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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(11): 113501, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461431

RESUMO

The EAST plasmas heated with deuterium neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) have been simulated by the TRANSP code. The analysis has been conducted using the full wave solver TORIC5, the radio frequency (RF)-kick operator, and NUBEAM to model the RF heating effects on fast ion velocity distribution. In this work, we present several simulated results compared with experiments for high power EAST scenarios, indicating that the interactions between ICRH and fast ions can significantly accelerate fast ions, which are confirmed by the increased neutron yield and broadened neutron emission spectrum measurements.

2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(10): 1639-1644, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456497

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the characteristics and depressive status of men who have sex with men (MSM) who self-reported HIV infection through heterosexual transmission and to provide evidence for personalized management of HIV infected people. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Shandong province from September to December in 2019. Male HIV patients aged ≥15 years who self-reported HIV infection through heterosexual transmission were selected to verify the route of infection by one-to-one interview in Ji'nan, Qingdao, Weifang and Linyi cities of Shangdong province. According to the 1∶1 ratio, local HIV patients with age difference ≤3 years who self-reported MSM were selected as controls. A questionnaire survey was conducted, including data on demographic characteristics, behavior status, CES-D and PSSS. The related factors of the depressive symptoms and characteristics were analyzed. Results: A total of 373 male HIV patients were interviewed, and 39.7%(148/373) were confirmed as MSM after reexamination. The interviewers were: aged (40.3±12.0) years old, 41.9% (62/148) married/cohabiting. 27.0% (40/148) had been tested before HIV diagnosis, 71.6% (106/148) had homosexual partners ≥2 and 55.4% (82/148) had depressive symptom. Multivariate analysis showed that the MSM without HIV testings before diagnosis, had homosexual partners ≥2 before diagnosis, had first homosexual behavior at the age >30 years old and with depressive symptoms were more likely to conceal the true infection route. The incidence of depression among MSM who self-reported HIV infection through heterosexual transmission was related to physical health status social support and occupational stability. Conclusions: Some male HIV persons self-reported as being heterosexually transmitted were really transmitted through homosexual behavior. There were high-risk behaviors such as multiple partners and intersex among this group, and with high incidence of depression. It is necessary to encourage the reexamination program during follow-up and target on psychological and behavioral interventions, continuously.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Heterossexualidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Homossexualidade Masculina , Estudos Transversais
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(5): 522-526, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of peer education on knowledge, attitude and practices towards schistosomiasis control among primary school students in endemic foci of Wuhan City. METHODS: Yucai Hankou Primary School in Jiang' an District, Wuhan City was selected in 2021, and all students at grades 4 and 5 were sampled using a cluster sampling method to receive peer education about schistosomiasis. The changes of knowledge, attitude and practices towards schistosomiasis control were compared before and after peer education to evaluate the effect of peer education on knowledge, attitude and practices towards schistosomiasis control. RESULTS: The overall awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and the overall proportion of correct attitudes towards schistosomiasis control and correct schistosomiasis-related behaviors increased from 51.50%, 93.70% and 92.99% before peer education to 86.50%, 98.98% and 98.72% after peer education among primary school students, respectively (χ2=149.457, 21.692 and 20.691, all P values < 0.05). The overall awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and the overall proportion of correct attitudes towards schistosomiasis control and correct schistosomiasis-related behaviors were 49.19%, 92.20% and 92.72% among Grade 4 primary school students and 53.83%, 95.21% and 93.28% among Grade 5 primary school students prior to peer education (χ2 = 1.214, 2.034 and 0.096, all P values > 0.05), and increased to 75.93%, 98.09% and 97.59% among Grade 4 primary school students and 97.16%, 99.87% and 99.87% among Grade 5 primary school students after peer education, respectively (χ2 = 40.798, 9.572, 7.207, 133.194, 9.678 and 14.926, all P values < 0.05). The overall awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and the overall proportion of correct attitudes towards schistosomiasis control and correct schistosomiasis-related behaviors were 51.25%, 76.92% and 77.97% among male primary school students and 51.80%, 94.42% and 95.70% among female primary school students prior to peer education, the differences in the overall proportion of correct attitudes towards schistosomiasis control and correct schistosomiasis-related behaviors between male primary school students and female primary school students were significant (χ2 = 30.462 and 33.416, both P values < 0.05), and increased to 86.23%, 98.25% and 97.79% among male primary school students and 86.83%, 99.85% and 99.85% among female primary school students after peer education (χ2 = 0.081, 3.529 and 3.335, all P values > 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Peer education is effective to improve the knowledge, attitude and practices towards schistosomiasis control among primary school students in endemic foci of Wuhan City, which may be more effective to improve the awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and proportion of correct schistosomiasis-related behaviors among primary school students at high grades.