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1.
Structure ; 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733995

RESUMO

Immunogenetic studies have shown that specific HLA-B residues (67, 70, 97, and 156) mediate the impact of HLA class I on HIV infection, but the molecular basis is not well understood. Here we evaluate the function of these residues within the protective HLA-B∗5701 allele. While mutation of Met67, Ser70, and Leu156 disrupt CD8+ T cell recognition, substitution of Val97 had no significant impact. Thermal denaturation of HLA-B∗5701-peptide complexes revealed that Met67 and Leu156 maintain HLA-peptide stability, while Ser70 and Leu156 facilitate T cell receptor (TCR) interactions. Analyses of existing structures and structural models suggested that Val97 mediates HLA-peptide binding to inhibitory KIR3DL1 molecules, which was confirmed by experimental assays. These data thereby demonstrate that the genetic basis by which host immunity impacts HIV outcomes occurs by modulating HLA-B-peptide stability and conformation for interaction with TCR and killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) molecules. Moreover, they indicate a key role for epitope specificity and HLA-KIR interactions to HIV control.

2.
Foods ; 13(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611387

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng) is a valuable herbal medicine, as well as a dietary food supplement known for its satisfactory clinical efficacy in alleviating blood stasis, reducing swelling, and relieving pain. However, the ability of P. notoginseng to absorb and accumulate cadmium (Cd) poses a significant environmental pollution risk and potential health hazards to humans. In this study, we employed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the rapid detection of Cd. It is important to note that signal uncertainty can impact the quantification performance of LIBS. Hence, we proposed the crater-spectrum feature fusion method, which comprises ablation crater morphology compensation and characteristic peak ratio correction (CPRC), to explore the feasibility of signal uncertainty reduction. The crater morphology compensation method, namely, adding variables using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis, decreased the root-mean-square error of the prediction set (RMSEP) from 7.0233 µg/g to 5.4043 µg/g. The prediction results were achieved after CPRC pretreatment using the calibration curve model with an RMSEP of 3.4980 µg/g, a limit of detection of 1.92 µg/g, and a limit of quantification of 6.41 µg/g. The crater-spectrum feature fusion method reached the lowest RMSEP of 2.8556 µg/g, based on a least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) model. The preliminary results suggest the effectiveness of the crater-spectrum feature fusion method for detecting Cd. Furthermore, this method has the potential to be extended to detect other toxic metals in addition to Cd, which significantly contributes to ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural production.

3.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14278, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644530

RESUMO

Harvest maturity significantly affects the quality of apple fruit in post-harvest storage process. Although the regulatory mechanisms underlying fruit ripening have been studied, the associated epigenetic modifications remain unclear. Thus, we compared the DNA methylation changes and the transcriptional responses of mature fruit (MF) and immature fruit (NF). There were significant correlations between DNA methylation and gene expression. Moreover, the sugar contents (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) were higher in MF than in NF, whereas the opposite pattern was detected for the starch content. The expression-level differences were due to DNA methylations and ultimately resulted in diverse fruit textures and ripeness. Furthermore, the higher ethylene, auxin, and abscisic acid levels in MF than in NF, which influenced the fruit texture and ripening, were associated with multiple differentially expressed genes in hormone synthesis, signaling, and response pathways (ACS, ACO, ZEP, NCED, and ABA2) that were regulated by DNA methylations. Multiple transcription factor genes involved in regulating fruit ripening and quality via changes in DNA methylation were identified, including MIKCC-type MADS-box genes and fruit ripening-related genes (NAP, SPL, WRKY, and NAC genes). These findings reflect the diversity in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and may be relevant for elucidating the epigenetic regulatory mechanism underlying the ripening and quality of apple fruit with differing harvest maturity.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus , Malus/genética , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Epigenômica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Radiology ; 311(1): e231852, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625007

