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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123252, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634663

RESUMO

Determination of the effects of Escherichia coli (E. coli) pollution on agricultural pond ecosystems with vegetation at different life stages is essential for the protection of ecological functions. However, no comprehensive study has yet shown the responses of epiphytic microbial communities to E. coli invasion during plant decay. Thus, this study was conducted to clarify variation in the decay of the following aquatic plants-Myriophyllum aquaticum, Nymphaea tetragona and Phragmites australis after E. coli pollution. Exogenous E. coli especially shifted the epiphytic microbial composition and distribution of P. australis. Stronger effects of E. coli on the archaeal community (edges/nodes = 0.818 < 1, modularity = 0.654; lower clustered structure, 0.389) were found than on the bacterial community (edges/nodes = 1.538 > 1, modularity = 1.291 > 0.654; higher clustered, 0.593). During plant decomposition, E. coli weakened methanogenesis by regulating the network of core genera Methanobacterium and Methanospirillum (spearman, P < 0.05), stimulated the accumulation of organic matters in water (P < 0.05). Similarly, nitrification and denitrification increased and decreased through network regulation in relative biomass of genera Devosia and Desulfovibrio (P < 0.05), respectively. The results provided theoretical supports for eutrophication management in pond ecosystems threatened by E. coli pollution.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113228, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777517

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The uses of medicinal plants have a long history and become one of the important sources of the health cares in Gaomi City, Shandong Province, China. However, limited studies have been done to identify these medicinal plant species and to scientifically document their associated traditional knowledge. Many species used by indigenous people could potentially represent a novel resource of medicine. The study can aid in further investigations of modern pharmacology and planning of the wild species conservation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to investigate and record the medicinal plant taxa and their associated traditional knowledge in Gaomi City, China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Field study was conducted from March 2018 to May 2019 with 184 residents of Gaomi City. Traditional medicinal plant specimens were collected from the field with the help of these residents and were identified and authenticated in the Herbarium of the School of Pharmacy, Binzhou Medical University. Ethnobotanical knowledge was collected by semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The quantitative data were analyzed by using the informant consensus factor (ICF) method and the number of citations. RESULTS: A total of 181 species belonging to 137 genera and 65 families were collected in Gaomi City. Asteraceae was the predominant family and Fabaceae took the second place. River basins and the southern hills in Gaomi were rich in vegetation. However, the cultivated area of medicinal plants only accounted for 10% of agricultural acreage. The main preparation method was decocting (170, 94.48%) and the most frequent mode of administration was oral (177, 97.97%). The highest numerical ICF value was recorded for treating endocrine, metabolic, and nutritional (ICF: 0.85) conditions. Seven of the medicinal plant species used by the people in Gaomi have not been reported previously in China. Verbena officinalis L. was found in Gaomi City, which is a new distribution record for this species. CONCLUSIONS: People in Gaomi hold valuable knowledge about the use of medicinal plants; however, their knowledge has not been comprehensively documented. The therapeutic uses of the documented medicinal plants will provide a basis for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations. Additionally, the result of this study indicated that the elder people in Gaomi have more traditional knowledge of plant medicines than the younger ones.

3.
Food Chem ; 339: 128027, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949915

RESUMO

κ-Carrageenase cleaves the ß-(1-4) linkages of κ-carrageenan into κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (κ-COS), which exhibit various biological activities. In this study, a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 16 κ-carrageenase gene, cgkA, was cloned from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY01 and secretory expressed in a food-grade host, Yarrowia lipolytica. The specific activity of the purified CgkA was 12.5 U/mg. Determination of biochemical properties showed that CgkA was a thermo-tolerant enzyme, and 59.9% of the initial enzyme activity was recovered by immediately placing the sample at 20 °C for 30 min after enzymatic inactivation by boiling for 5 min. The recombinant CgkA was an endo-type enzyme, the main enzymatic product was κ-carradiaose (accounting for 87.6% of total products), and κ-carratetraose was the minimum substrate. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo analyses indicated that enzymatic κ-carradiaose possesses anti-oxidant activity. These features make CgkA as a promising candidate for biotechnological applications in the production of anti-oxidant κ-COS.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 142338, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182017