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Conhecimento , Estudantes , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(5): 493-499, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of mountain-type zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (MT-ZVL) in Yangquan City, Shanxi Province from 2015 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the MT-ZVL control strategy. METHODS: The epidemiological data pertaining to MT-ZVL cases in Yangquan City from 2015 to 2020 were collected and descriptively analyzed. A Joinpoint regression model was created to analyze the trend in the MT-ZVL incidence in Yangquan City from 2015 to 2020 using annual percent change (APC). The sandflies surveillance data and the prevalence of Leishmania infections in dogs were collected in Yangquan City in 2020, and the regional distribution of sandflies density and sero-prevalence of Leishmania infections in dogs were calculated. In addition, the associations of sandflies density and sero-prevalence of Leishmania infections in dogs with the incidence of human MT-ZVL were examined using the linear correlation analysis. RESULTS: A total of 162 MT-ZVL cases were reported in Yangquan City, Shanxi Province from 2015 to 2020, with annual mean incidence of 1.9/105, and there were 4, 7, 16, 27, 33 cases and 75 cases with MT-ZVL reported from 2015 to 2020, appearing a tendency towards a rapid rise (APC = 72.79%, t = 11.10, P < 0.01). MT-ZVL cases were reported across the five counties (districts) of Yangquan City, and the cases predominantly occurred in Jiaoqu District (35.2%, 57/162) and Pingding County (33.3%, 54/162). MT-ZVL cases were predominantly detected in residents at ages of 15 years and older (71.6%, 116/162) and at ages of 0 to 2 years (22.2%, 36/162), with farmers (37.4%, 61/162) and diaspora children (24.5%, 40/162) as predominant occupations. The mean density of Phlebotomus chinensis was 6.3 sandflies per trap per night in Yangquan City from during the period from May to September, 2020, with the highest density observed in Jiaoqu District (12.6 sandflies per trap per night) and the lowest in Yuxian County (1.1 sandflies per trap per night), and there was a region-specific mean density of Ph. chinensis in Yangquan City (H = 17.282, P < 0.01). The sero-prevalence of serum anti-Leishmania antibody was 7.4% (2 996/40 573) in domestic dogs in Yangquan City, with the highest sero-prevalence seen in Jiaoqu District (16.6%, 1 444/8 677), and the lowest in Yuxian County (2.3%, 266/11 501), and there was a region-specific sero-prevalence rate of anti-Leishmania antibody in domestic dogs in Yangquan City (χ2 = 1 753.74, P < 0.01). The sero-prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibody was significantly higher in stray dogs (20.0%, 159/794) than in domestic dogs (χ2 = 176.63, P < 0.01). In addition, there were significant associations among the sandflies density, sero-prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibody in domestic dogs and the incidence of human MT-ZVL (r = 0.832 to 0.870, all P values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MT-ZVL appeared a tendency towards a rapid rise in Yangquan City from 2015 to 2020, and systematic interventions are urgently needed for MT-ZVL control.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose Visceral , Criança , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Adolescente , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Prevalência , Anticorpos , Fazendeiros
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(5): 500-506, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of establishment of ultrasound radiomics-based models for classification of hepatic echinococcosis, so as to provide insights into precision ultrasound diagnosis of hepatic echinococcosis. METHODS: The ultrasonographic images were retrospectively collected from 200 patients with hepatic echinococcosis in Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province in October 2014, and the regions of interest were plotted in ultrasonographic images of hepatic echinococcosis lesions. The ultrasound radiomics features of hepatic echinococcosis were extracted with 25 methods, and screened using pre-selection and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. Then, all ultrasonographic images were randomly assigned into the training and independent test sets according to the type of lesions at a ratio of 7:3. Machine learning models for classification of hepatic echinococcosis were created based on two classifiers, including kernel logistic regression (KLR) and medium Gaussian support vector machine (MGSVM). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted, and the sensitivity, specificity and areas under the curves (AUC) of the created machine learning models for classification of hepatic echinococcosis were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 5 005 ultrasound radiomics features were extracted from 200 patients with hepatic echinococcosis using 25 methods, and 36 optimal radiomics features were screened through feature selection, based on which two machine learning models were created, including KLR and MGSVM. ROC curve analysis showed that MGS-VM presented a higher efficacy for hepatic echinococcosis classification than KLR in the training set, with a sensitivity of 0.82, a specificity of 0.78 and AUC of 0.88, while KLR presented a higher efficacy for hepatic echinococcosis classification than MGSVM in the independent test set, with a sensitivity of 0.82, a specificity of 0.72 and AUC of 0.86, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound radiomics-based machine learning models are feasible for hepatic echinococcosis classification.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática , Equinococose , Humanos , Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia
6.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 51(11): 1123-1128, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323541

