticoagulation tubes used clinically. Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s40242-021-1267-3.

7.
J Phys Chem B ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517704

RESUMO

A lightweight composite with outstanding damping effects and impact resistance is significant for the design of functional structures in advanced equipment, such as aircraft and space vehicles. In this paper, the mechanical properties of solution-blended graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)/polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) nanocomposites were characterized by both experimental and numerical methods. It can be found that the layer number and packing configuration of graphene layers are critical to the efficiency of energy dissipation in the composite, while a pack of six- layer graphene and the perpendicular arrangement to the shockwave direction provide the most outstanding energy dissipation ability. The reflection of shockwave caused by graphene reinforcements in the nanocomposite was found to be the dominating reason for the enhanced energy dissipation effect. Physical mechanisms of energy dissipation are investigated by a molecular modeling method to provide insights into the cross-scale design of graphene-reinforced nanocomposites as structural materials.

8.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 47: 116396, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534734

RESUMO

In order to explore novel TRK and ALK dual inhibitors, a series of 2-phenylamino-4-prolylpyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity and enzymatic activities. Delightfully, most compounds were detected moderated to excellent activities in cellular assay. Among them, compound 21 exhibited encouraging cytotoxicity on KM12, H2228 and KARPAS299 cells with IC50 values of 0.86, 0.141 and 0.072 µM. Meanwhile, the performances of 21 in the enzymatic assays were in good accordance with anti-proliferative activity with IC50 values of 2.2, 9.3 and 38 nM towards TRKA, ALKWT and ALKL1196M, respectively. Compared with Entrectinib, compound 21 not only ensured the inhibitory activity on TRKA, but also improved the affinity with ALK and ALKL1196M to a certain extent. Ultimately, the binding model of 21 with TRKA and ALK were ideally established through molecular docking, which further confirmed the SARs analysis.

9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0147921, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495683

RESUMO

Wolbachia endosymbionts can induce multiple reproductive manipulations in their hosts, with cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) being one of the most common manipulations. The important agricultural pests, white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), are usually infected with CI-inducing Wolbachia wFur and non-CI-inducing Wolbachia wLug, respectively. The biological effects of these infections when present in a host cell are unknown. Here, we introduced the two Wolbachia strains into an Aedes albopictus cell line to stably establish a wFur-infected cell line (WFI) and a wLug-infected cell line (WLI). In a mixed culture, WFI cells were completely replaced by WLI cells, pointing to a stronger competitiveness of the WLI cell line. We found that infection by both Wolbachia strains reduced cell growth rates, but WLI had a faster cell growth rate than WFI, and this difference in cell growth rate combined with possible Wolbachia differences in diffusivity may have affected cell competitiveness. By examining gene expression and metabolites in the two lines, we found that some genes and key metabolites responded to differences in cell competitiveness. These results point to potential mechanisms that could contribute to the relative performance of hosts infected by these strains and also highlight the substantial impact of a non-CI Wolbachia on metabolism, which may in turn influence fitness of its native host. IMPORTANCE Wolbachia transinfection in insects can be used to suppress pests and block virus transmission. We stably introduced two Wolbachia strains from rice planthoppers into cell lines of an important arbovirus mosquito vector, Aedes albopictus. The competitiveness of host cells from the lines infected by the two Wolbachia strains was different, as were metabolic responses of the cell lines. These results suggest potential metabolic effects of Wolbachia on native hosts which could be exploited when they are transinfected into novel hosts for pest control.

10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 831-839, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530327

RESUMO

Thioredoxin-like protein CDSP32 (Trx CDSP32), a thioredoxin-like (Trx-like) protein located in the chloroplast, can regulate photosynthesis and the redox state of plants under stress. In order to examine the role of Trx CDSP32 in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants exposed to cadmium (Cd), the effects of Trx CDSP32 on photosynthetic function and photoprotection in tobacco leaves under Cd exposure were studied using a proteomics approach with wild-type (WT) and Trx CDSP32 overexpression (OE) tobacco plants. Cd exposure reduced stomatal conductance, blocked PSII photosynthetic electron transport, and inhibited carbon assimilation. Increased water use efficiency (WUE), cyclic electron flow (CEF) of the proton gradient regulation 5 pathway (PGR5-CEF), and regulated energy dissipation [Y(NPQ)] are important mechanisms of Cd adaptation. However, CEF of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase pathway (NDH-CEF) was inhibited by Cd exposure. Relative to control conditions, the expression levels of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and photosystem II 22 kDa protein (PsbS) in OE leaves were significantly increased under Cd exposure, but those in WT leaves did not change significantly. Moreover, the expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZE) under Cd exposure was significantly higher than that in WT leaves. Thus, Trx CDSP32 increased Y(NPQ) and alleviated PSII photoinhibition under Cd exposure. Trx CDSP32 not only increased PGR5-like protein 1A and 1B expression, but also alleviated the down-regulation of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase subunits induced by Cd exposure. Thus, Trx CDSP32 promotes CEF in Cd-exposed tobacco leaves. Thus, Trx CDSP32 alleviates the Cd-induced photoinhibition in tobacco leaves by regulating two photoprotective mechanisms: CEF and xanthophyll cycle-dependent energy dissipation.