RESUMO

Background Although favorable outcomes have been reported with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), the long-term efficacy remains insufficiently investigated. Purpose To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of US-guided percutaneous RFA in patients with SHPT undergoing dialysis and to identify possible predictors associated with treatment failure. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included consecutive patients with SHPT with at least one enlarged parathyroid gland accessible for RFA who were undergoing dialysis at seven tertiary centers from May 2013 to July 2022. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels less than or equal to 585 pg/mL at the end of follow-up. Secondary end points were the proportion of patients with normal calcium and phosphorus levels, the technical success rate, procedure-related complications, and improvement in self-rated hyperparathyroidism-related symptoms (0-3 ranking scale). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and generalized estimating equation model were used to evaluate treatment outcomes. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses identified variables associated with treatment failure (recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism). Results This study included 165 patients (median age, 51 years [IQR, 44-60 years]; 92 female) and 582 glands. RFA effectively reduced PTH, calcium, and phosphorus levels, with targeted ranges achieved in 78.2% (129 of 165), 72.7% (120 of 165), and 60.0% (99 of 165) of patients, respectively, at the end of follow-up (mean, 51 months). For the RFA sessions, the technical success rate was 100% (214 of 214). Median symptom scores (ostealgia, arthralgia, pruritus) decreased (all P < .001). Regarding complications, only hypocalcemia (45.8%, 98 of 214) was common. Treatment failure occurred in 36 patients (recurrent [n = 5] or persistent [n = 31] hyperparathyroidism). The only potential independent predictor of treatment failure was having less than four treated glands (odds ratio, 17.18; 95% CI: 4.34, 67.95; P < .001). Conclusion US-guided percutaneous RFA was effective and safe in the long term as a nonsurgical alternative for patients with SHPT undergoing dialysis; the only potential independent predictor of treatment failure was a lower number (<4) of treated glands. © RSNA, 2024 Supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/cirurgia , Fósforo
5.
J Genet Genomics ; 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582298

RESUMO

The phenotypic diversity resulting from artificial or natural selection of sheep has made a significant contribution to human civilization. Hu sheep are a local sheep breed unique to China with high reproductive rates and rapid growth. Genome selection signatures have been widely used to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation in livestock. Here, we conduct whole-genome sequencing of 207 Hu sheep and compare them with the wild ancestors of domestic sheep (Asiatic mouflon) to investigate the genetic characteristics and selection signatures of Hu sheep. Based on six signatures of selection approaches, we detect genomic regions containing genes related to reproduction (BMPR1B, BMP2, PGFS, CYP19, CAMK4, GGT5, and GNAQ), vision (ALDH1A2, SAG, and PDE6B), nervous system (NAV1), and immune response (GPR35, SH2B2, PIK3R3, and HRAS). Association analysis with a population of 1299 Hu sheep reveal those missense mutations in the GPR35 (GPR35 g.952651 A>G; GPR35 g.952496 C>T) and NAV1 (NAV1 g.84216190 C>T; NAV1 g.84227412 G>A) genes are significantly associated (P < 0.05) with immune and growth traits in Hu sheep, respectively. This research offers unique insights into the selection characteristics of Hu sheep and facilitates further genetic improvement and molecular investigations.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(8)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673191

RESUMO

Different formulations of foaming polyurethane grout offer controlled expansion rates. This is crucial for precision in filling voids without exerting excessive pressure on surrounding structures, which could potentially cause damage. This study focuses on the impact of composition on the expansion performance of tailor-made polyurethane grouting materials. Initially, multiple unknown chemical reaction kinetic parameters were identified by combining free expansion tests, which involved measuring density and temperature changes, with the particle swarm optimization algorithm. A numerical simulation, integrating chemical kinetic models and fluid flow equations, was established to replicate the free expansion process of polyurethane grout in a cup, aligning with our experimental results. Subsequently, we analyzed the polymerization process of polyurethane grout with varying compositions to determine the effect of composition ratios on grout expansion. Our findings reveal that the expansion ratio of foaming polyurethane is predominantly influenced by the concentrations of physical and chemical foaming agents, followed by isocyanate concentration. Polyol, in contrast, exerts a relatively minor influence. Furthermore, the solubility of the physical foaming agent in the grout determines both its maximum allowable concentration and its maximum contribution to volume increase. This study provides valuable insights for the design and selection of polyurethane grout components tailored to diverse applications.