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the expression of cation chloride cotransporter (NKCC1/KCC2) in the neurons from cerebral lesions of children with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type Ⅱ, to provide a morphological basis for revealing the possible mechanism of epilepsy. Methods: Eight cases of FCD type Ⅱ diagnosed at Beijing Haidian Hospital, Beijing, China and 12 cases diagnosed at Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China from February 2017 to December 2019 were included. The expression of NKCC1 and KCC2 in FCD type Ⅱa and FCD type Ⅱb was detected using immunohistochemistry and double immunohistochemical stains. The average optical density of NKCC1 in dysmorphic neurons and normal neurons was also determined using immunohistochemical staining in FCD type Ⅱa (10 cases). Results: The patients were all younger than 14 years of age. Ten cases were classified as FCD type IIa, and 10 cases as FCD type Ⅱb. NKCC1 was expressed in the cytoplasm of normal cerebral cortex neurons and KCC2 expressed on cell membranes. In dysmorphic neurons of FCD type Ⅱa, expression of NKCC1 increased, which was statistically higher than that of normal neurons (P<0.01). Aberrant expression of KCC2 in dysmorphic neurons was also noted in the cytoplasm. In the FCD Ⅱb type, the expression pattern of NKCC1/KCC2 in dysmorphic neurons was the same as that of FCD type Ⅱa. The aberrant expression of NKCC1 in balloon cells was negative or weakly positive on the cell membrane, while the aberrant expression of KCC2 was absent. Conclusions: The expression pattern of NKCC1/KCC2 in dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells is completely different from that of normal neurons. The NKCC1/KCC2 protein-expression changes may affect the transmembrane chloride flow of neurons, modify the effect of inhibitory neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid and increase neuronal excitability. These effects may be related to the occurrence of clinical epileptic symptoms.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo I , Simportadores , Criança , Humanos , Encéfalo/patologia , Cátions/metabolismo , Cloretos/metabolismo , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo I/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo
7.
Clin Radiol ; 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344282

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the frequency of radiographically evident drug-induced sarcoidosis-like reaction (DISR) in patients treated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) therapy, anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy, or a combination of both in a single centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The images and medical records of 457 patients with metastatic melanoma or head and neck cancer treated with either anti-CTLA-4 therapy, anti-PD-1 therapy, or a combination of both at University of California medical centre were reviewed retrospectively and the incidence of radiological manifestations of DISR was assessed among these treatment groups. RESULTS: Radiological manifestations of DISR were found in 19/457 patients (4.1%). The mean interval from the initiation of immunotherapy to development of DISR was 5.5 months (range 2.3-13.5 months). Mean interval from radiological detection of DISR to imaging evidence of resolution was 5.8 months (range 1.6-18.3 months). Three patients out of 81 (3.7%), 11/297 (3.7%), and 5/79 (6.3%) developed sarcoidosis-like reaction after treatment with anti-CTLA-4 antibody, anti-PD-1 antibody, and a combination of both, respectively. Most patients with DISR were asymptomatic and did not require systemic therapy. Most patients did not demonstrate concomitant increased maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) in other organs on their integrated 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). CONCLUSIONS: In the present retrospective study of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), DISR occurred in approximately 3.7% of patients treated with either anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1 antibody and 6.3% of patients treated with a combination of both.