RESUMO

Bald patches (BPs) are known to accelerate and simultaneously mitigate the process of desertification. However, the mechanisms of these two synchronous actions are little studied in high desert and cold systems; and the incidence of BPs on alpine meadows degradation in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) of China is still unavailable. This study first aims to investigate the soil properties and the erodibility of the system BPs-VPs at the Beiluhe basin in QTP. Then, we adopted dye tracer and HYDRUS-2/3D methods to interpret the water infiltration patterns from point scale to slope scale. The results show that the mattic epipedon layer on the top soil (0-20 cm) of VPs directly reduced the impact of raindrops on alpine meadow; and the adhesion of root system in VPs prevented the soil particles from stripping and washing away by runoff. The soil particles in BPs were easily eroded by rainfall, lowering the ground level of BPs relative to the ground level of VPs. The two patches therefore alternated to form an erosion interface where marginal meadow was likely detached by raindrops, and washed away through runoff. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of surface soil (0-10 cm) was 124% higher in BPs than the VPs. Thereby, BPs caused a high spatial variation of infiltration and runoff in QTP. Moreover, this difference in Ks between the two patches conducted to a lateral flow from BPs to VPs, and to soil layers with different water contents. These findings highlight that the water flow features can potentially disturb the processes of freezing-thawing, frost heaves, and thaw slump; and accelerate the alpine meadow degradation. Therefore, land cover such as crop and vegetation should be applied over the bare soil surface to prevent the degradation of alpine meadow.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Solo , China , Tibet , Água
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113281, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810624

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The compatibility of Bupleurum chinense DC (Chaihu)-Paeonia lactiflora Pall (Baishao) is one of the most accepted herb pairs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions for treating depression. However, the combination mechanisms of this herb pair for anti-depression remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the combined effect of Chaihu-Baishao was evaluated by the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model. Secondly, network pharmacology was constructed to dissect the united mechanisms. Based on the results of network pharmacology analysis, plasma metabolomics based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was performed to discover the collaborative effect on metabolite regulation. Furthermore, the targets from network pharmacology and the metabolites from metabolomics were jointly analyzed to select crucial metabolism pathways by MetaScape. Finally, the key metabolic enzymes and metabolites were experimentally validated by ELISA. RESULTS: The antidepressant effect of Chaihu-Baishao herb pair was significantly better than Chaihu or Baishao in sucrose preference test (SPT), open-field test (OFT), and forced swim test (FST). In network pharmacology, herb pair played synergetic effect through regulating shared pathways, such as MAPK signaling pathway and arachidonic acid metabolism, etc. Besides, by metabolomics, the herb pair improved more metabolites (14) than a single herb (10 & 9) and has a stronger regulation effect on metabolites. Correspondingly, herb pair adjusted more metabolism pathways (5) than individual herb (4 & 4). Furthermore, the arachidonic acid metabolism was selected as crucial metabolism pathways by a joint analysis of 199 targets and 14 metabolites. The results showed that herb pair regulated arachidonic acid metabolism by synergetic reducing the level of arachidonic acid, and inhibiting the enzyme activity of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2). CONCLUSIONS: This work provided an integrated strategy for revealing the combination mechanisms of Chaihu-Baishao herb pair for treating depression, and also a rational way for clarifying the composition rules of TCM.

