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1.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1379382, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585689

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome plays a critical role in maintaining our health. Fluctuations in the diversity and structure of the gut microbiota have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several metabolic and inflammatory conditions. Dietary patterns, medication, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity can all influence the abundance of different types of microbiota in the gut, which in turn can affect the health of individuals. Intestinal phages are an essential component of the gut microbiome, but most studies predominantly focus on the structure and dynamics of gut bacteria while neglecting the role of phages in shaping the gut microbiome. As bacteria-killing viruses, the distribution of bacteriophages in the intestine, their role in influencing the intestinal microbiota, and their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Herein, we present an overview of the current knowledge of gut phages, their lifestyles, identification, and potential impact on the gut microbiota.

2.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 115, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become an increasingly important public health disease with a high incidence rate and mortality. Although several studies have explored the effectiveness of resistance exercise in improving the prognosis of CKD patients, the number of studies is still limited and the results are still controversial. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies to evaluate the effectiveness of resistance exercise on CKD patients. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from the inception date to October 2023. The meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate 12 main indicators, including glomerular filtration rate (GFR)(ml/(min•1.73m2)), C-reactive protein (CRP) (mg/L), serum creatinine (mg/dL), hemoglobin (g/dL), Glycosylated Hemoglobin, Type A1C (HBA1c) (%), high Density Lipoprotein (HDL) (mg/dL), low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) (mg/dL), 6-min walk(m), body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), fat-free mass (kg), fat mass (kg), grip strength (kgf). RESULTS: Sixteen RCT studies were included in this meta-analysis from 875 records. GFR exhibited no significant change in CKD patients treated with resistance exercise (WMD 1.82; 95%CI -0.59 to 4.23; P = 0.139). However, 6-min walk (WMD 89.93; 95%CI 50.12 to 129.74; P = 0.000), fat-free mass (WMD 6.53; 95%CI 1.14 to 11.93; P = 0.018) and grip strength (WMD 3.97; 95%CI 1.89 to 6.05; P = 0.000) were significantly improved with resistance exercise. The level of CRP (WMD - 2.46; 95%CI -4.21 to -0.72; P = 0.006) and HBA1c (WMD - 0.46; 95%CI -0.63 to -0.29; P = 0.000) dropped significantly after resistance exercise treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance exercise can improve physical function, metabolic condition, inflammatory response and cardiopulmonary function in CKD patients, specifically reflected in the increase of indicators fat-free mass, grip strength, 6-min walk, as well as the decrease of indicators HBA1c and CRP.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Treinamento de Força , Humanos , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico
3.
Acad Radiol ; 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453602

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare superb microvascular imaging (SMI)-based radiomics methods, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-based radiomics methods to the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS) for classifying thyroid nodules (TNs) and reducing unnecessary fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled a dataset of 472 pathologically confirmed TNs. Radiomics characteristics were extracted from B-mode ultrasound (BMUS), SMI, and CEUS images, respectively. After eliminating redundant features, four radiomics scores (Rad-scores) were constructed. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, four radiomics prediction models incorporating Rad-score and corresponding US features were constructed and validated in terms of discrimination, calibration, decision curve analysis, and unnecessary FNAB rate. RESULTS: The diagnostic performance of the BMUS + SMI radiomics method was better than ACR TI-RADS (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.875 vs. 0.689 for the training cohort, 0.879 vs. 0.728 for the validation cohort) (P < 0.05), and comparable with BMUS + CEUS radiomics method (AUC: 0.875 vs. 0.878 for the training cohort, 0.879 vs. 0.865 for the validation cohort) (P > 0.05). Decision curve analysis showed that the BMUS+SMI radiomics method could achieve higher net benefits than the BMUS radiomics method and ACR TI-RADS when the threshold probability was between 0.13 and 0.88 in the entire cohort. When applying the BMUS+SMI radiomics method, the unnecessary FNAB rate reduced from 43.4% to 13.9% in the training cohort and from 45.6% to 18.0% in the validation cohorts in comparison to ACR TI-RADS. CONCLUSION: The dual-modal SMI-based radiomics method is convenient and economical and can be an alternative to the dual-modal CEUS-based radiomics method in helping radiologists select the optimal clinical strategy for TN management.