8.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 51(11): 1135-1140, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323543

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the mutational features of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgHV) gene in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) using immunophenotypic and molecular genetic methods. Methods: The laboratory results of 266 CLL patients who underwent IgHV gene examination at Sino-US diagnostics laboratory from February 2020 to February 2021 were analyzed for the IgVH mutational status and presence of specific IgVH fragments. In addition, their immunophenotypic, molecular, chromosomal karyotypic, and FISH profiles were investigated and correlated with the IgVH mutational status. Results: Among 266 patients, 172 were male and 94 were female, with a media age of 67 years (20-82 years).There were more patients with mutated IgHV (m-IgHV) than unmutated IgHV (un-IgHV) (69.2%∶30.8%). There was association of VH family and the presence of gene fragments: the overall incidence of VH families including VH3 family (142/266, 53.4%), VH4 family (75/266, 28.2%), and VH1 family (34/266, 12.8%) was about 95%, among which the proportion of VH4-34 (26/266, 9.8%), VH3-23 (25/266, 9.4%), VH3-7 (24/266, 9.0%), and VH4-39 (16/266, 6.0%) was about 35%. VH3-20 and VH3-49 only occurred in un-IgHV (P<0.05). In addition, the expression rates of CD38 (26.3% vs. 3.0%), CD79b (71.1%∶45.5%) and 11q deletion (25.5%∶5.3%) were higher in un-IgHV, and single trisomy 12 (37.9%∶5.6%) were more commonly found in m-IgHV (P<0.05). MYD88 was one of the major mutation genes in m-IgHV, while ATM had the highest mutation rate in un-IgHV. Conclusion: CLL patients have differential expression in terms of IgHV gene mutations, correlating to their immunophenotype and genetics characteristics.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/genética , Genes de Cadeia Pesada de Imunoglobulina , Mutação , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Prognóstico
9.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 999-1003, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323582

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine the landscape and metastases of the lymph nodes in prostatic anterior fat pad (PAFP) at radical prostatectomy (RP), and to describe the clinical characteristic of the patients with lymph node metastases in PAFP. Methods: The clinical and pathological data of 287 prostate cancer patients underwent RP from December 2019 to August 2021 in Department of Urology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were collected and analyzed retrospectively. All patients were male, aging (66±7) years (range: 42 to 83 years). The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (M(IQR)) were 16.00(29.64) µg/L (range: 0.01 to 99.90 µg/L). There were 244 patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer and 43 patients with metastatic prostate cancer. All PAFP were dissected at RP routinely and were sent for pathologic analysis respectively. The PAFP was dissected from the prostate apex caudally toward the bladder neck and dissection extended to the joint of the prostate and the endopelvic fascia bilaterally. All the specimen of PAFP were examined and reported by subspecialty pathologists of genitourinary tumors. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, χ2 test or Fisher exact test. Results: There were 8.0% (23/287) patients with lymph nodes in PAFP, 3.8% (11/287) patients with PAFP lymph node metastases. Pathologically upstaged occurred in 1 patient due to the PAFP lymph node as the solitary metastatic lesion. Patients with lymph node metastases in PAFP presented higher preoperative PSA (M(IQR): 48.2(73.0) µg/L vs. 15.4(26.5) µg/L, Z=3.158, P=0.002), clinical T stage and N stage (Z=2.977, P=0.003; Z=2.780, P=0.005) and preoperative Gleason score (Z=2.205, P=0.027). Conclusions: Routine dissection of PAFP at RP and separately pathological analysis may allow more lymph nodes and lymph node metastases detection. More accurate pathological N stage may be acquired and consequently may improve the survival of patients by offering more appropriate adjuvant or salvage therapy.