6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt B): 111653, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190000

RESUMO

A hypoxia event occurred in the nearshore of the northern Yellow Sea in summer 2016, and a bloom of small jellyfish occurred in June of this year. As a key copepod species in the Yellow Sea, Calanus sinicus exhibits early recruitment mainly in this nearshore area. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of these two phenomena on C. sinicus especially on their early recruitment. Sampling in nearshore waters was performed every month from May to December, except for October 2016. The numerical abundance of eggs and nauplii (E + N), copepodites and adults (C + A) of C. sinicus was determined in relation to environmental factors. Results showed that dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations decreased from June on, attaining a minimum in August, and showed a significant positive relationship with C. sinicus E + N abundance. This suggested that decreasing DO had potential negative effects on early recruitment of C. sinicus. The abundance of small jellyfish, dominated by Sugiura chengshanense (Hydromedusa), also showed a significant positive relationship with C. sinicus E + N abundance, indicating a potential predator-prey relationship between them. Spatial relationships were also examined between E + N abundance and DO concentration in July and with small jellyfish abundance in June. Both bottom DO (B-DO) and E + N abundance in inshore waters were significantly lower than those in offshore water in July, indicating a potential negative effect of low B-DO (<6 mg L-1) in nearshore water. Spatial variation of small jellyfish abundance showed no correlation with C. sinicus abundance in June, but the non-overlapping patchy distribution also suggested their potential predator-prey relationship. Together, both the seasonal and spatial results indicated that low DO and a small jellyfish bloom in nearshore waters had detrimental effects on early recruitment of C. sinicus. These negative effects thus have the potential to indirectly impact the trophodynamics of fishery resources in the northern Yellow Sea.

7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 229: 105678, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197688

RESUMO

The rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, is a widely used model species in marine ecotoxicology for evaluating pollutions, toxins, and harmful algae. In this paper, the marine ecotoxicology of Brachionus plicatilis was reviewed, including toxicity measurements of harmful algae species and environmental stresses. In addition, marine pollution involving pesticides, heavy metals, drugs, petroleum, and petrochemicals were addressed. Methods for measuring toxicity were also discussed. The standard acute lethal assay and the chronic population dynamics test were indicated as common methods of toxicity evaluating using B. plicatilis. Research on other biomarkers, such as behaviour, enzyme activity, or gene expression, are also reported here, with potential applications for fast detection or the scientific exploration of underlying molecular mechanisms. It is suggested that the methods selected should reflect the experimental purpose. Additionally, series assays should be conducted for comprehensive evaluation of ecotoxicity as well as to elucidate the correct mechanisms. Genetic methods, such as transcriptomics, were suggested as useful tools for exploring the toxicity mechanism using the rotifer B. plicatilis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146832

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the functional and structural outcomes of intravitreal conbercept monotherapy using a "3 + pro re nata (PRN)" regimen in treatment-naïve subjects with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) up to 12 months. METHODS: Thirty subjects (30 eyes) with PCV participated in this interventional, retrospective study. All subjects received intravitreal injections of 0.5 mg (0.05 ml) conbercept using a "3 + PRN" regimen for 12 months. The changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters, polyp lesion area, and regression rate were evaluated at baseline, month 3, and month 12. RESULTS: At the study end-point, BCVA improved significantly from 52.80 ± 17.17 ETDRS letters at baseline to 62.20 ± 18.96 letters (P < 0.001), with a mean gain of 9.40 ± 14.97 letters. The central retinal thickness (CRT) significantly reduced from 454.93 ± 147.31 µm at baseline to 308.73 ± 106.80 µm (P < 0.001) at end-point, and the total macular volume (TMV) decreased from 9.51 ± 1.04 mm3 at baseline to 8.32 ± 0.84 mm3 at end-point (P < 0.001). The mean volume of pigment epithelial detachment (PED) decreased from 0.73 ± 0.97 mm3 at baseline to 0.48 ± 0.71 mm3 (P < 0.05) at month 3. At month 12, the mean volume of PED was 0.57 ± 0.80 mm3 (P > 0.05 compared to baseline). After the 3-monthly loading injections, 6 eyes (20.0%) showed complete polyp regression, whereas a total of 19 eyes (63.5%) showed complete regression at month 12. The average injections given per subject were 7.70 ± 1.81. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal conbercept using the "3 + PRN" regimen was effective in the treatment of PCV.

