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1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127688, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768904

RESUMO

The effects of carboxymethylation, hydroxypropylation and dual enzyme hydrolysis combined with heating on some physicochemical and functional properties, and antioxidant activity of coconut cake dietary fibre (CCDF) were studied. Results showed that both the hydroxypropylation and carboxymethylation could effectively improve (p < 0.05) the water retention capacity (WRC), oil retention capacity (ORC), viscosity, α-amylase inhibition activity (α-AAIR), glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI), cation-exchange capacity, emulsifying capacity index (ECI) and bile adsorption capacity (BAC) of CCDF. Moreover, the cellulase and hemicellulase hydrolysis combination with heating significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) the soluble dietary fibre content, WRC, emulsion stability, GDRI, α-AAIR and BAC of CCDF; but caused decrease in ORC and browning of color. In addition, improvement of total phenol content, Fe2+ chelating ability, ABTS+· and O2-· scavenging activity were obtained in carboxymethylaticted CCDF. These effects were mainly attributed to the composition and structural modifications as evident from SEM, FT-IR and XRD analysis.

2.
Food Chem ; 336: 127683, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771900

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal amino acid deamination and decarboxylation activities of spoilage microbiota in chill-stored grass carp fillets. Results showed that microbial deamination activities of umami/sweet-taste amino acids were higher than that of bitter-taste amino acids. The total deamination activity of tested amino acids decreased during the late period of storage, which inhibited the increase of ammonia in fish flesh. Microbial decarboxylation activity of ornithine was much higher than lysine and histidine, which was consistent with the rapid increase of putrescine in fish fillets. Meanwhile, putrescine could be produced in large quantities through arginine deiminase pathway of spoilage bacteria. Glucose utilization by spoilage microbiota was active during the late period of storage, which was consistent with the rapid consumption of lactate and total sugar in fish flesh. Overall, results of this study could be beneficial for revealing fish spoilage mechanisms and providing theoretical guidance for developing fish preservation technologies.

3.
Int J Pharm ; 590: 119939, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011247

RESUMO

Polysorbates (Tweens) are one of the most used excipients for essential oils encapsulation. In this work, the polysorbate based microemulsions (PMEs) for R-(+)-limonene (LMN) encapsulation were investigated for the structural and antimicrobial properties. PMEs were constructed using the pseudoternary phase diagrams, and then characterized for electrical conductivity, rheology, size distribution and particle geometry. Conductivity and rheological measurement results showed that Tween 80 and Tween 60 based microemulsions have identical phase transitions. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that hydrodynamic diameters of oil-in-water microemulsions decreased from 30 nm to 25 nm during the dilution, while small-angle X-ray scattering indicated that their spherical geometries were maintained. PMEs exhibited enhanced antimicrobial efficiencies in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, when Tween 80 was replaced by Tween 60, PME was observed more effective against S. aureus. The two PMEs structural analogues exhibited different antimicrobial efficiencies corresponding to the bioactivity of polysorbates. In conclusion, PMEs can be considered as a desirable system for LMN encapsulation to enhance its solubility and antimicrobial efficiency. Furthermore, the difference in the antimicrobial efficiency suggested that the choice of emulsifiers should be concerned to improve further applications.

4.
J Proteomics ; 231: 103995, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011346

RESUMO

Diarrheal irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a chronic functional bowel disease with no clear diagnostic markers and no satisfactory treatment strategies. In recent years, the importance of intestinal microstructure and function in IBS-D has been emphasized. However, the intestinal tissue proteomics of IBS-D patients has not been analyzed. Here, we systematically analyzed the molecule profiling of the intestinal tissues in IBS-D patients through tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomics for the first time, aiming to reveal the pathogenesis and provide evidence for diagnosis and treatment of IBS-D. Five IBS-D patients and five healthy subjects were selected, biopsy tissue samples from the junction of sigmoid and rectum were analyzed by TMT proteomics. Differentially expressed proteins were obtained and bioinformatics analysis was performed. Furthermore, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and q-PCR detection were applied to validate the differentially expressed proteins. Eighty differentially expressed proteins were screened, 48 of which were up-regulated and 32 were down-regulated (fold change >1.2, P < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that these proteins were significantly enriched in the nutrient ingestion pathways which are related to immune molecules. SELENBP1, VSIG2, HMGB1, DHCR7, BCAP31 and other molecules were significantly changed. Our study revealed the underlying mechanisms of IBS-D intestinal dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE: Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is a worldwide chronic intestinal disease with no definite diagnostic markers. It is still a challenge to accurately locate the pathogenesis of patients for appropriate treatment strategy. Established proteomics studies of IBS-D are only based on urine, blood, or tissue samples from animals. Our study was the first TMT proteomics analysis on intestinal biopsy tissues of patients with IBS-D, which revealed the changes of molecular spectrum of actual intestinal conditions in patients with IBS-D. Some important molecules and signaling pathways have been found abnormal in our study, which were related with nutrient uptake. They not only provided preliminary clues for low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) intolerance, an unsolved conundrum of IBS-D, but also revealed obscure problems of protein, lipid, and other nutrients ingestion in IBS-D patients. Some of these differentially expressed molecules have been preliminarily verified, and will may be potential candidate molecules for diagnostic markers of IBS-D.

