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1.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802141

RESUMO

Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is often used to prepare graphene/metal oxide nanocomposite anodes for high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) by the assisted solvothermal method due to its low viscosity, high diffusion, zero surface tension and good surface wettability. However, the formation mechanism of metal oxides and the combination mechanism between metal oxides and graphene in this system are superficial. In this work, a cobalt monoxide/graphene (CoO/G) nanocomposite is fabricated via the scCO2 assisted solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. We elucidate the mechanism that amorphous intermediates obtain by the scCO2 assisted solvothermal method, and then ultrafine CoO nanoparticles are crystallized during the heat treatment. In addition, scCO2 can promote CoO to be tightly fixed on the surface of graphene nanosheets by interfacial chemical bonds, which can effectively improve its cycle stability and rate performance. As expected, the CoO/G composites exhibit higher specific capacity (961 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), excellent cyclic stability and rate capability (617 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1) when applied as an anode of LIB.

2.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803347

RESUMO

In this work, hierarchical MoS2/C quasi-hollow microspheres are prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal process with the addition of glucose. The glucose is not only inclined to form the roundish sphere in the completion of the synthesis of MoS2, but at the same time the microspheres formed by the glucose can act as the nuclei on which the MoS2 grows. Glucose, acting as a nucleating agent, has the advantages of being low-cost and environmentally friendly, which can simplify the fabrication process. The interiors of the MoS2/C samples are multi-hole and quasi-hollow, which is beneficial for the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. For the first time, we demonstrate that hierarchical-structured MoS2/C quasi-hollow microspheres exhibit an excellent cycling stability and rate capability in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and are significantly superior to the bulk MoS2. The method presented in this article may provide a simple, clean. and economical strategy for the preparation of MoS2/C microspheres as a feasible and promising anode material for LIBs.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 353, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported the correlation between AXIN2 polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results seem not consistent. In order to get an overall, accurate and updated results about AXIN2 polymorphism and cancer risk, we conducted this study. METHODS: An updated analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between AXIN2 polymorphisms and cancer risk. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis was also used to show the associations. RESULTS: Seventy-two case-control studies were involved in the study, including 22,087 cases and 18,846 controls. The overall results showed rs11079571 had significant association with cancer risk (allele contrast model: OR = 0.539, 95%CI = 0.478-0.609, PAdjust = 0.025; homozygote model: OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.164-0.295, PAdjust< 0.001; heterozygote model: OR = 0.292, 95% CI = 0.216-0.394, PAdjust< 0.001; dominant model: OR = 0.249, 95% CI = 0.189-0.33, PAdjust< 0.001). The same results were obtained with rs1133683 in homozygote and recessive models (PAdjust< 0.05), and in rs35285779 in heterozygote and dominant models (PAdjust< 0.05). LD analysis revealed significant correlation between rs7210356 and rs9915936 in the populations of CEU, CHB&CHS, ESN and JPT (CEU: r2 = 0.91; CHB&CHS: r2 = 0.74; ESN: r2 = 0.62, JPT: r2 = 0.57), and a significant correlation between rs9915936 and rs7224837 in the populations of CHB&CHS, ESN and JPT (r2>0.5), between rs7224837 and rs7210356 in the populations of CEU, CHB&CHS, JPT (r2>0.5), between rs35435678 and rs35285779 in the populations of CEU, CHB&CHS and JPT (r2>0.5). CONCLUSIONS: AXIN2 rs11079571, rs1133683 and rs35285779 polymorphisms have significant correlations with overall cancer risk. What's more, two or more polymorphisms such as rs7210356 and rs9915936, rs9915936 and rs7224837, rs7224837 and rs7210356, rs35435678 and rs35285779 have significant correlation with cancer susceptibility in different populations.