9.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 501, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) depends on the severity of renal involvement, and crescent formation is considered an important risk factor for poor prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN). The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting crescent formation in children with HSPN. METHODS: Demographic factors, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data of children with HSPN with or without crescents were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors of crescent formation in HSPN. RESULTS: A total of 191 children with HSPN were enrolled in the study. There were 107 (56%) males and 84 (44%) females, with a median age of 7 years (range: 2 years-15 years). International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC) grading was used to divide subjects into two groups: those without glomerular crescent formation (ISKDC grades I-II, n = 146 cases) and those with glomerular crescent formation (ISKDC grades III-V, n = 45 cases). Logistic regression analysis showed that higher urinary white blood cell (WBC) count (OR = 3.300; 95% CI, 1.119-9.739; P = 0.0306) and higher urinary microalbumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) (OR = 25.053; 95% CI, 1.354-463.708; P = 0.0305) were independent risk factors for the formation of crescents in HSPN. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of urinary WBC and ACR were 0.753 and 0.698 respectively, with the Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (P = 0.0669, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that higher urinary WBC count and ACR should be strictly monitored for children with HSPN. Adequate clinical intervention for these risk factors may limit or prevent renal crescent formation.

10.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 8528976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145364

RESUMO

Objective: Recent studies have focused on the special roles of NADPH-oxidase in multiple autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, the association of genetic variation in NADPH-oxidase genes with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was not extensively studied in a Chinese population. We performed this study to examine the association of NCF2, NCF4, and CYBA gene polymorphisms with RA susceptibility in a Chinese population. Methods: Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (NCF2 rs10911363, NCF4 rs1883112, rs4821544, rs729749, CYBA rs3794624, and rs4673) were genotyped in a cohort composed of 593 RA patients and 596 normal controls. Improved multiple ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) was used for genotyping. Results: We observed that NCF4 rs4821544 CT genotype and C allele frequencies in RA patients were significantly decreased when compared to controls (CT vs. TT: P = 0.043; C vs. T: P = 0.031), and rs4821544 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RA risk under the dominant model (TT vs. CT+CC: P = 0.031). Our results also indicated that rs729749 CT genotype frequency was significantly lower in RA patients than that in controls (CT vs. CC: P = 0.033). Moreover, the rs729749 CT genotype frequency was also significantly decreased in RA patients in males (CT vs. CC: P = 0.024). No significant association between NCF2 and CYBA gene polymorphisms and RA susceptibility was observed. There were significant associations between rs4821544 TT genotype and T allele frequencies and anti-CCP in male RA patients. Conclusions: In summary, NCF4 rs4821544 and rs729749 polymorphisms might contribute to RA susceptibility, while NCF2 and CYBA gene polymorphisms were not associated with RA susceptibility.

11.
Cell Rep ; 33(5): 108342, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147462

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) infection stimulates a type I interferon (IFN-I) response in host cells that exerts antiviral effects by inducing the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). However, most ISGs are poorly studied for their roles in the infection of IAV. Herein, we demonstrate that SERTA domain containing 3 (SERTAD3) has a significant inhibitory effect on IAV replication in vitro. More importantly, Sertad3-/- mice develop more severe symptoms upon IAV infection. Mechanistically, we find SERTAD3 reduces IAV replication through interacting with viral polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), and polymerase acidic protein (PA) to disrupt the formation of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex. We further identify an 8-amino-acid peptide of SERTAD3 as a minimum interacting motif that can disrupt RdRp complex formation and inhibit IAV replication. Thus, our studies not only identify SERTAD3 as an antiviral ISG, but also provide the mechanism of potential application of SERTAD3-derived peptide in suppressing influenza replication.