11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(32): 5404-5423, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier breakdown, a frequent complication of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) including dysfunction and the structure changes of the intestine, is characterized by a loss of tight junction and enhanced permeability of the intestinal barrier and increased mortality. To develop effective and novel therapeutics is important for the improvement of outcome of patients with intestinal barrier deterioration. Recombinant human angiopoietin-like protein 4 (rhANGPTL4) is reported to protect the blood-brain barrier when administered exogenously, and endogenous ANGPTL4 deficiency deteriorates radiation-induced intestinal injury. AIM: To identify whether rhANGPTL4 may protect intestinal barrier breakdown induced by I/R. METHODS: Intestinal I/R injury was elicited through clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 60 min followed by 240 min reperfusion. Intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were challenged by hypoxia/ reoxygenation to mimic I/R in vitro. RESULTS: Indicators including fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran (4 kilodaltons; FD-4) clearance, ratio of phosphorylated myosin light chain/total myosin light chain, myosin light chain kinase and loss of zonula occludens-1, claudin-2 and VE-cadherin were significantly increased after intestinal I/R or cell hypoxia/reoxygenation. rhANGPTL4 treatment significantly reversed these indicators, which were associated with inhibiting the inflammatory and oxidative cascade, excessive activation of cellular autophagy and apoptosis and improvement of survival rate. Similar results were observed in vitro when cells were challenged by hypoxia/reoxygenation, whereas rhANGPTL4 reversed the indicators close to normal level in Caco-2 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly. CONCLUSION: rhANGPTL4 can function as a protective agent against intestinal injury induced by intestinal I/R and improve survival via maintenance of intestinal barrier structure and functions.


Assuntos
Intestinos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina , Células CACO-2 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Isquemia , Reperfusão , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle
12.
Plant J ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547154

RESUMO

Carotenoids are important natural pigments that give bright colors to plants. The difference in the accumulation of carotenoids is one of the key factors in the formation of various colors in carrot taproots. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), including CCD and nine-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), are the main enzymes involved in the cleavage of carotenoids in plants. Seven CCD genes have been annotated from the carrot genome. In this study, through expression analysis, we found that the expression level of DcCCD4 was significantly higher in the taproot of white carrot (low carotenoid content) than orange carrot (high carotenoid content). The overexpression of DcCCD4 in orange carrots caused the taproot color to be pale yellow, and the contents of α-carotene and ß-carotene decreased sharply. Mutant carrot with loss of DcCCD4 function exhibited yellow color (the taproot of the control carrot was white). The accumulation of ß-carotene was also detected in taproot. Functional analysis of the DcCCD4 enzyme in vitro showed that it was able to cleave α-carotene and ß-carotene at the 9, 10 (9', 10') double bonds. In addition, the number of colored chromoplasts in the taproot cells of transgenic carrots overexpressing DcCCD4 was significantly reduced compared with that in normal orange carrots. Results demonstrated that DcCCD4 affects the accumulation of carotenoids through cleavage of α-carotene and ß-carotene in carrot taproot.

13.
J Food Sci ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549442

RESUMO

Here, we examined the phytochemical profiles, antioxidant activity (AA), and antiproliferative activity (APA) of four Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) pulp extracts. They were found to be rich in total phenolics content (TPC; 186.45 ± 5.42 to 498.94 ± 8.25 mg of gallic acid equiv./100 g FW) and total flavonoids content (TFC; 126.28 ± 4.18 to 194.35 ± 12.03 mg of catechin equiv./100 g FW). For all varieties, the free flavonoid/phenolic/anthocyanin contents were higher than that the bound fractions. Wild pink bayberry (WPB) displayed the highest values of TPC and TFC, and also showed the highest total antioxidant activity (TAA) as revealed by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) (451.47 ± 8.01 µmol Vit. C equiv./100 g FW), and free cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) (184.99 ± 6.11 µmol quercetin equiv./100 g FW, no PBS wash; 117.78 ± 2.34 µmol quercetin equiv./100 g FW, PBS wash) assays. Bayberry extracts had a marked reduction in the APA of HepG2 cells, and WPB exhibited the lowest EC50 (8.50 ± 0.83 mg/ml) value, which was probably associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit is rich in natural phenolic compounds, which might be a functional ingredient in food and nutraceutical products. Our findings would provide a logical strategy to promote the comprehensive utilization of phenolics in bayberry fruit with both health and economy benefits.