7.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683975

RESUMO

A new labdane diterpene (1), two new norsesquiterpenoids (2-3), as well as eight known terpenoids (4-11) were isolated from the seeds of Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae). Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR, MS, and comparison of their experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD). The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of all the isolated compounds (1-11) were evaluated and the result showed that compounds 6 and 9 had inhibitory activity against AChE, with IC50 values at 295.70 and 183.91 µM, whereas other compounds did not show any inhibitory activity.

8.
Anim Biotechnol ; 35(1): 2344207, 2024 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669223

RESUMO

As a crucial economic trait, fat deposition is directly related to carcass quality and feed efficiency in sheep. The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymorphisms of the FGB gene related to fat deposition and detect the expression features of the FGB gene in different adipose tissues of sheep by using Sanger sequencing, MassARRAY® SNP technique, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that in the intron region of the FGB gene, a SNP g. 3378953 A > T has been identified, and significant association was found between perirenal fat weight, perirenal fat relative weight, mesenteric fat weight, and mesenteric fat relative weight (P < 0.05). Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis showed that FGB was expressed in all three adipose tissues, and FGB gene expression level in the AA genotype was significantly lower than that in the AT or TT genotypes (P < 0.05). Therefore, the FGB gene can be used as a candidate gene to reduce fat deposition in Hu sheep breeding, and the selection of the AA genotype in Hu sheep in production practice is more conducive to improving production efficiency.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/fisiologia , Genótipo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Cruzamento
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9596, 2024 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671007

RESUMO

We aimed to analyze the risk factors and construct a new nomogram to predict non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis for cT1-2 breast cancer patients with positivity after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). A total of 830 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery between 2016 and 2021 at multi-center were included in the retrospective analysis. Patients were divided into training (n = 410), internal validation (n = 298), and external validation cohorts (n = 122) based on periods and centers. A nomogram-based prediction model for the risk of NSLN metastasis was constructed by incorporating independent predictors of NSLN metastasis identified through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses in the training cohort and then validated by validation cohorts. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) (P < 0.001), the proportion of positive SLNs (P = 0.029), lymph-vascular invasion (P = 0.029), perineural invasion (P = 0.023), and estrogen receptor (ER) status (P = 0.034) were independent risk factors for NSLN metastasis. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) value of this model was 0.730 (95% CI 0.676-0.785) for the training, 0.701 (95% CI 0.630-0.773) for internal validation, and 0.813 (95% CI 0.734-0.891) for external validation cohorts. Decision curve analysis also showed that the model could be effectively applied in clinical practice. The proposed nomogram estimated the likelihood of positive NSLNs and assisted the surgeon in deciding whether to perform further axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and avoid non-essential ALND as well as postoperative complications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Metástase Linfática , Nomogramas , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Linfonodo Sentinela , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Linfonodo Sentinela/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Curva ROC , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia
10.
Genome Biol ; 25(1): 87, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification. However, its contribution to trait changes and diversity in the domestication of perennial fruit trees remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, we investigate the variation in DNA methylation during pear domestication and improvement using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in 41 pear accessions. Contrary to the significant decrease during rice domestication, we detect a global increase in DNA methylation during pear domestication and improvement. We find this specific increase in pear is significantly correlated with the downregulation of Demeter-like1 (DML1, encoding DNA demethylase) due to human selection. We identify a total of 5591 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Methylation in the CG and CHG contexts undergoes co-evolution during pear domestication and improvement. DMRs have higher genetic diversity than selection sweep regions, especially in the introns. Approximately 97% of DMRs are not associated with any SNPs, and these DMRs are associated with starch and sucrose metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. We also perform correlation analysis between DNA methylation and gene expression. We find genes close to the hypermethylated DMRs that are significantly associated with fruit ripening. We further verify the function of a hyper-DMR-associated gene, CAMTA2, and demonstrate that overexpression of CAMTA2 in tomato and pear callus inhibits fruit ripening. CONCLUSIONS: Our study describes a specific pattern of DNA methylation in the domestication and improvement of a perennial pear tree and suggests that increased DNA methylation plays an essential role in the early ripening of pear fruits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Pyrus , Humanos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Pyrus/genética , Domesticação , Epigênese Genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Transativadores/genética
11.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587144