12.
Dis Esophagus ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150401

RESUMO

The long-term outcomes of robotic-assisted McKeown esophagectomy (RAME) compared to thoraco-laparoscopic McKeown esophagectomy (TLME) for the patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the number of dissected lymph nodes and long-term survival between RAME and TLME using a propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. A total of 721 patients undergoing minimally invasive McKeown esophagectomy at our department from February 2015 to October 2019 were analyzed, including 310 patients in RAME group and 411 in TLME group. The exact numbers of lymph nodes including those among thoracic and abdominal categories as well as those along the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) were all recorded. PSM analysis was applied to generate matched pairs for further comparison. All patients with R0 resection were followed with a strict follow-up period which range from 1 to 56 months. The effect of lymphadenectomy was compared between all patients in unmatched and matched groups. Long-term outcomes consisting of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and recurrence rate (including regional recurrence rate, systemic recurrence rate and mediastinal lymph nodes recurrence rate) were compared in R0 resection patients. Finally, 292 patients were identified for each cohort after PSM. RAME was found to yield significantly more left RLN lymph nodes (mean: 2.27 ± 0.90 vs. 2.09 ± 0.79; P = 0.011) and more thoracic lymph nodes (mean: 12.60 ± 4.22 vs. 11.83 ± 3.12, P = 0.012) compared with TLME after PSM analysis. There was no significant difference in the OS and DFS between the RAME and TLME group. Besides, total recurrences were recognized in 33 (11.7%) patients in the RAME group and 36 (12.9%) in the TLME group (P = 0.676). The mediastinal lymph nodes recurrence rate in the RAME group was tended to be lower than that in the TLME group (2.5% vs. 5.4%, P = 0.079). Therefore, RAME might be an alternative approach for the treatment of ESCC with more lymph nodes dissected and similar long-term survival outcomes compared to TLME.

13.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 99, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of newborns, has been paradoxically rising despite medical advances. Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) has been reported to be a crucial regulator in alveologenesis. Hence, this study aims to investigate the mechanism of Hdac3 in the abnormal pulmonary angiogenesis and alveolarization of BPD. METHODS: A hyperoxia-induced BPD model of was developed in newborn mice, and primary lung fibroblasts were isolated from adult mice. Hdac3 was knocked out in vivo and knocked down in vitro, while microRNA (miR)-17 was downregulated in vivo and in vitro to clarify their roles in abnormal pulmonary angiogenesis and alveolarization. Mechanistic investigations were performed on the interplay of Hdac3, miR-17-92 cluster, enhancer of zeste homolog 1 (EZH1), p65 and placental growth factor (Pgf). RESULTS: Hdac3 was involved in abnormal alveolarization and angiogenesis in BPD mice. Further, the expression of the miR-17-92 cluster in BPD mice was downregulated by Hdac3. miR-17 was found to target EZH1, and Hdac3 rescued the inhibited EZH1 expression by miR-17 in lung fibroblasts. Additionally, EZH1 augmented Pgf expression by recruiting p65 thus enhancing the progression of BPD. Hdac3 augmented the recruitment of p65 in the Pgf promoter region through the miR-17/EZH1 axis, thus enhancing the transcription and expression of Pgf, which elicited abnormal angiogenesis and alveolarization of BPD mice. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the present study revealed that Hdac3 activated the EZH1-p65-Pgf axis through inhibiting miR-17 in the miR-17-92 cluster, leading to accelerated abnormal pulmonary angiogenesis and alveolarization of BPD mice.

14.
Schizophr Bull ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159208

RESUMO

Exosomes have been suggested as promising targets for the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases, including schizophrenia (SCZ), but the potential role of exosome-derived metabolites in these diseases was rarely studied. Using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we performed the first metabolomic study of serum-derived exosomes from patients with SCZ. Our sample comprised 385 patients and 332 healthy controls recruited from 3 clinical centers and 4 independent cohorts. We identified 25 perturbed metabolites in patients that can be used to classify samples from patients and control participants with 95.7% accuracy (95% CI: 92.6%-98.9%) in the training samples (78 patients and 66 controls). These metabolites also showed good to excellent performance in differentiating between patients and controls in the 3 test sets of participants, with accuracies 91.0% (95% CI: 85.7%-96.3%; 107 patients and 62 controls), 82.7% (95% CI: 77.6%-87.9%; 104 patients and 142 controls), and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7%-100%; 96 patients and 62 controls), respectively. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that these metabolites were enriched in pathways implicated in SCZ, such as glycerophospholipid metabolism. Taken together, our findings support a role for exosomal metabolite dysregulation in the pathophysiology of SCZ and indicate a strong potential for exosome-derived metabolites to inform the diagnosis of SCZ.