Assuntos
Próstata , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prostatectomia , Linfonodos/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Tecido Adiposo , Excisão de Linfonodo
12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(41): 3304-3311, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319183

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of daratumumab in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients. Methods: Fifty-two RRMM patients treated with daratumumab from September 2019 to November 2021 in West China Hospital were retrospectively enrolled, including 31 males and 21 females. The mean age of these patients at the first diagnosis of multiple myeloma was (58±10) years. According to the dosage of daratumumab, patients were divided into low dosage group (n=10) and high dosage group (n=42). Overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse event rates were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analysis of potential factors were conducted. Results: Of the 52 patients, 8 received daratumumab monotherapy, 27 received daratumumab plus immuno-modulatory drug (IMiD) treatment, 4 received daratumumab plus proteosome inhibitor (PI) treatment, and 11 received daratumumab plus dexamethasone treatment. The diagnosis age of high dosage group patients was (57±9) years, which was significantly younger than that of low dosage group [(66±10) years] (P=0.009). The baseline creatinine level of high dosage group patients [M (Q1, Q3)] was 91 (68, 196) µmol/L, which was significantly higher than that of low dosage group [66 (51, 76) µmol/L] (P=0.021). There was no significant difference in other baseline clinical characteristics, previous treatment regimens, previous lines of treatment, and regimen and cycles of daratumumab between the high dosage group and low dosage group (all P>0.05). The ORR for the 52 patients was 71.2% (37/52). The ORR for daratumumab plus IMiD group was 81.5% (22/27), which was significantly higher than that in monotherapy or dexamethasone group [ORR: 52.6% (10/19), P=0.036). With a median follow-up [M (Q1, Q3)] of 7 (5, 26) months, the median PFS for overall cohort was 17 (95%CI: 9.6-24.4) months. The median PFS for daratumumab plus IMiD group was 26 (95%CI: 6.0-46.0) months, which was significantly better than that in monotherapy or dexamethasone group [12 (95%CI: 3.5-20.5) months] (HR=0.231, 95%CI: 0.075-0.715, P=0.011). Higher diagnosis age was the risk factor of progression (HR=1.085, 95%CI: 1.016-1.158, P=0.014), while more cycles of daratumumab treatment was the protective factor of progression (HR=0.669, 95%CI: 0.495-0.904, P=0.009). There was no significant influence of daratumumab dosage on progression (high dosage vs low dosage, HR=1.016, 95%CI: 0.221-4.668, P=0.984). The median OS for overall cohort was 26 (95%CI: 13.1-38.9) months. Higher serum calcium was the independent risk factor of death (HR=12.190, 95%CI: 1.170-127.048, P=0.037). There was no significant influence of daratumumab dosage on death (high dosage vs low dosage, HR=0.818, 95%CI: 0.171-3.917, P=0.802). Adverse events included infections (43.2%, 16/37), infusion-associated reactions (29.7%, 11/37), and thrombocytopenia (27.0%, 10/37). Conclusions: Daratumumab is effective to treat RRMM. The dosage of daratumumab has no significant influence on prognosis when used in combined treatment. The incidence of adverse events is relatively low, with a favorable safety profile.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The PET scanners with long axial field of view (AFOV) having ~ 20 times higher sensitivity than conventional scanners provide new opportunities for enhanced parametric imaging but suffer from the dramatically increased volume and complexity of dynamic data. This study reconstructed a high-quality direct Patlak Ki image from five-frame sinograms without input function by a deep learning framework based on DeepPET to explore the potential of artificial intelligence reducing the acquisition time and the dependence of input function in parametric imaging. METHODS: This study was implemented on a large AFOV PET/CT scanner (Biograph Vision Quadra) and twenty patients were recruited with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) dynamic scans. During training and testing of the proposed deep learning framework, the last five-frame (25 min, 40-65 min post-injection) sinograms were set as input and the reconstructed Patlak Ki images by a nested EM algorithm on the vendor were set as ground truth. To evaluate the image quality of predicted Ki images, mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural similarity index measure (SSIM) were calculated. Meanwhile, a linear regression process was applied between predicted and true Ki means on avid malignant lesions and tumor volume of interests (VOIs). RESULTS: In the testing phase, the proposed method achieved excellent MSE of less than 0.03%, high SSIM, and PSNR of ~ 0.98 and ~ 38 dB, respectively. Moreover, there was a high correlation (DeepPET: [Formula: see text]= 0.73, self-attention DeepPET: [Formula: see text]=0.82) between predicted Ki and traditionally reconstructed Patlak Ki means over eleven lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the deep learning-based method produced high-quality parametric images from small frames of projection data without input function. It has much potential to address the dilemma of the long scan time and dependency on input function that still hamper the clinical translation of dynamic PET.