RESUMO

Fungi have different genetic expression abilities and biosynthetic pathways under different cultivation conditions, which can produce various secondary metabolites. The "one strain many compounds" strategy is used to activate silent biosynthetic genes of fungi to produce various compounds, which is an effective method. In order to discover various new compounds in the edible fungus Pholiota nameko, a fermentation strategy involving precursor feeding and enzyme inhibitor addition has been employed. A new illudane sesquiterpene (1), along with one known indole diterpenoid alkaloid, cladosporine A (2) were isolated from the extracts of liquid culture of P. nameko. The new compound was identified by combination of 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation, and ECD calculations. We conducted experiments on the cytotoxicity of all isolated compounds on three cancer cell lines, but we did not observe any significant cytotoxicity (IC50 > 40 µM).

12.
Virol J ; 21(1): 100, 2024 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a surge in human metapneumovirus (HMPV) transmission, surpassing pre-epidemic levels. We aim to elucidate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HMPV infections in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, participants diagnosed with laboratory confirmed HMPV infection through Targeted Next Generation Sequencing were included. The study encompassed individuals admitted to Henan Children's Hospital between April 29 and June 5, 2023. Demographic information, clinical records, and laboratory indicators were analyzed. RESULTS: Between April 29 and June 5, 2023, 96 pediatric patients were identified as infected with HMPV with a median age of 33.5 months (interquartile range, 12 ~ 48 months). The majority (87.5%) of infected children were under 5 years old. Notably, severe cases were statistically younger. Predominant symptoms included fever (81.3%) and cough (92.7%), with wheezing more prevalent in the severe group (56% vs 21.1%). Coinfection with other viruses was observed in 43 patients, with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (15.6%) or human rhinovirus A (HRV type A) (12.5%) being the most common. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) coinfection rate was significantly higher in the severe group (20% vs 1.4%). Bacterial coinfection occurred in 74 patients, with Haemophilus influenzae (Hin) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SNP) being the most prevalent (52.1% and 41.7%, respectively). Severe patients demonstrated evidence of multi-organ damage. Noteworthy alterations included lower concentration of IL-12p70, decreased lymphocytes percentages, and elevated B lymphocyte percentages in severe cases, with statistical significance. Moreover, most laboratory indicators exhibited significant changes approximately 4 to 5 days after onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our data systemically elucidated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients with HMPV infection, which might be instructive to policy development for the prevention and control of HMPV infection and might provide important clues for future HMPV research endeavors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Metapneumovirus , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Metapneumovirus/genética , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Lactente , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(6): 5581-5600, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships between S100A7 and the immune characteristics, tumor heterogeneity, and tumor stemness pan-cancer as well as the effect of S100A7 on chemotherapy sensitivity in breast cancer. METHODS: TCGA-BRCA and TCGA-PANCANCER RNA-seq data and clinical follow-up survival data were collected from the University of California Santa Cruz database. Survival analyses were performed to explore the relationship between S100A7 expression and pan-cancer prognosis. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were used to identify the potential pathways related to the differentially expressed genes in breast cancer. Spearman's and Wilcoxon's tests were used to investigate the relationships between S100A7 expression and immune characteristics, methylation, tumor heterogeneity, and tumor stemness. The potential functions of S100A7 and its influence on chemotherapy sensitivity in breast cancer were elucidated using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, Transwell assay, and wound healing assay. RESULTS: S100A7 was highly expressed in most types of tumors and was associated with poor prognosis. S100A7 was closely associated with immunomodulators, immune checkpoint and immune cell infiltration. Further, S100A7 was related to tumor mutational burden, tumor heterogeneity, methylation and tumor stemness in breast cancer. High S100A7 expression was associated with the invasiveness, migration, proliferation and chemotherapy resistance of breast cancer cells in vitro experiments. CONCLUSION: High S100A7 expression was related with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer, making it a potential immune and chemotherapy resistance biomarker.