15.
Cereb Cortex ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152757

RESUMO

Literature studies have demonstrated the structural, connectional, and functional differences between cortical folding patterns in mammalian brains, such as convex and concave patterns. However, the molecular underpinning of such convex/concave differences remains largely unknown. Thanks to public access to a recently released set of marmoset whole-brain in situ hybridization data by RIKEN, Japan; this data's accessibility empowers us to improve our understanding of the organization, regulation, and function of genes and their relation to macroscale metrics of brains. In this work, magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging macroscale neuroimaging data in this dataset were used to delineate convex/concave patterns in marmoset and to examine their structural features. Machine learning and visualization tools were employed to investigate the possible transcriptome difference between cortical convex and concave patterns. Experimental results demonstrated that a collection of genes is differentially expressed in convex and concave patterns, and their expression profiles can robustly characterize and differentiate the two folding patterns. More importantly, neuroscientific interpretations of these differentially expressed genes, as well as axonal guidance pathway analysis and gene enrichment analysis, offer novel understanding of structural and functional differences between cortical folding patterns in different regions from a molecular perspective.

16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113571, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181282

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sparganii Rhizoma (SR), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is the rhizome of Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham. mainly distributed in East Asia. It has been used for eliminating blood stasis, promoting the flow of Qi, removing the retention of undigested food and relieving pain in China for hundreds of years. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review summarizes comprehensive information in traditional clinical application, processing, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and toxicity of SR, in exploring future scientific and therapeutic potentials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pertinent information was systematically collected from several electronic scientific databases (e.g., Web of Science, PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, Springer, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar), PhD and MS dissertations, and classic Chinese medical books. RESULTS: SR is a gynecological drug which is often used to treat dysmenorrhea, mass in the abdomen, amenorrhea due to blood stasis, and abdominal distension in TCM. Two kinds of processed products of SR are included in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which have better pharmacological effects than the crude herb. Approximately 180 compounds have been identified from SR, including phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, organic acids, alkaloids, steroids, volatile oils, diarylheptanes, etc. The crude extracts and isolated components of SR have been reported to have anti-tumor, antithrombotic, estrogen antagonistic , anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anti organ fibrosis and other pharmacological activities. SR also has reproductive toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: As an important TCM, SR has been demonstrated by modern pharmacological researches to have significant bioactivities, especially on anti-tumor, antithrombotic, and estrogen antagonistic activities. These activities provide prospects for the development of new drugs and therapeutics for future applications. Nevertheless, quality control and evaluation, in-depth pharmacological mechanism, and toxicological effect of SR require further detailed research.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(47): e23196, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine the effect of supportive psychological intervention (SPI) on psychological disorders (PD) in clinical medicine students (CMS) with English Learning Difficulties (ELD). METHODS: We will perform a comprehensive literature search from the following databases: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. All databases will be performed from their inception to the present without language limitation by 2 independent reviewers. We will also look for grey literature, such as conference proceedings, dissertations or theses. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used to assess study quality, and RevMan 5.3 software will be applied to carry out statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will summarize the most recent evidence to assess the effect of SPI on PD in CMS with ELD. CONCLUSION: This study may provide helpful evidence of SPI on PD in CMS with ELD. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER:: osf.io/tah2s.