4.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(5)2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475467

RESUMO

The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the photosynthetic performance of subtropical coniferous species have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we treated two coniferous species, Pinus massoniana (PM) and Cunninghamia lanceolata (CL), with four gradients of SAR and then analyzed their photosynthetic activities through measurements of gas exchange, prompt fluorescence (PF), delayed fluorescence (DF), and modulated reflection at 820 nm (MR820). Gas exchange analysis indicated that the decrease in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in PM and CL was unrelated to stomatal factors. For the PF transients, SAR induced positive K-band and L-band, a significant reduction in photosynthetic performance index (PIABS), the quantum yield of electron transfer per unit cross-section (ETO/CSm), and maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). Analysis of the MR820 kinetics showed that the re-reduction kinetics of PSI reaction center (P700+) and plastocyanin (PC+) became slower and occurred at later times under SAR treatment. For the DF signals, a decrease in the amplitude of the DF induction curve reduced the maximum value of DF (I1). These results suggested that SAR obstructed photosystem II (PSII) donor-side and acceptor-side electron transfer capacity, impaired the connectivity between PSII and PSI, and destroyed the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). However, PM was better able to withstand SAR stress than CL, likely because of the activation of a protective mechanism.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 15(2): 120, 2024 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331868

RESUMO

Targeting C5aR1 modulates the function of infiltrated immune cells including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The gut microbiome plays a pivotal role in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis and development through TAM education. However, whether and how the gut flora is involved in C5aR1 inhibition-mediated TAMs remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, genetic deletion of C5ar1 or pharmacological inhibition of C5aR1 with anti-C5aR1 Ab or PMX-53 in the presence or absence of deletion Abs were utilized to verify if and how C5aR1 inhibition regulated TAMs polarization via affecting gut microbiota composition. We found that the therapeutic effects of C5aR1 inhibition on CRC benefited from programming of TAMs toward M1 polarization via driving AKT2-mediated 6-phosphofructokinase muscle type (PFKM) stabilization in a TLR5-dependent manner. Of note, in the further study, we found that C5aR1 inhibition elevated the concentration of serum IL-22 and the mRNA levels of its downstream target genes encoded antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), leading to gut microbiota modulation and flagellin releasement, which contributed to M1 polarization. Our data revealed that high levels of C5aR1 in TAMs predicted poor prognosis. In summary, our study suggested that C5aR1 inhibition reduced CRC growth via resetting M1 by AKT2 activation-mediated PFKM stabilization in a TLR5-dependent manner, which relied on IL-22-regulated gut flora.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Macrófagos , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Fosfofrutoquinases , Fosfofrutoquinase-1 , Músculos , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
ACS Nano ; 18(4): 2782-2799, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232382

RESUMO

Immune regulation therapies are considered promising for treating classically activated macrophage (M1)-driven viral myocarditis (VM). Alternatively, activated macrophage (M2)-derived extracellular vesicles (M2 EVs) have great immunomodulatory potential owing to their ability to reprogram macrophages, but their therapeutic efficacy is hampered by insufficient targeting capacity in vivo. Therefore, we developed cardiac-targeting peptide (CTP) and platelet membrane (PM)-engineered M2 EVs enriched with viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II (vMIP-II), termed CTP/PM-M2 EVsvMIP-II-Lamp2b, to improve the delivery of EVs "cargo" to the heart tissues. In a mouse model of VM, the intravenously injected CTP/PM-M2 EVsvMIP-II-Lamp2b could be carried into the myocardium via CTP, PM, and vMIP-II. In the inflammatory microenvironment, macrophages differentiated from circulating monocytes and macrophages residing in the heart showed enhanced endocytosis rates for CTP/PM-M2 EVsvMIP-II-Lamp2b. Subsequently, CTP/PM-M2 EVsvMIP-II-Lamp2b successfully released functional M2 EVsvMIP-II-Lamp2b into the cytosol, which facilitated the reprogramming of inflammatory M1 macrophages to reparative M2 macrophages. vMIP-II not only helps to increase the targeting ability of M2 EVs but also collaborates with M2 EVs to regulate M1 macrophages in the inflammatory microenvironment and downregulate the levels of multiple chemokine receptors. Finally, the cardiac immune microenvironment was protectively regulated to achieve cardiac repair. Taken together, our findings suggest that CTP-and-PM-engineered M2 EVsvMIP-II-Lamp2b represent an effective means for treating VM and show promise for clinical applications.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Miocardite , Camundongos , Animais , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos , Monócitos , Fagocitose
7.
Nanomicro Lett ; 16(1): 65, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175378