4.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153531, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Qingfei Paidu Tang (QPT), a formula of traditional Chinese medicine, which was suggested to be able to ease symptoms in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been recommended by clinical guidelines and widely used to treat COVID-19 in China. However, whether it decreases mortality remains unknown. PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the association between QPT use and in-hospital mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study based on a real-world database was conducted. METHODS: We identified patients consecutively hospitalized with COVID-19 in 15 hospitals from a national retrospective registry in China, from January through May 2020. Data on patients' characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were extracted from the electronic medical records. The association of QPT use with COVID-19 related mortality was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models based on propensity score analysis. RESULTS: Of the 8939 patients included, 28.7% received QPT. The COVID-19 related mortality was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8% to 1.7%) among the patients receiving QPT and 4.8% (95% CI 4.3% to 5.3%) among those not receiving QPT. After adjustment for patient characteristics and concomitant treatments, QPT use was associated with a relative reduction of 50% in-hospital COVID-19 related mortality (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.66 p < 0.001). This association was consistent across subgroups by sex and age. Meanwhile, the incidences of acute liver injury (8.9% [95% CI, 7.8% to 10.1%] vs. 9.9% [95% CI, 9.2% to 10.7%]; odds ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.81% to 1.14%], p = 0.658) and acute kidney injury (1.6% [95% CI, 1.2% to 2.2%] vs. 3.0% [95% CI, 2.6% to 3.5%]; odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.62 to 1.17], p = 0.318) were comparable between patients receiving QPT and those not receiving QPT. The major study limitations included that the study was an observational study based on real-world data rather than a randomized control trial, and the quality of data could be affected by the accuracy and completeness of medical records. CONCLUSIONS: QPT was associated with a substantially lower risk of in-hospital mortality, without extra risk of acute liver injury or acute kidney injury among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801108

RESUMO

In the design of dental multifunctional Cone Beam Computed Tomography, the linear scanning strategy not only saves equipment cost, but also avoids the demand for patients to be repositioned when acquiring lateral cranial sequence images. In order to obtain panoramic images, we propose a local normalized cross-correlation stitching algorithm based on Gaussian Mixture Model. Firstly, the Block-Matching and 3D filtering algorithm is used to remove quantum and impulse noises according to the characteristics of X-ray images; Then, the segmentation of the irrelevant region and the extraction of the region of interest are performed by Gaussian Mixture Model; The locally normalized cross-relation is used to complete the registration with the multi-resolution strategy based on wavelet transform and Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm; Finally, image fusion is achieved by the weighted smoothing fusion algorithm. The experimental results show that the panoramic image obtained by this method has significant performance in both subjective vision and objective quality evaluation and can be applied to preoperative diagnosis of clinical dental deformity and postoperative effect evaluation.

6.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 24(3): 161-166, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has been widely used in the treatment of lung cancer. There are controversies in clinical practice for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and high programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression receiving ICIs monotherapy or combination chemotherapy. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 49 patients with advanced NSCLC and high PD-L1 expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed with 22C3 antibody, and the expression level of PD-L1 was evaluated according to tumor proportion score (TPS). Objective response rate (ORR) and progression free survival (PFS) were compared by groups of different clinical characteristics. RESULTS: ORR of monotherapy and combination therapy group was 47.1% (8/17) and 43.8% (14/32), respectively, without statistical difference (P=0.825). The median PFS of monotherapy and combination therapy group was 8.0 months and 6.8 months, respectively, without statistical difference (P=0.502). Statistical analysis of predictors of immunotherapy for the patients showed first-line immunotherapy had better ORR than subsequent immunotherapy (12/19, 63.2% vs 10/30, 33.3%, P=0.041), however no difference in PFS. And there were no differences in ORR or PFS among groups of age, gender, smoking status, performance status (PS), pathological type, tumor size and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic effect is similar between ICIs monotherapy and combination chemotherapy for patients with advanced NSCLC and high PD-L1 expression. ORR of first-line immunotherapy was better in patients with advanced NSCLC and high PD-L1 expression. The optimal treatment for this population remains further prospective clinical studies.