14.
Clin Radiol ; 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334944

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the value of amide proton transfer weighted (APTw) imaging and R2∗ mapping of cystic fluid in differentiating ovarian endometriotic cysts (OE) from other ovarian cystic (OOC) lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 42 patients who underwent 3 T pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled. Nineteen lesions were OE and 27 lesions were OOC. The APTw imaging and R2∗ values of the cystic fluid were measured and compared between the two groups using the independent sample t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of different parameters. The area under ROC curves (AUCs) was compared using the Delong test. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to assess the correlation between APTw imaging and R2∗ values. RESULTS: APTw imaging values of OE were lower, while R2∗ values were higher in OE than those in OOC (p=0.001 and < 0.001). The AUCs of APTw imaging and R2∗ values to identify OE from OOC were 0.910 and 0.975. The AUC increased to 0.990 when combining APTw imaging and R2∗ values, yet without a significant difference to the APTw imaging or R2∗ value alone (p=0.229 and 0.082, respectively). APTw imaging values were negatively correlated with R2∗ values (r=-0.522, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Both APTw imaging and R2∗ values of OE are significantly different from other ovarian cystic lesions. APTw imaging combined with R2∗ values show excellent diagnostic efficacy to differentiate between OE and OOC.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Exploring the directionality of neural information in the brain is important for understanding brain mechanisms and neurodisease development. Granger causality analysis and the metabolic connectivity map can be used to investigate directional transmission of information between brain regions, but their differences in depicting functional effective connectivity are not clear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Monash rs-PET/MR imaging data set, we conducted Granger causality and metabolic connectivity map analyses of the dopamine reward circuit in the brain. The dopamine reward circuit is a well-known system consisting primarily of the bilateral orbital frontal cortex, caudate, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and substantia nigra. We validated these circuit pathways using Granger causality and the metabolic connectivity map for identifying effective connectivities against a priori knowledge by testing the significance of directed pathways (P < .05, false discovery rate-corrected). RESULTS: We found 3 types of effective connectivities in the dopamine reward circuit: long-range, neighborhood, and symmetric. Granger causality analysis revealed long-range connections in the orbital frontal cortex-caudate and orbital frontal cortex-nucleus accumbens regions. Metabolic connectivity map analysis revealed neighborhood connections in the nucleus accumbens-caudate, substantia nigra-thalamus, and thalamus-caudate regions. Metabolic connectivity map analysis also found symmetric connections in each of the bilateral nucleus accumbens, caudate, thalamus, and orbital frontal cortex-caudate regions. Different patterns in directional networks of the dopamine reward circuit were revealed by Granger causality and metabolic connectivity map analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Granger causality analysis primarily identified bidirectional cortico-nucleus connections, while the metabolic connectivity map primarily identified direct connections among neighborhood and symmetric regions. The results of this study indicated that investigations of effective connectivities should use an appropriate analysis method depending on the purpose of the study.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Abdominal ultrasound is a diagnostic staging procedure for distant metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, currently performed abdominal staging procedures do not follow consistent standards. Therefore, this retrospective study on 498 patients aimed at investigating on abdominal ultrasound as a staging procedure in HNSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 498 head and neck cancer patients treated in our Department of Head and Neck Surgery between 2008 and 2015 was performed. Disease-related data were collected over a mean follow-up time of 30.3 months, and results of abdominal ultrasound were analyzed. RESULTS: 426 patients received abdominal ultrasound as a staging procedure. 7% (29) were suspicious for metastases. In 19 cases (66%), the detected abnormalities were masses of the liver. In four patients, abdominal metastases were confirmed at the time of initial diagnosis. 16 patients developed abdominal metastases in the course of the disease (on average 623 days after initial diagnosis). 19 out of 20 patients with abdominal metastases had an N2/N3 cervical lymph node status. In this study, the negative predictive value of abdominal ultrasound for HNSCC staging was 99.03%, while the positive predictive value yielded 5.88% (N2/N3-patients). CONCLUSION: Only in patients with locally advanced lymph-node-status (N2/N3), abdominal ultrasound can be useful as a staging investigation to exclude abdominal metastasis in HNSCC patients. For N0/N1 patients, abdominal ultrasound might be dispensed. Of note, in case of a positive result, further diagnostic procedures are mandatory.