RESUMO

Nanofiber membranes (NFMs) have become attractive candidates for next-generation flexible transparent materials due to their exceptional flexibility and breathability. However, improving the transmittance of NFMs is a great challenge due to the enormous reflection and incredibly poor transmission generated by the nanofiber-air interface. In this research, we report a general strategy for the preparation of flexible temperature-responsive transparent (TRT) membranes, which achieves a rapid transformation of NFMs from opaque to highly transparent under a narrow temperature window. In this process, the phase change material eicosane is coated on the surface of the polyurethane nanofibers by electrospray technology. When the temperature rises to 37 °C, eicosane rapidly completes the phase transition and establishes the light transmission path between the nanofibers, preventing light loss from reflection at the nanofiber-air interface. The resulting TRT membrane exhibits high transmittance (> 90%), and fast response (5 s). This study achieves the first TRT transition of NFMs, offering a general strategy for building highly transparent nanofiber materials, shaping the future of next-generation intelligent temperature monitoring, anti-counterfeiting measures, and other high-performance devices.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 349: 552-558, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has estimated the associations of lifestyle at one-time point with the risk of dementia and hippocampal volume, but the impact of lifestyle transition on dementia and hippocampal volume remains unclear. This study aims to examine the associations of lifestyle transition with the risk of dementia and hippocampal volume. METHODS: Based on data from the UK Biobank, a weighted lifestyle score was constructed by incorporating six lifestyle factors. Within each baseline lifestyle group (i.e., healthy, intermediate, and unhealthy), lifestyle transition was classified into decline, maintenance, and improvement. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the association of lifestyle transition and incident dementia (N = 16,305). A multiple linear regression model was used to estimate the association between lifestyle transition and hippocampal volume (N = 5849). RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 8.6 years, 120 (0.7 %) dementia events were documented. Among participants with healthy baseline lifestyles, the improvement group had a lower risk of incident dementia (HR: 0.18, 95 % CI: 0.04-0.81) and a larger hippocampal volume (ß = 111.69, P = 0.026) than the decline group. Similar results were observed among participants with intermediate baseline lifestyles regarding dementia risk but not hippocampal volume. No benefits were observed in the improvement group among those with unhealthy baseline lifestyles. LIMITATIONS: A lower incidence of dementia than other cohort study and this may have resulted in an underestimation of the risk of dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier transitions to healthier lifestyle were associated with reduced risk of incident dementia and decreased hippocampal atrophy.


Assuntos
Demência , Estilo de Vida , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Demência/patologia , Atrofia/patologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
Tree Physiol ; 44(1)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37847610

RESUMO

Leaf respiration in the light (Rlight) is crucial for understanding the net CO2 exchange of individual plants and entire ecosystems. However, Rlight is poorly quantified and rarely discussed in the context of the leaf economic spectrum (LES), especially among woody species differing in plant functional types (PFTs) (e.g., evergreen vs. deciduous species). To address this gap in our knowledge, Rlight, respiration in the dark (Rdark), light-saturated photosynthetic rates (Asat), leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA), leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations, and maximum carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rates (Jmax) of 54 representative subtropical woody evergreen and deciduous species were measured. With the exception of LMA, the parameters quantified in this study were significantly higher in deciduous species than in evergreen species. The degree of light inhibition did not significantly differ between evergreen (52%) and deciduous (50%) species. Rlight was significantly correlated with LES traits such as Asat, Rdark, LMA, N and P. The Rlight vs. Rdark and N relationships shared common slopes between evergreen and deciduous species, but significantly differed in their y-intercepts, in which the rates of Rlight were slower or faster for any given Rdark or N in deciduous species, respectively. A model for Rlight based on three traits (i.e., Rdark, LMA and P) had an explanatory power of 84.9%. These results show that there is a link between Rlight and the LES, and highlight that PFTs is an important factor in affecting Rlight and the relationships of Rlight with Rdark and N. Thus, this study provides information that can improve the next generation of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs).