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : CIRCOUTCOMES120007025, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China has witnessed a rapid increase in the volume of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) but substantial gaps in the performance for CABG across the nation. The present study aimed to investigate the change in CABG performance after years of quality improvement measures in a national registry in China. METHODS: The study included 66 971 patients who underwent isolated CABG in a cohort of 74 tertiary hospitals in China between January 2013 and December 2018. Data were collected from the Chinese Cardiac Surgery Registry. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality and postoperative length of stay. Five process measures for surgical technique and secondary prevention were also analyzed. We described the changes in the overall performance and interhospital heterogeneity across the years. RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality declined from 0.9% in 2013 to 0.6 in 2018, with a risk-adjusted odds ratio of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.46-0.93; P<0.001). The standard mean difference for risk-standardized mortality rate between hospitals in the lowest and highest quartile narrowed from 1.63 in 2013 to 1.35 in 2018. The median (interquartile range) hospital-level rate of using arterial graft increased from 93.9% (86.0%-97.8%) to 94.6% (83.3%-99.2%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Meanwhile, the rate of free from blood transfusion increased from 17.0% (2.6%-32.0%) to 34.1% (8.8%-52.9%). The hospital-level rate of prescribing ß-blockers at discharge significantly increased from 82.8% (66.7%-90.3%) to 91.1% (82.1%-97.1%), statin from 75.8% (55.7%-88.9%) to 88.9% (75.0%-96.0%), and aspirin from 90.3% (83.9%-95.2%) to 95.3% (88.9%-98.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In the Chinese Cardiac Surgery Registry, there were notable improvements in the treatment process related to CABG and decline of in-hospital mortality with reduced interhospital heterogeneity.

8.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791913

RESUMO

Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis (SANDO) is a rare mitochondrial disorder associated with mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the DNA polymerase gamma catalytic subunit. A few POLG-related SANDO cases have been reported, but the genotype-phenotype correlation remains unclear. Here, we report a patient with SANDO carrying two novel missense variants (c.2543G>C, p.G848A and c.452 T>C, p.L151P) in POLG. We also reviewed previously reported cases to systematically evaluate the clinical and genetic features of POLG-related SANDO. A total of 35 distinct variants in the coding region of POLG were identified in 63 patients with SANDO. The most frequent variant was the p.A467T variant, followed by the p.W748S variant. The clinical spectrum of SANDO is heterogeneous. No clear correlation has been observed between the mutation types and clinical phenotypes. Our findings expand the mutational spectrum of POLG and contribute to clinical management and genetic counseling for POLG-related SANDO.

9.
Neurotherapeutics ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791970

RESUMO

Abnormal redox regulation is thought to contribute to schizophrenia (SCZ). Accumulating studies have shown that the plasma antioxidant enzyme activity is closely associated with the course and outcome in antipsychotics-naïve first-episode (ANFE) patients with SCZ. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone on oxidative stress markers in ANFE patients and the relationship between risperidone response and changes in oxidative stress markers. Plasma activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme, total antioxidant status (TAS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in 354 ANFE patients and 152 healthy controls. The clinical symptoms were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Patients received risperidone monotherapy for 12 weeks and oxidative stress markers and PANSS were measured at baseline and at follow-up. Compared with healthy controls, the patients exhibited higher activities of SOD, CAT, and TAS levels, but lower MDA levels and GPx activity. A comparison between 168 responders and 50 non-responders at baseline and 12-week follow-up showed that GPx activity decreased in both groups after treatment. Moreover, GPx activity decreased less in responders and was higher in responders than in non-responders at follow-up. These results demonstrate that the redox regulatory system and antioxidant defense enzymes may have predictive value for the response of ANFE patients to risperidone treatment.

10.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 69, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of germinal center B-cell type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (GCB-DLBCL) is not fully elucidated. This study aims to explore the regulation of super enhancers (SEs) on GCB-DLBCL by identifying specific SE-target gene. METHODS: Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to screen modules associated with GCB subtype. Functional analysis was performed by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment. H3K27ac peaks were used to identify SEs. Overall survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curve with log-rank and Breslow test. The effect of ADNP, ANKRD28 and RTN4IP1 knockdown on Karpas 422 and SUDHL-4 cells proliferation was analyzed by CCK-8. Karpas 422 and SUDHL-4 cells were treated with bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) inhibitor JQ1, and the expression of ADNP, ANKRD28 and RTN4IP1was measured by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 26 modules were screened in DLBCL. Turquoise module was closely related to GCB-DLBCL, and its eigengenes were mainly related to autophagy. There were 971 SEs in Karpas 422 cell and 1088 SEs in SUDHL-4 cell. Function of the nearest genes of overall SEs were related to cancer. Six SE-related genes associated with GCB-DLBCL were identified as prognostic markers. Knockdown of ADNP, ANKRD28 and RTN4IP1 inhibited the proliferation of Karpas 422 and SUDHL-4 cells. JQ1 treatment suppressed ADNP, ANKRD28 and RTN4IP1 expression in Karpas 422 and SUDHL-4 cells. CONCLUSIONS: A total of 6 SE-related genes associated with GCB-DLBCL overall survival were identified in this study. These results will serve as a theoretical basis for further study of gene regulation and function of GCB-DLBCL.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 7589-7607, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658399