5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech ; 1863(12): 194641, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017669

RESUMO

Phase separation is the basis for the formation of membrane-less organelles in cells and is involved in many biological processes. Many biological macromolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, exert their biological functions by forming phase-separated condensates, and phase separation is closely related to various human diseases. Gene transcriptional regulation is an indispensable part of gene expression and normal function in cells. Its abnormal regulation often causes the occurrence of different diseases. In recent years, the occurrence of phase separation during transcriptional regulation has become an area of intense research. This review summarizes the process of phase separation involved in heterochromatin formation and chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation. It provides a reference for understanding gene regulation during cell identity and disease development.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5210, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060578

RESUMO

Human insulinomas are rare, benign, slowly proliferating, insulin-producing beta cell tumors that provide a molecular "recipe" or "roadmap" for pathways that control human beta cell regeneration. An earlier study revealed abnormal methylation in the imprinted p15.5-p15.4 region of chromosome 11, known to be abnormally methylated in another disorder of expanded beta cell mass and function: the focal variant of congenital hyperinsulinism. Here, we compare deep DNA methylome sequencing on 19 human insulinomas, and five sets of normal beta cells. We find a remarkably consistent, abnormal methylation pattern in insulinomas. The findings suggest that abnormal insulin (INS) promoter methylation and altered transcription factor expression create alternative drivers of INS expression, replacing canonical PDX1-driven beta cell specification with a pathological, looping, distal enhancer-based form of transcriptional regulation. Finally, NFaT transcription factors, rather than the canonical PDX1 enhancer complex, are predicted to drive INS transactivation.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064559

RESUMO

Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET) inhibited lethal toxin stimulated pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) and increased lung cAMP levels in our previous study. We therefore examined whether ET inhibits hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Following baseline hypoxic measures in isolated perfused lungs from healthy rats, compared to diluent, ET perfusion reduced maximal Ppa increases [mean(±sem) percent of maximal Ppa increase with baseline hypoxia] during 6min hypoxic periods (FiO2=0%) at 120min (16±6% vs. 51±6%, p=0.004) and 180min (11.4% vs. 55±6%, p=0.001). Protective antigen-mAb (PA-mAb) and adefovir inhibit host cell edema factor uptake and cAMP production respectively. In lungs perfused with ET following baseline measures, compared to placebo, PA-mAb treatment increased Ppa during hypoxia at 120 and 180min (56±6% vs. 10±4% and 72±12% vs. 12±3% respectively, p≤0.01) as did adefovir (84±10% vs 16.8% and 123±21% vs. 26±11%, respectively, p≤0.01). Compared to diluent, lung perfusion with ET for 180min reduced the slope of the relationships between Ppa and increasing concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1)(21.12±2.96 vs. 3.00±0.76×108cmH2O/M, p<0.0001) and U46619, a thromboxane A2 analogue (7.15±1.01 vs. 3.74±0.31×107cmH2O/M, p=0.005) added to perfusate. In lungs isolated from rats after 15h of in vivo infusions with either diluent, ET alone or ET with PA-mAb, compared to diluent, the maximal Ppa during hypoxia and the slope of the relationship between change in Ppa and ET-1 concentration added to the perfusate were reduced in lungs from animals challenged with ET alone (p≤0.004) but not with ET and PA-mAb together (p≥0.73). Inhibition of HPV by ET could aggravate hypoxia during anthrax pulmonary infection.