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plantas , Fotossíntese , Respiração , Transporte de Elétrons , Folhas de Planta , Árvores
10.
Tree Physiol ; 44(1)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37930230

RESUMO

Rhododendron species provide excellent ornamental use worldwide, yet heat stress (HS) is one of the major threats to their cultivation. However, the intricate mechanisms underlying the photochemical and transcriptional regulations associated with the heat stress response in Rhododendron remain relatively unexplored. In this study, the analyses of morphological characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) kinetics showed that HS (40 °C/35 °C) had a notable impact on both the donor's and acceptor's sides of photosystem II (PSII), resulting in reduced PSII activity and electron transfer capacity. The gradual recovery of plants observed following a 5-day period of culture under normal conditions indicates the reversible nature of the HS impact on Rhododendron × pulchrum. Analysis of transcriptome data unveiled noteworthy trends: four genes associated with photosynthesis-antenna protein synthesis (LHCb1, LHCb2 and LHCb3) and the antioxidant system (glutamate-cysteine ligase) experienced significant down-regulation in the leaves of R. × pulchrum during HS. Conversely, aseorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase TAU 8 demonstrated an up-regulated pattern. Furthermore, six down-regulated genes (phos-phoenolpyruvate carboxylase 4, sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase 2, high cyclic electron flow 1, beta glucosidase 32 and starch synthase 2) and two up-regulated genes (beta glucosidase 2 and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2) implicated in photosynthetic carbon fixation and starch/sucrose metabolism were identified during the recovery process. To augment these insights, a weighted gene co-expression network analysis yielded a co-expression network, pinpointing the hub genes correlated with ChlF dynamics' variation trends. The cumulative results showed that HS inhibited the synthesis of photosynthesis-antenna proteins in R. × pulchrum leaves. This disruption subsequently led to diminished photochemical activities in both PSII and PSI, albeit with PSI exhibiting heightened thermostability. Depending on the regulation of the reactive oxygen species scavenging system and heat dissipation, photoprotection sustained the recoverability of R. × pulchrum to HS.


Assuntos
Celulases , Rhododendron , Rhododendron/genética , Rhododendron/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Celulases/genética , Celulases/metabolismo
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 72(1): 181-193, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37789775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With two well-validated aging measures capturing mortality and morbidity risk, this study examined whether and to what extent aging mediates the associations of unhealthy lifestyles with adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Data were from 405,944 adults (40-69 years) from UK Biobank (UKB) and 9972 adults (20-84 years) from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). An unhealthy lifestyles score (range: 0-5) was constructed based on five factors (smoking, drinking, physical inactivity, unhealthy body mass index, and unhealthy diet). Two aging measures, Phenotypic Age Acceleration (PhenoAgeAccel) and Biological Age Acceleration (BioAgeAccel) were calculated using nine and seven blood biomarkers, respectively, with a higher value indicating the acceleration of aging. The outcomes included incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), incident cancer, and all-cause mortality in UKB; CVD mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality in NHANES. A general linear regression model, Cox proportional hazards model, and formal mediation analysis were performed. RESULTS: The unhealthy lifestyles score was positively associated with PhenoAgeAccel (UKB: ß = 0.741; NHANES: ß = 0.874, all p < 0.001). We further confirmed the respective associations of PhenoAgeAccel and unhealthy lifestyles with the outcomes in UKB and NHANES. The mediation proportion of PhenoAgeAccel in associations of unhealthy lifestyles with incident CVD, incident cancer, and all-cause mortality were 20.0%, 17.8%, and 26.6% (all p < 0.001) in UKB, respectively. Similar results were found in NHANES. The findings were robust when using another aging measure-BioAgeAccel. CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated aging partially mediated the associations of lifestyles with CVD, cancer, and mortality in UK and US populations. The findings reveal a novel pathway and the potential of geroprotective programs in mitigating health inequality in late life beyond lifestyle interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Envelhecimento , Neoplasias/complicações , Fatores de Risco
12.
Oecologia ; 204(1): 59-69, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38091103