RESUMO

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a common menopause-related symptom affecting more than 50% of midlife and older women and cancer patients whose ovarian function are lost or damaged. Regardless of estrogen deficiency, whether other factors such as the gut microbiota play role in VVA have not been thoroughly investigated. To this end, we performed ovariectomy on 12-weeks' old mice and follow-up at 4 weeks after ovariectomy, and observed atrophied vagina and an altered gut microbiota in ovariectomized mice.. We further performed fecal microbiota transplantation with feces from another cohort of ovary-intact fecund female mice to the ovariectomized ones, and found that the vaginal epithelial atrophy was significantly alleviated as well as the gut microbiota was pointedly changed. All these results suggest that ovarian activity has some influence on the gut microbiota, and the latter from the ovary-intact female mice can somehow make the vagina of mice deficient in ovarian function healthier maybe by up-expressing ESR1 in vaginal cells and enhancing regeneration in vagina. This kind of association between gut microbiota and vaginal health need further exploration such that it may provide an alternative treatment by modulating gut microbiota in patients suffering from VVA but may be reluctant to hormone therapy.

12.
Oral Oncol ; 116: 105258, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study's purpose was to assess whether the weekday on which intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is initiated influences survival outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1440 patients with NPC who received IMRT were enrolled in this study between January 2010 and June 2016. The patients were divided into five groups according to the weekday of their first radiotherapy treatment. Group 1 (n = 322), Group 2 (n = 322), Group 3 (n = 286), Group 4 (n = 292) and Group 5 (n = 218) received first radiotherapy on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday respectively. Differences in the rates of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were compared among the five groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in OS, DFS, LRRFS or DMFS among the five groups. The Cox regression analysis showed that the weekday on which the radiotherapy was initiated was not an independent predictor of OS (Hazard Ratio [HR], 1.056; 95%CI: 0.959-1.164, P = 0.268), DFS (HR, 1.067; 95% CI: 0.980-1.161, P = 0.137), LRRFS (HR, 1.069; 95% CI: 0.914-1.249, P = 0.404) and DMFS (HR, 1.027; 95% CI: 0.929-1.134, P = 0.607). The subgroup analysis showed no significant differences among the five groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the day of the week that patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma begin radiotherapy has no effect on their survival outcomes.

14.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 177, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is highly associated with inflammatory response and virus-induced interferon production. By far the majority of studies have focused on the immune-related lncRNAs of mice and humans, but the function of lncRNAs in porcine immune cells are poorly understood. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) impairs local immune responses in the lungs of nursery and growing pigs, whereas the virus triggers the inflammatory responses. Porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) is the primary target cell of PRRSV, thus PRRSV is used as an in vitro model of inflammation. Here, we profiled lncRNA and mRNA repertories from PRRSV-infected PAMs to explore the underlying mechanism of porcine lncRNAs in regulating host immune responses. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 350 annotated lncRNAs and 1792 novel lncRNAs in PAMs were identified through RNA-seq analysis. Among them 86 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and 406 DE protein-coding mRNAs were identified upon PRRSV incubation. GO category and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that these DE lncRNAs and mRNAs were mainly involved in inflammation- and pathogen infection-induced pathways. The results of dynamic correlated expression networks between lncRNAs and their predicted target genes uncovered that numerous lncRNAs, such as XLOC-022175, XLOC-019295, and XLOC-017089, were correlated with innate immune genes. Further analysis validated that these three lncRNAs were positively correlated with their predicted target genes including CXCL2, IFI6, and CD163. This study suggests that porcine lncRNAs affect immune responses against PRRSV infection through regulating their target genes in PAMs. CONCLUSION: This study provides both transcriptomic and epigenetic status of porcine macrophages. In response to PRRSV infection, comprehensive DE lncRNAs and mRNAs were profiled from PAMs. Co-expression analysis demonstrated that lncRNAs are emerging as the important modulators of immune gene activities through their critical influence upon PRRSV infection in porcine macrophages.