8.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064899

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Our previous study identified a novel alternative splicing variant of prenyl diphosphate synthase subunit 2 (PDSS2) in HCC characterized by a deletion of exon 2, named PDSS2-Del2, which is devoid of the tumor-suppressive function of full-length PDSS2 (PDSS2-FL). To better understand the clinical significance of PDSS2-Del2, we performed a BaseScope assay on an HCC tissue microarray and found that positive staining for PDSS2-Del2 predicted a worse overall survival in patients with HCC (P=0.02). PDSS2-Del2 levels correlated significantly with microvessel counts in HCC tumor tissues. Importantly, PDSS2-Del2 overexpression functionally promoted HCC metastasis as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo migration assays. In vivo assays also demonstrated that PDSS2-Del2 increased angiogenesis in xenografts. Furthermore, we discovered that elevated PDSS2-Del2 expression in HCC tumor cells decreased fumarate levels and activated canonical NF-κB pathway. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and WNT/ß-catenin signaling pathways were also activated by overexpression. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a fumaric acid ester, effectively reduced the metastasis induced by PDSS2-Del2 as observed with in vivo spleen-liver metastasis animal experiments. Considering that DMF is a prescribed oral therapy for multiple sclerosis, it might be a potential treatment for metastasis of patients with HCC. Early clinical trials are needed to validate its potential in this context.

9.
Plant J ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067901

RESUMO

F-actin and myosin XI play important roles in plant organelle movement. A few myosin XI genes in the genome of Arabidopsis are mainly expressed in mature pollen, which suggests that they may play a crucial role in pollen germination and pollen tube tip growth. In this study, a genetic complementation assay was conducted in a myosin xi-c (myo11c1) myosin xi-e (myo11c2) double mutant, and fluorescence labeling combined with microscopic observation was applied. We found that myosin XI-E (Myo11C2)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) restored the slow pollen tube growth and seed deficiency phenotypes of the myo11c1 myo11c2 double mutant and Myo11C2-GFP partially colocalized with mitochondria, peroxisomes and Golgi stacks. Furthermore, decreased mitochondrial movement and subapical accumulation were detected in myo11c1 myo11c2 double mutant pollen tubes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments showed that the fluorescence recoveries of GFP-RabA4d and AtPRK1-GFP at the pollen tube tip of the myo11c1 myo11c2 double mutant were lower than those of the wild type (WT) after photobleaching. These results suggest that Myo11C2 may be associated with mitochondria, peroxisomes and Golgi stacks, and play a crucial role in organelle movement and apical accumulation of secretory vesicles in pollen tubes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

10.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(10): 1027-33, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish and promote the non-contact doctor-patient interactive diagnosis and treatment mode based on mobile internet for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with moxibustion therapy, and to observe the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in the pandemic. METHODS: A total of 43 first-line medical staff and 149 suspected and confirmed cases with COVID-19 [18 cases in medical observation period, 17 cases of mild type (cold dampness and stagnation in the lung), 24 cases of ordinary type (cold-dampness accumulated in the lung) and 90 cases in recovery period (qi deficiency of spleen and lung)] were included. A non-contact doctor-patient interactive diagnosis and treatment platform was established for the treatment of COVID-19 with indirect moxibustion plaster based on mobile internet. By the platform, the patients were instructed to use indirect moxibustion plaster in treatment. For the first-line medical staff and patients in the medical observation period, Zusanli (ST 36), Qihai (CV 6) and Zhongwan (CV 12) were selected. For the mild cases (cold dampness and stagnation in the lung) and the cases of ordinary type (cold-dampness accumulated in the lung), Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), Zusanli (ST 36) and Guanyuan (CV 4) were selected. In the recovery period (qi deficiency of spleen and lung), Dazhui (GV 14), Feishu (BL 13), Geshu (BL 17), Zusanli (ST 36) and Kongzui (LU 6) were used. The treatment was given once daily for 40 min each time. The intervention lasted for 10 days. After intervention, the infection rate and the improvement in the symptoms and psychological status of COVID-19 were observed in clinical first-line medical staff and COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: In 10 days of intervention with indirect moxibustion plaster, there was "zero" infection among medical staff. Of 43 first-line physicians and nurses, 33 cases had some physical symptoms and psychological discomforts, mainly as low back pain, poor sleep and anxiety. After treatment, regarding the improvements in the symptoms and psychological discomforts, the effective rate was 78.8% (26/33) and the curative rate was 36.4% (12/33). Regarding the improvements in psychological discomforts, the effective rate was 58.3% (14/24) and the curative rate was 37.5 (9/24). Of 149 patients, 133 cases had the symptoms and psychological discomforts. After treatment, regarding the improvements in the symptoms and psychological discomforts, the effective rate was 81.2% (108/133) and the curative rate was 34.6% (46/133). Regarding the improvements in psychological discomforts, the effective rate was 76.5% (52/68) and the curative rate was 57.4 % (39/68). CONCLUSION: It is feasible to apply the indirect moxibustion plaster technique based on mobile internet to the treatment COVID-19. This mode not only relieves the symptoms such as cough and fatigue, improves psychological state, but also possibly prevents the first-line medical staff from COVID-19.