RESUMO

Rising temperatures pose a threat to the stability of climate regulation by carbon metabolism in subtropical forests. Although the effects of temperature on leaf carbon metabolism traits in sun-exposed leaves are well understood, there is limited knowledge about its impacts on shade leaves and the implications for ecosystem-climate feedbacks. In this study, we measured temperature response curves of photosynthesis and respiration for 62 woody species in summer (including both evergreen and deciduous species) and 20 evergreen species in winter. The aim was to uncover the temperature dependence of carbon metabolism in both sun and shade leaves in subtropical forests. Our findings reveal that shade had no significant effects on the mean optimum photosynthetic temperatures (TOpt) or temperature range (T90). However, there were decreases observed in mean stomatal conductance, mean area-based photosynthetic rates at TOpt and 25 °C, as well as mean area-based dark respiration rates at 25 °C in both evergreen and deciduous species. Moreover, the respiration-temperature sensitivity (Q10) of sun leaves was higher than that of shade leaves in winter, with the reverse being true in summer. Leaf economics spectrum traits, such as leaf mass per area, and leaf concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus across species, proved to be good predictors of TOpt, T90, mass-based photosynthetic rate at TOpt, and mass-based photosynthetic and respiration rate at 25 °C. However, Q10 was poorly predicted by these leaf economics spectrum traits except for shade leaves in winter. Our results suggest that model estimates of carbon metabolism in multilayered subtropical forest canopies do not necessitate independent parameterization of T90 and TOpt temperature responses in sun and shade leaves. Nevertheless, a deeper understanding and quantification of canopy variations in Q10 responses to temperature are necessary to confirm the generality of temperature-carbon metabolism trait responses and enhance ecosystem model estimates of carbon dynamics under future climate warming.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Temperatura , Árvores/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Florestas , Fotossíntese/fisiologia
13.
Redox Biol ; 69: 103016, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38160539

RESUMO

Viral myocarditis (VM) is a clinically common inflammatory disease. Accumulating literature has indicated that M2 macrophages protect mice from Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced VM. However, mechanisms that underlie M2 macrophages alleviating myocardial inflammation remain largely undefined. We found that M2 macrophage-derived exosomes (M2-Exo) can effectively attenuate VM. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) AK083884 in M2-Exo was found to be involved in the regulation of macrophage polarization by exosome lncRNA sequencing combined with in vitro functional assays. M2-Exo-derived AK083884 promotes macrophage M2 polarization and protects mice from CVB3-induced VM. Furthermore, we identified pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) as a protein target binding to AK083884 and found that PKM2 knockdown could promote macrophages to polarize to M2 phenotype. Intriguingly, functional assay revealed that downregulation of AK083884 promotes metabolic reprogramming in macrophages. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation was performed to reveal AK083884 could interact with PKM2 and inhibition of AK083884 can facilitate the binding of PKM2 and HIF-1α. Collectively, our findings uncovered an important role of M2-Exo-derived AK083884 in the regulation of macrophage polarization through metabolic reprogramming, identified a new participant in the development of VM and provided a potential clinically important therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Miocardite , RNA Longo não Codificante , Viroses , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , 60645 , Miocardite/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
14.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 32(1): 71-82, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37770350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Childhood adversity and lifestyle have been associated with frailty in later life, but not much is known about factors that may explain these associations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of childhood adversity with frailty, and the mediating role of unhealthy lifestyle in the association. METHODS: This lifespan analysis included 152,914 adults aged 40-69 years old from the UK Biobank. We measured childhood adversity with five items: physical neglect, emotional neglect, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse through online mental health survey. Frailty was measured by the frailty index; an unhealthy lifestyle score (range: 0-5) was calculated based on unhealthy body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet at the baseline survey. Multiple logistic regression and mediation analysis were performed. RESULTS: A total of 10,078 participants (6.6%) were defined as having frailty. Participants with any childhood adversity had higher odds of frailty. For example, in the fully adjusted model, with a one-point increase in cumulative score of childhood adversity, the odds of frailty increased by 38% (odds ratio: 1.38; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.36, 1.40). Unhealthy lifestyle partially mediated the associations of childhood adversity with frailty (mediation proportion: 4.4%-7.0%). The mediation proportions were largest for physical (8.2%) and sexual (8.1%) abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adversity was positively associated with frailty, and unhealthy lifestyle partially mediated the association. This newly identified pathway highlights the potential of lifestyle intervention strategies among those who experienced childhood adversity (in particular, physical, and sexual abuse) to promote healthy aging.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Fragilidade , Humanos , Idoso , Criança , Longevidade , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia
15.
Plant Dis ; 2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38037201