15.
Asian J Surg ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715964

RESUMO

Progressive resistance training (PRT) is one of the most commonly used exercise methods after joint replacement, while its effectiveness and safety are still controversial. Therefore, it's vital to investigate the effect of PRT on muscle strength and functional capacity early postoperative total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Relevant studies were identified via a search of Medline, Web of science and Cochrane Library from 2002 to 12 May 2020. Fifteen of 704 studies which comprised 6 THAs and 8 TKAs, involving 1021 adult patients were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. There were no significant differences between the two groups after TKA in the 6-min walk test (6-WMT) within 1 month (95% CI = -0.41, 1.53), within 3 months (95% CI = -0.27, 0.76), within 12 months (95% CI = -0.29, 0.66); climb performance in seconds (s) (SCP), leg extension power, timed up and go test in seconds (s) (TUG) within 1 month (95% CI = -1.75, 0.77), within 3 months (95% CI = -0.48, 0.33), within 12 months (95% CI = -0.44, 0.35), sit to stand, number of repetitions in 30s (ST). There was no difference in the incidence of adverse events (95% CI = -0.01, 0.10). Similarly, two groups were also no obvious distinction after THA in the 6-WMT, SCP, Leg extension power, ST. PRT early after THA or TKA did not differ significantly from SR in terms of functional capacity, muscle strength recovery and incidence of adverse events. PRT is one of the options for rapid rehabilitation after joint replacement.

16.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common reasons for the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. Moreover, liver-associated death is approximately 10 times higher in patients with NAFLD than in common individuals. In theory, NAFLD is a kind of metabolic syndrome that manifests in the liver, and insulin resistance plays an important role. Therefore, drugs that improve insulin sensitivity may be effective for NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of metformin treatment on aminotransferase levels, metabolic parameters and body mass index in NAFLD patients via a meta-analysis of clinical trials. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed for randomized controlled trials(RCTs) on the effect of metformin treatment on aminotransferase levels, metabolic parameters and body mass index in NAFLD patients. Serum hepatic enzyme, lipid, glucose and insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and body mass index (BMI) at different follow-up points were desirable outcomes. The final search was performed in January, 2021. RESULTS: In total, 10 RCTs with 459 patients were included. Compared with controls, metformin can effectively reduce serum fasting glucose and insulin levels and the HOMA-IR index in NAFLD patients at the 6-month follow-up. In addition, metformin can clearly reduce the serum ALT and HOMA-IR index at the 12-month follow-up. Although metformin is effective in managing lipid metabolism and controlling BMI in NAFLD patients compared with that at baseline, the effect was similar to that in controls. In addition, the speed of metformin treatment seems to be slower than that of controls. CONCLUSION: Compared to the controls, metformin can effectively reduce the serum fasting glucose and insulin levels and the HOMA-IR index in NAFLD patients at the 6-month follow-up and ALT and the HOMA-IR index at the 12-month follow-up.

17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e212574, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704478

RESUMO

Importance: Face masks are recommended to prevent transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, there is scarce evidence on their protection efficacy and ways to improve it. Objective: To determine the proportion of improper face mask use, the factors associated with face mask protection efficacy, and ways to improve efficacy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in China from July to August 2020 in 5 kinds of public places. Participants included convenience samples of individuals wearing face masks and able to taste the check solution. Exposures: Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, including sex, age, and education level; information on face mask model and the worn duration was recorded. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome as airtightness, assessed by detecting face-to-face mask gaps, movement of cotton fiber placed at the face mask edges, and using a qualitative fit test with a bitter solution spray. Masks were further assessed for whether sealing the upper face mask edge with an adhesive tape strip was associated with improved face mask airtightness. Results: Among 6003 face mask wearers enrolled, the mean (SD) age of participants was 31.1 (13.7) years, and 3047 participants (50.8%) were female. The first qualitative fit test found air leakage in 2754 participants (45.9%; 95% CI, 44.6%-47.1%), which was mostly attributable to gaps at the upper face mask edge. After sealing the upper face mask edge with an adhesive tape strip, 69.7% (95% CI, 68.0%-71.5%) of masks that had exhibited leakage became airtight in the second qualitative fit test, and the rate of airtightness reached 96.2% (95% CI, 95.4%-96.8%) in a third qualitative fit test after new surgical face masks with tape on the upper edge were provided to those who had not converted initially. The tape was well tolerated; overall, 6 participants (1.2%) reported a rash and 24 participants (5.8%) reported significant discomfort. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of face mask fit among participants in China, although most people used face masks in public places, compromised protection due to suboptimal airtightness was common. The simple approach of sealing the upper edge of the face mask with an adhesive tape strip was associated with substantially improved its airtightness.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Fibra de Algodão , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Máscaras , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774652