14.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110543, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399520

RESUMO

Pickles are a type of traditional fermented food in Northeast China that exhibit a broad variety of preparations, flavors and microbial components. Despite their widespread consumption, the core microorganisms in various traditional pickles and the precise impact of ecological variables on the microbiota remains obscure. The present study aims to unravel the microbial diversity in different pickle types collected from household (12 samples) and industrial (10 samples) sources. Among these 22 samples tested, differences were observed in total acid, amino acid nitrogen, nitrite, and salt content. Firmicutes and Ascomycota emerged as the predominant microbial phyla as observed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Amongst these, the commonly encountered microorganisms were Lactobacillus, Weissella and yeast. Comparative analysis based on non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), showed that the microbial community in the pickles was affected by external conditions such as major ingredients and manufacturing process. Correlation analysis further showed that the resident core microorganisms in pickles could adapt to the changing internal fermentation environment. The insights gained from this study further our understanding of traditional fermented foods and can be used to guide the isolation of excellent fermented strains.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Microbiota , China , Fermentação , Fungos
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(34): 13483-13488, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427439

RESUMO

BN/CC isosterism can give rise to attractive molecules with unique physical or chemical properties. We report here the synthesis, characterization, and reactivities of the boraiminolithium species 2, a room-temperature-stable crystalline solid accessible through a facile dehydrohalogenation/deprotonation reaction. This species, bearing a polarized B≡N triple bond and an anionic N center, is the first example of a BN analogue to the well-known alkynyllithium molecules (lithium acetylides). It has demonstrated a remarkable ability for iminoborane-transfer reactions, which allows for the isolation of a series of unprecedented N-functionalized iminoboranes as well as novel main-group heterocycles. Stable boraiminolithium reagents may become powerful tools in the exploration of new BN-containing building blocks for synthetic chemistry and materials science.

16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112603, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371457

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) are organic pollutants of concern owing to their toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. Biodegradation is considered the most economical and efficient process to remediate Nap and Phe. The riparian zone between a river and a riparian aquifer, which is rich in indigenous microorganisms, may be important for PAH remediation. However, few studies have evaluated the ability of indigenous microorganisms to remove Nap and Phe. In this study, focusing on the typical PAHs (Nap and Phe) as target pollutants, the genus-level community structure of Nap- and Phe-degrading bacteria was identified. Batch static and dynamic biodegradation experiments were conducted to explore the biodegradation mechanisms of Nap and Phe in the riparian zone and identify the factors influencing Nap and Phe biodegradation in the binary system (i.e., where Nap and Phe are simultaneously present). According to the genus-level community structure test results, the dominant bacterial genus in the binary system was mainly the Phe-degrading bacteria. The Nap and Phe-biodegradation percentages were 19.20% lower and 19.49% higher, respectively, in the binary system than in the unitary system. The results indicated that functional bacteria can degrade Nap and Phe, and that Nap weakly promoted Phe biodegradation. Additionally, the initial Nap and Phe concentration ratio, hydraulic gradient, and temperature affected Nap and Phe biodegradation. Dynamic biodegradation experiments showed that the biodegradation percentage decreased as the hydraulic gradient increased, and biodegradation percentage of Phe was always higher than that of Nap. According to the results of the dynamic laboratory experiments, the removal percentages of Nap and Phe by indigenous riparian-zone microorganisms were 6.21-16.73% and 13.95-24.45%, respectively. The findings in this study will be useful for alleviation of Nap and Phe pollution in groundwater and will facilitate determination of appropriate treatment measures for groundwater exposed to this type of pollution.