RESUMO

Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) is among the most significant industrial crops due to its distinctive fragrance and flavor generated (Bag et al. 2022). From October to December in 2021, a leaf spot disease affected the quality and yield of tea (C. sinensis var. assamica cv. Yunkang 10), in Pu'er (100.57°E, 22.45°N), Yunnan province, China. Based on the survey, the incidence was approximately 15% in a plantation of 4500 m2 (2050 tea trees approximately). The symptoms on leaves were regular circular, dark brown lesions with black conidiomata in gray centers. Twenty symptomatic leaves were collected from 10 trees. After rinsing and surface sterilization (75% ethanol for 30 s and 3% NaClO for 90 s, rinsed 3 times with sterile distilled water), diseased tissues (5 × 5 mm) were cut at the junction of infected and healthy site and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) (3 pieces per plate) and incubated in the dark at 28℃ for 5 days (Mao et al. 2023). Three single-spore isolates 6a-H-1, 6a-H-2 and 6a-H-3 were obtained, which showed identical in morphology and molecular analysis. Therefore, the targeted isolate 6a-H-2 was used for further study. Fungal colonies were white, then gradually turning into goose yellow (Fig.2. A-C). Chlamydospores were dark brown and oval (Fig.2. G). Asci produced after 30 days approximately, were orange-red, nearly spherical, rough-surface, and measured as 470 µm ± 11.68 µm (n = 50) (Fig.2. H). Ascospores were released from the asci orifice (Fig.2. I) which were hyaline, fusoid with rounded ends, straight to slightly curved, two septate, slightly constricted at the septum, and ranged from 48.77 ± 2.76 µm × 6.22 ± 0.41 µm (n = 50) (Fig.2. D-F). Macroconidia were cylindrical (Fig.2. J), rounded at both ends, straight, with an average length of 63.5 ± 0.31 µm × 2.62 ± 0.03 µm without septa (n=50) (Fig.2. M-O). Stipe extension terminated in sphaero-pedunculate vesicles (Fig.2. K-L). The morphological features were consistent with the descriptions of Calonectria ilicicola (Pei et al. 2015; Polizzi et al. 2012). The pathogen was confirmed to be C. ilicicola by amplification and sequencing of the histone (HIS3), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1) and calmodulin (CAL) genes using primers H3-3F/H3-3R, EF1-728F/EF1-986R and CAL-228F/CAL-2Rd, respectively (Crous et al. 2004). The sequences of PCR products were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers OR188222 (HIS3), OR188223 (TEF1) and OR188221 (CAL). BLAST searches of the obtained sequences revealed 99.22% (510/514 nucleotides), 98.37% (241/245 nucleotides) and 99.58% (472/474 nucleotides) homology with those of C. ilicicola (CBS 190.50) in GenBank (AY725676, AY725726 and AY725764), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis (MEGA 7.0) using the Maximum Likelihood method placed the isolate 6a-H-2 in a well-supported cluster with C. ilicicola. The pathogenicity of 6a-H-2 was tested through a pot assay. Five healthy plants had their leaves scratched with a sterilized needle, then inoculated by spraying 20 mL of spore suspension (105 spores mL-1) of 6a-H-2. Five additional tea plants sprayed with sterile distilled water served as controls. All plants were placed in a growth chamber at 28℃, with 70% relative humidity. The symptoms developed on all inoculated leaves but not on the control leaves. The lesions were first visible 72 h after inoculation, and typical lesions similar to those observed on field plants appeared after 10 days. The same fungus was reisolated and identified based on the morphology and molecular analyses (HIS3, TEF1 and CAL) from the infected leaves but not from the non-inoculated leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of leaf spot on tea caused by C. ilicicola in China. This study provides valuable information for the identification and control of the leaf spot on tea.