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Mamárias Animais , Animais , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Bioensaio , Metilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Humanos
14.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 116, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for astigmatism in 7-19-year-old students in Xinjiang, China. METHODS: A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on students who underwent refraction examination in Xinjiang, China, between May and December 2019. The prevalence of astigmatism was determined. Astigmatism was defined as cylinder power (C) ≤-0.75 D, undefined astigmatism as ≤-1.50 D, and high astigmatism as C ≤-3.00 D. Astigmatism types were: against-the-rule astigmatism (maximum refraction of the main meridian in 180° ± 30°), with-the-rule astigmatism (maximum refraction of the main meridian at 90°±30°), and oblique astigmatism (all other cases). RESULTS: Of the 71,838 students examined (51.0% boys, 7 - 19 years old), 25,945 (36.1%, 95%CI: 35.52-36.68%) had astigmatism and 1267 (1.8%, 95%CI: 1.07-2.53%) had high astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism was greater in Han individuals (39.6%) compared with the Hui (34.0%), Kazakh (34.0%), Kyrgyz (32.1%), and Uyghur (26.4%) populations. Among the 25,945 students with astigmatism, 19,947 had with-the-rule astigmatism (76.9%), 3405 had against-the-rule astigmatism (13.1%), and 2593 had oblique astigmatism (10.0%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that ethnicity (Han individuals more susceptible), male gender, age, and refractive errors (myopia and hyperopia) were independently associated with astigmatism, high astigmatism, and with-the-rule astigmatism (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of astigmatism among children and adolescents in Xinjiang was 36.1%, including 1.8% of high astigmatism. In this population, astigmatism was mainly of the with-the-rule astigmatism type (76.9%). Han ethnicity, male gender, and myopia or hyperopia were independently associated with a high risk of astigmatism.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Feminino , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, most articles mainly focused on the diagnosis of thyroid nodules by using artificial intelligence (AI), and there was little research on the detection performance of AI in thyroid nodules. OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of a real-time AI based on computer-aided diagnosis system in the detection of thyroid nodules and to analyze the factors influencing the detection accuracy. METHODS: From June 1, 2022 to December 31, 2023, 224 consecutive patients with 587 thyroid nodules were prospective collected. Based on the detection results determined by two experienced radiologists (both with more than 15 years experience in thyroid diagnosis), the detection ability of thyroid nodules of radiologists with different experience levels (junior radiologist with 1 year experience and senior radiologist with 5 years experience in thyroid diagnosis) and real-time AI were compared. According to the logistic regression analysis, the factors influencing the real-time AI detection of thyroid nodules were analyzed. RESULTS: The detection rate of thyroid nodules by real-time AI was significantly higher than that of junior radiologist (P = 0.013), but lower than that of senior radiologist (P = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that nodules size, superior pole, outside (near carotid artery), close to vessel, echogenicity (isoechoic, hyperechoic, mixed-echoic), morphology (not very regular, irregular), margin (unclear), ACR TI-RADS category 4 and 5 were significant independent influencing factors (all P < 0.05). With the combination of real-time AI and radiologists, junior and senior radiologist increased the detection rate to 97.4% (P < 0.001) and 99.1% (P = 0.015) respectively. CONCLUSONS: The real-time AI has good performance in thyroid nodule detection and can be a good auxiliary tool in the clinical work of radiologists.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 12(3)2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543926