17.
J Dent Res ; : 220345221132213, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366779

RESUMO

Abnormal stress loading has been considered a major contributor to the initiation of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA), but studies to date have not identified a functional molecule that transforms physical stress into biological or biochemical signaling in chondrocytes in response to excessive mechanical stress. Ras-related protein Rap-2a (RAP2A) is reportedly a molecular switch that relays extracellular matrix rigidity signals via the Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) pathway. In the present study, RAP2A diminished with cartilage degradation in unilateral anterior crossbite-induced TMJOA mice, as well as severe cartilage matrix degeneration and TMJOA formation in Cre-loxP-mediated conditional RAP2A knockout mice. RAP2A in chondrocytes regulated the Hippo/YAP pathway directly in response to matrix stiffness, and RAP2A/Hippo/YAP was critical for a chondrocyte phenotype switch and matrix synthesis function. Loss of RAP2A impaired cartilage homeostasis and altered chondrocyte phenotype via Hippo/YAP/SRY-box transcription factor 9 signaling. It may be possible to generate therapeutic strategies using RAP2A or YAP to attenuate the TMJOA pathological process at an early stage. This is the first study to reveal the molecular function of RAP2A in TMJOA progression as a mechanotransduction molecule in condylar chondrocytes.

18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(11): 1591-1596, 2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372749

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of inflammatory biomarkers in the relationship between blood lead levels and blood pressure changes. Methods: A total of 9 910 people aged 18-79 years who participated in the China National Human Biomonitoring in 2017-2018 were included in this study. A self-made questionnaire was used to collect demographic characteristics, lifestyle and other information, and the data including height, weight and blood pressure were determined through physical examination. Blood and urinary samples were collected for the detection of blood lead and cadmium levels, urinary arsenic levels, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Weighted linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between blood lead, inflammatory biomarkers and blood pressure. Mediation analysis was performed to investigate the role of inflammation in the relationship between blood lead levels and blood pressure changes. Results: The median (Q1, Q3) age of all participants was 45.4 (33.8, 58.4)years, including 4 984 males accounting for 50.3%. Multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that after adjusting for age, gender, residence area, BMI, education level, smoking and drinking status, family history of hypertension, consumption frequency of rice, vegetables, and red meat, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood cadmium and urinary arsenic levels, there was a positive association between blood lead levels, inflammatory biomarkers and blood pressure (P<0.05). Each 2.71 µg/L (log-transformed) increase of the lead was associated with a 2.05 (95%CI: 0.58, 3.53) mmHg elevation in systolic blood pressure (SBP), 2.24 (95%CI: 1.34, 3.14) mmHg elevation in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 0.25 (95%CI: 0.05, 0.46) mg/L elevation in hs-CRP, 0.16 (95%CI: 0.03, 0.29)×109/L elevation in white blood cells, and 0.11 (95%CI: 0.02, 0.21)×109/L elevation in lymphocytes, respectively. Mediation analysis showed that the levels of hs-CRP significantly mediated the association of blood lead with SBP, with a proportion about 3.88% (95%CI: 0.45%, 7.32%). The analysis also found that the levels of hs-CRP and neutrophils significantly mediated the association of blood lead with SBP, with a proportion about 4.10% (95%CI: 1.11%, 7.10%) and 2.42% (95%CI: 0.07%, 4.76%), respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that inflammatory biomarkers could significantly mediate the association of blood lead levels and blood pressure changes.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Hipertensão , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Chumbo , Arsênio/análise , Cádmio , Biomarcadores , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(11): 1597-1603, 2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372750