18.
Ophthalmology ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report 2-year efficacy and safety outcomes of 2 dosing regimens of abicipar (every 8 weeks and quarterly, after initial doses) compared with monthly ranibizumab in patients with treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). DESIGN: Two multicenter, randomized, phase 3 clinical trials with identical protocols (CEDAR/SEQUOIA). Analyses used pooled trial data. PARTICIPANTS: The trials enrolled 1888 patients (1 eye/patient) with active choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 24-73 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters. METHODS: At enrollment, patients were assigned to study eye treatment with abicipar 2 mg every 8 weeks after 3 initial doses at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 (abicipar Q8, n = 630), abicipar 2 mg every 12 weeks after 3 initial doses at baseline and weeks 4 and 12 (abicipar Q12, n = 628), or ranibizumab 0.5 mg every 4 weeks (ranibizumab Q4, n = 630). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy measures included stable vision (<15-letter loss in BCVA from baseline) and change from baseline in BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT). Safety measures included adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: For patients who completed the study, efficacy of abicipar after initial doses was maintained through week 104. At week 104, the proportion of patients with stable vision was 93.0% (396/426), 89.8% (379/422), and 94.4% (470/498); mean change in BCVA from baseline was +7.8, +6.1, and +8.5 letters, and mean change in CRT from baseline was -147, -146, and -142 µm in the abicipar Q8 (14 injections), abicipar Q12 (10 injections), and ranibizumab Q4 (25 injections) groups, respectively. The overall incidence of intraocular inflammation (IOI) AEs was 15.4%, 15.3%, and 0.3% from baseline through week 52 and 16.2%, 17.6%, and 1.3% from baseline through week 104 in the abicipar Q8, abicipar Q12, and ranibizumab Q4 groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Two-year results show efficacy of abicipar Q8 and Q12 in nAMD. First onset of IOI events with abicipar was much reduced in the second year and comparable to that with ranibizumab (0.8% and 2.3% vs 1.0%). The extended duration of effect of abicipar allows for quarterly dosing and reduced treatment burden.

19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221752

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the dual mechanism of islet transplantation in T1D by regulating the immune tolerance of macrophages and inducing the neovascularization. Methods NC group, T1D model group and T1D model + islet group were constructed. Then, the abdominal aorta blood of abdominal aorta and islet tissue were collected. ELISA was performed to detect the level of IL-1Rα, IL-1α, IL-1ß, CXCL2, MCP1, TNF-α and IL-10. Flow cytometry was used to measure the content of M1 and M2 macrophages. HE staining indicated the pathological characteristics of islet. IHC and WB were applied to determine the protein levels of IGF1R, FGFR2 or VEGFA as well as IGF1R, GRB2, EGFR, PTPN1, JAK2, STAT3, Caspase-1, Bcl2 respectively. Results Islet transplantation in T1D stimulated the expression of IL-1Rα, IL-1α, IL-1ß, CXCL2, MCP1, TNF-α and IL-10 in abdominal aorta blood, changed the content of MHCII+CD206-M1 and MHCII+CD206+M2 macrophages, reduced the pathological features and the infiltration of immunocytes, promoted the expression of IGF1R, FGFR2 and VEGFA, eliminated cell apoptosis and induced the neovascularization in islet grafts. Conclusions Islet transplantation is an effective strategy for the treatment of T1D. It can increase the content of M2 macrophages whose immune tolerance can elevate the survival of islet grafts, reduce the inflammatory responses mediated by macrophages, promote the neovascularization and eliminate the cell apoptosis of islet grafts.

20.
Mamm Genome ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221999

RESUMO

Antibiotics contribute a lot to human beings and can kill bacteria effectively. However, more and more studies show that antibiotics can disturb the intestinal microbial community. It has been widely reported that oral antibiotics can reduce the diversity of intestinal microflora, but the effect of intramuscular injection on intestinal microflora is less studied. In this study, we sequenced the intestinal microflora of mice treated with tetracycline by 16SrRNA method, and found that intramuscular injection of tetracycline (TET) can also reduce the intestinal microbial richness of mice. In addition, the results showed that within a certain range (3 mg), with the increase of TET injection concentration, the wind of intestinal microflora in mice decreased significantly. When the injection concentration reached saturation, although the amount of TET injection was increased, the degree of intestinal flora affected was not increased. The results showed that the degree of diversity decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of tetracycline injection in the saturated concentration, but not positively related to the high amount of TET injection after exceeding the saturated concentration.

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