Assuntos
Fenantrenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Naftalenos , Fenantrenos/análise , Solo
17.
ASAIO J ; 67(9): 973-981, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403376

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) radically modified the organization of healthcare systems with shutdown of routine activities and outpatient clinics. Herein, we report our institutional experience with a Telemonitoring and Care Program (TC-Program) to monitor and support left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients during COVID-19 outbreak. This single-arm cohort study analyzed 156 patients who entered the TC-Program at our institution between April and August 2020. The TC-Program was based on routine phone calls to patients and a 24/7 emergency line. In November 2020, patients were asked for feedback on the TC-Program and checked for survival, transplant, or explant. The primary endpoint was the rate of TC-Program-driven interventions. Patients (males: 82.8%) were 61 years old (interquartile range [IQR]: 53.0-67.5) and on LVAD support for 1,266 days (IQR: 475-2,211). Patients were included in the TC-Program for a median time of 99 days (min:15, max:120) and received a median number of six phone calls (min:1, max:14). Twenty-three patients (14.7%) were referred for clinical evaluation after phone contact. Two patients (1.27%) were diagnosed with COVID-19: one of them died after intensive care, and one remained paucisymptomatic and recovered. Three patients asked to exit the program considering it not useful while the others gave high rates in terms of usefulness (median: 9, IQR: 8-10), information (median: 9, IQR: 8-10), good medical care (median: 9, IQR: 8-10), and psychologic support (median: 8, IQR: 7-10). A TC-Program based on the four ICSA principles (Inform, Care, Support, and Adapt) is feasible in LVAD patients and can be rapidly implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410325

RESUMO

Importance: Compared with the operating room (OR), office-based intravitreal injection (IVI) is considered a more cost-effective and convenient approach, yet clinical outcomes of IVIs with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents in different settings (office-based vs OR) have not been systematically evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the safety outcomes of IVI with anti-VEGF agents in the OR vs office-based setting. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to July 2020. Study Selection: Eligible studies reporting on patients who received IVIs with anti-VEGF drugs with a clearly stated injection setting of the office or OR. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently screened studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the rates of endophthalmitis (EO) and culture-positive EO. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of EO and culture-positive EO following anti-VEGF IVIs in the OR and office-based setting. Results: Thirty-one studies with a total of 1 275 815 injections were included. Comparative analysis suggested no difference between rates of EO after IVIs performed in the office and OR settings (odds ratio, 3.06; 95% CI, 0.07-139.75; P = .57; I2 = 80%) were identified, yet a higher rate of culture-positive EO was found in the office setting (odds ratio, 21.52; 95% CI, 2.39-193.55; P = .006; I2 = 0%). The pooled rates of EO following anti-VEGF IVIs were 0.03% (95% CI, 0.03-0.04) and 0.02% (95% CI, 0.01-0.04) in office and OR settings, respectively, and the pooled rates of culture-positive EO were 0.01% (95% CI, 0.01-0.02) and 0.01% (95% CI, 0-0.02). The pooled rates of other ocular and systemic adverse events were low. Conclusions and Relevance: The rate of clinically suspected or culture-positive EO following anti-VEGF IVIs was low whether the procedure was performed in the office or OR setting. Bacterial spectrum could differ between the 2 settings. This meta-analysis could not determine if it is more appropriate to give treatment in the OR for safety reasons in low-income compared with higher-income regions in the world.

19.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(33): 9588-9600, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383510

RESUMO

To investigate the damping characteristics of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), various potential modifications of the molecular structure, including sulfonate groups, hydroxyl groups, amino groups, carboxyl groups, methyl groups, fluorines, and benzene rings, were considered. It was found that these functional groups can mediate both the storage and loss modulus of PEEK derivatives, and the loss factors of PEEK derivatives are sensitive to the content and type of functional groups, indicating an ideal designability of energy dissipation performance. The reciprocating process of H-bonds and Cπ-H bonds breaking and reforming during material deformation and the available free volume in the material are critical to the energy dissipation capacities in polymers.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(39): 21396-21403, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343398

RESUMO

The effect of surface orientations on the formation of iridium oxide species during the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) remains yet unknown. Herein, we use a needle-shaped iridium atom probe specimen as a nanosized working electrode to ascertain the role of the surface orientations in the formation of oxide species during OER. At the beginning of electrolysis, the top 2-3 nm of (024), (026), (113), and (115) planes are covered by IrO-OH, which activates all surfaces towards OER. A thick subsurface oxide layer consisting of sub-stoichiometric Ir-O species is formed on the open (024) planes as OER proceeds. Such metastable Ir-O species are thought to provide an additional contribution to the OER activity. Overall, this study sheds light on the importance of the morphological effects of iridium electrocatalysts for OER. It also provides an innovative approach that can directly reveal surface species on electrocatalysts at atomic scale.

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