RESUMO

AIMS: The beneficial effect of ß-blocker on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is well established. However, its effect on the 1-year outcome of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the data of the patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between 40%-49% in China Patient-centred Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Prospective Heart Failure Study (China PEACE 5p-HF Study), in which patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) from 52 Chinese hospitals were recruited from 2016 to 2018. Two primary outcomes were all-cause death and all-cause hospitalization. The associations between ß-blocker use at discharge and outcomes were assessed by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)-weighted Cox regression analyses. To assess consistency, IPTW adjusting medications analyses, multivariable analyses and dose-effect analyses were performed. 1035 HFmrEF patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 65.5 ±12.7 years and 377 (36.4%) were female. The median (interquartile range) of LVEF was 44% (42%-47%). 661 (63.8%) were treated with ß-blocker. Patients using ß-blocker were younger with better cardiac function, and more likely to use renin-angiotensin system inhibitor and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. During the 1-year follow up, death occurred in 84 (12.7%) treated and 85 (22.7%) untreated patients (P < 0.0001); all-cause hospitalization occurred in 298 (45.1%) treated and 188 (50.3%) untreated patients (P = 0.04). After IPTW-weighted adjustment, ß-blocker use was significantly associated with lower risk of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR): 0.70; confidence interval (95% CI): 0.51-0.96, P = 0.03], but not with lower all-cause hospitalization (HR, 0.92, 95% CI, 0.76-1.10, P = 0.36). Consistency analyses showed consistent favourable effect of ß-blocker on all-cause death, but not on all-cause hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with HFmrEF, ß-blocker use was associated with lower risk of all-cause death, but not with lower risk of all-cause hospitalization.

19.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 109, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distant metastasis is the leading cause of death for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with limited treatment options and unsatisfactory effectiveness. Bromodomain (BRD) containing proteins are emerging targets for cancer therapy with promising effects. As a unique member of BRD family, the function and molecular mechanism of ATAD2 in cancer development is seldomly investigated. METHODS: The clinical impact of ATAD2 was assessed both at RNA and protein level in 75 and 112 ESCC patients separately. The biological function of ATAD2 was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Signaling pathway and downstream effectors of ATAD2 were identified by RNA sequencing, luciferase reporter, co-immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and western blot assay. RESULTS: We found that elevated ATAD2 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage as well as poor survival of ESCC patients. Silencing ATAD2 significantly suppressed ESCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanically, we identified a new cofactor, C/EBPß. ATAD2 directly interacted with C/EBPß and promoted its nuclear translocation, which directly bound to the promoter region of TGF-ß1 and activated its expression. Further, we demonstrated that TGF-ß1 activated its downstream effectors in a Smad3 dependent manner. In addition, we further found that ATAD2 promoted ESCC metastasis through TGF-ß signaling induced Snail expression and the subsequent epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated the pro-metastatic function of ATAD2 and uncovered the new molecular mechanism by regulating C/EBPß/TGF-ß1/Smad3/Snail signaling pathway, thus providing a potential target for the treatment of ESCC metastasis.

20.
Cell Metab ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770508

RESUMO

Mitochondria have an independent genome (mtDNA) and protein synthesis machinery that coordinately activate for mitochondrial generation. Here, we report that the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate links metabolism to mitobiogenesis through binding to malic enzyme 2 (ME2). Mechanistically, fumarate binds ME2 with two complementary consequences. First, promoting the formation of ME2 dimers, which activate deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (DUT). DUT fosters thymidine generation and an increase of mtDNA. Second, fumarate-induced ME2 dimers abrogate ME2 monomer binding to mitochondrial ribosome protein L45, freeing it for mitoribosome assembly and mtDNA-encoded protein production. Methylation of the ME2-fumarate binding site by protein arginine methyltransferase-1 inhibits fumarate signaling to constrain mitobiogenesis. Notably, acute myeloid leukemia is highly dependent on mitochondrial function and is sensitive to targeting of the fumarate-ME2 axis. Therefore, mitobiogenesis can be manipulated in normal and malignant cells through ME2, an unanticipated governor of mitochondrial biomass production that senses nutrient availability through fumarate.

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