RESUMO

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1/2 trial aimed at evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of Ad5-nCoV via aerosolized or intramuscular or intramuscular-aerosolized routes in SARS-CoV-2-negative adults aged over 18 years. In the phase 1 trial, participants were sequentially enrolled into one of five regimen cohorts: Low-Dose (two doses of aerosolized Ad5-nCoV with 0.5 × 1010 viral particles [vps] per dose), Middle-Dose (two doses of aerosolized Ad5-nCoV with 1.0 × 1010 vps per dose), High-Dose (two doses of aerosolized Ad5-nCoV with 2.0 × 1010 vps per dose), Mixed (intramuscular Ad5-nCoV with 5.0 × 1010 vps [first dose] and aerosolized Ad5-nCoV with 2.0 × 1010 vps [second dose]), and Single-Dose (one dose of aerosolized Ad5-nCoV with 1.0 × 1010 vps). Eligible participants in the phase 2 trial were stratified by 18-59 years old or ≥60 years old and then were sequentially enrolled into one of six regimen cohorts: Low-Dose, Middle-Dose, High-Dose, Mixed, Single-Dose, and Intramuscular (one dose of intramuscular Ad5-nCoV with 1.0 × 1010 vps). The intervals between the two doses were 56 days. Participants were randomly allocated in 3:1 (phase 1) and 5:1 (phase 2) ratios to receive either Ad5-nCoV or the placebo in each cohort. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04840992. Most adverse reactions that occurred during the solicited period were mild and moderate. One serious adverse event (myelodysplastic syndrome) was considered potentially related to the aerosolized Ad5-nCoV. The GMTs of neutralizing antibodies in the Mixed group were the highest with 57.03 (95% CI: 23.95, 135.80) and 97.37 (95% CI: 74.30, 127.59) in phase 1 and 2 trials, respectively, 28 days after the second dose (p < 0.0001), which showed significantly higher immune responses compared to other regimens with aerosolized or intramuscular Ad5-nCoV alone.

17.
Artif Intell Med ; 150: 102823, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553163

RESUMO

Medical imaging is an important tool for clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, it is very time-consuming and error-prone for physicians to prepare imaging diagnosis reports. Therefore, it is necessary to develop some methods to generate medical imaging reports automatically. Currently, the task of medical imaging report generation is challenging in at least two aspects: (1) medical images are very similar to each other. The differences between normal and abnormal images and between different abnormal images are usually trivial; (2) unrelated or incorrect keywords describing abnormal findings in the generated reports lead to mis-communications. In this paper, we propose a medical image report generation framework composed of four modules, including a Transformer encoder, a MIX-MLP multi-label classification network, a co-attention mechanism (CAM) based semantic and visual feature fusion, and a hierarchical LSTM decoder. The Transformer encoder can be used to learn long-range dependencies between images and labels, effectively extract visual and semantic features of images, and establish long-term dependent relationships between visual and semantic information to accurately extract abnormal features from images. The MIX-MLP multi-label classification network, the co-attention mechanism and the hierarchical LSTM network can better identify abnormalities, achieving visual and text alignment fusion and multi-label diagnostic classification to better facilitate report generation. The results of the experiments performed on two widely used radiology report datasets, IU X-RAY and MIMIC-CXR, show that our proposed framework outperforms current report generation models in terms of both natural linguistic generation metrics and clinical efficacy assessment metrics. The code of this work is available online at https://github.com/watersunhznu/LIFMRG.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Médicos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Linguística , Semântica , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6291, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491124