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the association of lead exposure with stunting and underweight among children aged 3-5 years in China. Methods: Data was collected from China National Human Biomonitoring (CNHBM) between January 2017 and December 2018. A total of 3 554 children aged 3-5 years were included. Demographic characteristic, lifestyle and nutritional status were collected through questionnaires. Height and weight were measured by standardized method. Stunting and underweight status were determined by calculating height for age Z-score and weight for age Z-score. Blood and urine samples were collected to detect the concentrations of blood lead, urinary lead and urinary creatinine. Children were stratified into 4 groups (Q1 to Q4) by quartiles of blood lead level and corrected urinary lead level, respectively. Complex sampling logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association of the blood lead level, urinary lead level with stunting and underweight. Results: Among 3 554 children, the age was (4.09±1.06) years, of which 1 779 (80.64%) were female and 1 948 (55.84%) were urban residents. The prevalence of stunting and wasting was 7.34% and 2.96%, respectively. The M (Q1, Q3) for blood lead levels and urinary lead levels in children was 17.49 (12.80, 24.71) µg/L, 1.20 (0.61, 2.14) µg/g Cr, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, compared with the lowest blood lead concentration group Q1, the risk of stunting gradually increased in the Q3 and Q4 group (Ptrend=0.010), with OR (95%CI) values of 1.40 (0.80-2.46) and 1.80 (1.07-3.04), respectively. Compared with the lowest urinary lead concentration group Q1, the risk of stunting still increased in the Q3 and Q4 group (Ptrend=0.012), with OR (95%CI) values of 1.69 (1.01-2.84) and 1.79 (1.05-3.06), respectively. The correlation between the lead exposure and underweight was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Lead exposure is positively associated with the risk of stunting among children aged 3-5 years in China.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Magreza , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Magreza/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Estatura , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , China/epidemiologia
20.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(11): 1630-1635, 2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372755

RESUMO

To investigate the relationship between serum uric acid to creatinine ratio (SUA/Cr) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and other indexes on physical examination population in Nantong area. Using the method of cross-sectional study, 8 148 physical examiners in the physical examination center of the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from January 2017 to April 2020 were used as the research objects, and the clinical data and serum biochemical indicators such as smoking and alcohol addiction, physical examination and so on were collected. According to the standard diagnosis of MS of Diabetes Society of Chinese Medical Association, the patients were grouped according to the quartile of SUA/Cr and the clinical data of each group were compared. Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to explore the correlation between SUA/Cr and clinical indicators and the relationship between SUA/Cr and the risk of MS. The results showed that UA and SUA/Cr were the lowest in normal metabolism group, followed by abnormal metabolism group and the highest in MS group, The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (H=919.21 and 629.34, P<0.001). According to the SUA/Cr quartile, the population was divided into four groups. After adjusting for gender, age, smoking history and drinking history, SUA/Cr in group Q1 was positively correlated with BMI and TG (r=0.061 and 0.080, P<0.05), but negatively correlated with HDL-C (r=-0.057, P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression results showed that after adjusting for age, sex, smoking history and drinking history, the risk of MS for BMI, SBP, DBP, FBG, TG, HDL-C and SUA/Cr [OR (95%CI)] were: 1.44 (1.41-1.47), 1.07 (1.06-1.07), 1.10 (1.10-1.11), 1.83 (1.73-1.92), 1.89 (1.79-1.99), 0.08 (0.06-0.10) and 1.54 (1.47-1.62). Compared with SUA/Cr group Q1, the risk of MS in group Q2, Q3 and Q4 increased by 75%, 162% and 346%, respectively. In conclusion, there was an independent positive correlation between SUA/Cr and MS risk in Nantong area.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Creatinina , Ácido Úrico , Estudos Transversais , Exame Físico , Fatores de Risco
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