16.
Int Wound J ; 21(3): e14488, 2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984812

RESUMO

Chronic non-healing ulcers are common among diabetic patients, posing significant therapeutic challenges. This study compared traditional therapies (TT) and emerging therapies (ET) for enhancing diabetic patients' wound healing. A total of 150 diabetic patients with chronic ulcers, ages 30-65, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: TT (n = 75) or ET (n = 75). ET included growth factors, bioengineered skin substitutes, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, while TT for wound healing predominantly included debridement, saline-moistened dressings, and off-loading techniques. The primary outcome was the percentage of lesions that healed within 12 weeks, which was assessed at intervals. Secondary outcomes included time to wound recovery, pain using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and life quality via Wound-QoL questionnaire. By the 12th week, the ET group had a repair rate of 81.33% compared to 57.33% in TT group (p < 0.05). ET exhibited superior pain reduction (VAS score: 4.7 ± 1.6 for ET vs. 6.2 ± 1.4 for TT, p < 0.05) and improved life quality (Wound-QoL score: 61.8 ± 9.1 for ET vs. 44.3 ± 10.3 for TT, p < 0.05). However, there were slightly more cases of cutaneous irritation and hematomas among ET patients. ET have demonstrated significant efficacy in accelerating wound healing in diabetic patients, surpassing traditional methods, with additional advantages in pain management and life quality. Due to the observed minor complications, however, caution is required.

17.
Front Oncol ; 13: 912168, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37781182

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been widely applicated in clinical therapy in recent years. Skin-related adverse reaction is one of the most common adverse events for ICIs. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is one of the serious cutaneous reactions threatening the life. Here, we reported a case of 76-year-old male patient with poorly differentiated metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, after 9 weeks exposure of sintilimab (3 doses) combined with paclitaxel liposome after concurrent chemotherapy/radiotherapy, experienced Stevens-Johnson syndrome involving limbs, trunk, lip and the oral mucosa. Biopsy of the skin tissue showed infiltration of CD4 and CD8 positive T lymphocytes. We also found PD-L1 expression in the glands and the basal layer of the skin. This finding is distinct from the previously reported expression of PD-L1 on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes in patients with SJS due to immunotherapy.

19.
Curr Med Chem ; 2023 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37711129

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) refers to a large class of RNAs with over 200 nucleotides that do not have the function of encoding proteins. In recent years, more and more literature has revealed that lncRNA is involved in manipulating genes related to human health and disease, playing outstanding biological functions, which has attracted widespread attention from researchers. The newly discovered long-stranded non-coding RNA myocardial infarction-related transcript (LncRNA MIAT) is abnormally expressed in a variety of diseases, especially in diabetic complications, and has been proven to have a wide range of effects. This review article aimed to summarize the importance of LncRNA MIAT in diabetic complications, such as diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy, and highlight the latest findings on the pathway and mechanism of its participation in regulating diabetic complications, which may aid in finding new intervention targets for the treatment of diabetic complications. LncRNA MIAT competitively binds microRNAs to regulate gene expression as competitive endogenous RNAs. Thus, this review article has reviewed the biological function and pathogenesis of LncRNA MIAT in diabetic complications and described its role in diabetic complications. This paper will help in finding new therapeutic targets and intervention strategies for diabetes complications.

20.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 381(2260): 20220384, 2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37742710

RESUMO

For the fatigue reliability analysis of aeroengine blade-disc systems, the traditional direct integral modelling methods or separate independent modelling methods will lead to low computational efficiency or accuracy. In this work, a physics-informed ensemble learning (PIEL) method is proposed, i.e. firstly, based on the physical characteristics of blade-disc systems, the complex multi-component reliability analysis is split into a series of single-component reliability analyses; moreover, the PIEL model is established by introducing the mapping of multiple constitutive responses and the multi-material physical characteristics into the ensemble learning; finally, the PIEL-based system reliability framework is established by quantifying the failure correlation with the Copula function. The reliability analysis of a typical aeroengine high-pressure turbine blade-disc system is regarded as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with the direct Monte Carlo, support vector regression, neural network, ensemble learning and physics-informed neural network, the proposed method exhibits the highest computing accuracy and efficiency, and is validated to be an efficient method for the reliability analysis of blade-disc systems. The current work can provide a novel insight for physics-informed modelling and fatigue reliability analyses. This article is part of the theme issue 'Physics-informed machine learning and its structural integrity applications (Part 1)'.

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