RESUMO

Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) possesses heat-clearing, detoxification, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain under-researched. In this study, we identified potential targets of HDW and collected differentially expressed genes of RA from the GEO dataset GSE77298, leading to the construction of a drug-component-target-disease regulatory network. The intersecting genes underwent GO and KEGG analysis. A PPI protein interaction network was established in the STRING database. Through LASSO, RF, and SVM-RFE algorithms, we identified the core gene MMP9. Subsequent analyses, including ROC, GSEA enrichment, and immune cell infiltration, correlated core genes with RA. mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA regulatory networks were predicted using databases like TargetScan, miRTarBase, miRWalk, starBase, lncBase, and the GEO dataset GSE122616. Experimental verification in RA-FLS cells confirmed HDW's regulatory impact on core genes and their ceRNA expression. We obtained 11 main active ingredients of HDW and 180 corresponding targets, 2150 RA-related genes, and 36 drug-disease intersection targets. The PPI network diagram and three machine learning methods screened to obtain MMP9, and further analysis showed that MMP9 had high diagnostic significance and was significantly correlated with the main infiltrated immune cells, and the molecular docking verification also showed that MMP9 and the main active components of HDW were well combined. Next, we predicted 6 miRNAs and 314 lncRNAs acting on MMP9, and two ceRNA regulatory axes were obtained according to the screening. Cellular assays indicated HDW inhibits RA-FLS cell proliferation and MMP9 protein expression dose-dependently, suggesting HDW might influence RA's progression by regulating the MMP9/miR-204-5p/MIAT axis. This innovative analytical thinking provides guidance and reference for the future research on the ceRNA mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Hedyotis , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Farmacologia em Rede , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Biologia Computacional , MicroRNAs/genética
19.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1281301, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38550315

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to translate and validate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Philippines Sunlight Exposure Questionnaire. Methods: A total of 392 Chinese individuals aged at least 18 years, residing in various cities in Sichuan province for at least 1 year, were recruited. The reliability of the Chinese version of the questionnaire was measured through internal consistency, split-half reliability, and retest reliability, while validity was determined using the content validity index and the structure validity index. Results: The Chinese version of the Sunlight Exposure Questionnaire, which includes 19 items covering 5 factors, demonstrated McDonald's omega coefficient of 0.788. The split-half reliability of the questionnaire was 0.823, and the retest reliability was 0.940. The content validity index (S-CVI) was 0.952. The five-factor structure, supported by eigenvalues, explained 66.2% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated favorable model fit. Results: The chi-square value degrees of freedom ratio (χ2/df) = 1.852, the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) = 0.938, the normed fit index (NFI) = 0.922, the incremental fit index (IFI) = 0.962, the comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.962, the Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.952, and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.047. The indicators of the fit of the model were within reasonable bounds. Conclusion: The Chinese version of the Sunlight Exposure Questionnaire shows validity and good reliability for assessing sun exposure among adults in a Chinese cultural context.


Assuntos
Luz Solar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Humanos , Análise Fatorial , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Idioma , China
20.
ACS Omega ; 9(11): 13163-13171, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38524476

RESUMO

This research investigated the effect of branching fracture, proppant, and fracturing fluid on proppant transport based on the CFD-DEM coupling model. The obtained results show that the balance height of embankment in the major fracture decreases gradually with increasing angle between major and branching fractures, while it increases gradually in the branching fracture. This is because the additional resistance of fracturing fluid flow at the joint increases with increasing angle, leading to the decrease of the fracturing fluid velocity. The proppant is prone to settling in branching fractures, resulting in the increase of embankment height in the branching fracture. At angles of 45, 60, and 90°, as the diameter of the proppant increases from 0.8 to 1.1 mm, the balance height of embankment increases slightly in the major fracture, while it decreases in the branching fracture. The frictional resistance of the fracture wall enhances the difficulty of large proppant entering the branching fracture, resulting in a decrease in the amount of proppant entering the branching fracture and a decrease of the balance height of embankment in the branching fracture. In the low-viscosity fracturing fluid, the proppant quickly deposits at the bottom of the fracture as it enters the fracture. Improving the viscosity of the fracturing fluid can significantly enhance its ability to transport the proppant. The proppant is less likely to quickly settle in high-viscosity fracturing fluids, especially when the fracturing fluid viscosity exceeds 50 mPa·s.

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