11.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047472

RESUMO

A Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H arylation reaction of N-nitrosoanilines has  been developed in which arylboronic acids were used as arylation reagents.  It provides an efficient strategy for the synthesis of N-nitroso-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-amine, which is an important starting material for the synthesis of N-hetero biaryl compounds, such as 2-amine-1,1'-biphenyl, carbazole, phenanthridone. This protocol can be applied to various N-alkyl substituted N-nitrosoanilines and N-nitrosoanilines with substituents on the phenyl ring. Arylboronic acids with both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are tolerated.

12.
Neurosci Bull ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048310

RESUMO

General anesthesia severely affects the metabolites in the brain. Glycogen, principally stored in astrocytes and providing the short-term delivery of substrates to neurons, has been implicated as an affected molecule. However, whether glycogen plays a pivotal role in modulating anesthesia-arousal remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that isoflurane-anesthetized mice exhibited dynamic changes in the glycogen levels in various brain regions. Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP), key enzymes of glycogen metabolism, showed increased activity after isoflurane exposure. Upon blocking glycogenolysis with 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB), a GP antagonist, we found a prolonged time of emergence from anesthesia and an enhanced δ frequency in the EEG (electroencephalogram). In addition, augmented expression of glycogenolysis genes in glycogen phosphorylase, brain (Pygb) knock-in (PygbH11/H11) mice resulted in delayed induction of anesthesia, a shortened emergence time, and a lower ratio of EEG-δ. Our findings revealed a role of brain glycogen in regulating anesthesia-arousal, providing a potential target for modulating anesthesia.

13.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049028

RESUMO

The mitochondrial genome encodes key components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, whose expression is essential for mitochondrial functions. We have previously shown that deletion of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ppr10 encoding a pentatricopeptide repeat protein severely reduces the mature levels of intron-containing mitochondrial transcripts cox1 and cob1, and severely impairs mitochondrial translation. In this study, we examined the possibility that the reduced levels of Cox1 and Cob1 proteins in cells were due to lowered levels of cox1 and cob1 mRNAs. We found that deletion of ppr10 did not affect the levels of mature cox1 and cob1 mRNAs in a mitochondrial intronless background. However, synthesis of Cox1 and Cob1 proteins were still severely affected by deletion of ppr10 in a mitochondrial intronless background. Consistent with this, we found that deletion of mitochondrial introns could not rescue the respiratory growth defect of Δppr10 cells. Our results reveal that Ppr10 is not required for the stability of cox1 and cob1 mRNAs, and provide further support for the idea that Ppr10 plays a critical role in mitochondrial translation.

14.
15.
Genes Genomics ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overexpression of TSLP and DNA methylation in asthma were both risk factors the relationship was not clear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between methylation status of TSLP promoter and mRNA/protein expression in asthmatic airway epithelial cells. METHODS: Human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in vitro and divided into: Control group, treated with PBS, model group, sensitized with LPS (10 µg/mL) for 12 h (37 °C, 5% CO2). Other groups were cultured with the pCMV3 plasmid (M + NC/pCMV), pGPH1 plasmid (M + NC/pGPH), DNMT1/pCMV3 plasmid (M + DNMT1/pCMV), and DNMT1/pGPH1 plasmid (M + DNMT1/pGPH) for 48 h. The expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 and TSLP were measured using real-time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, TSLP mRNA (1.00 ± 0.00 vs. 2.82 ± 0.81 vs. 1, P < 0.001) and protein (1.07 ± 0.04 vs. 1.46 ± 0.11, P < 0.01) were significantly greater, and the methylation of promoter was lower (92.75 ± 1.26 vs. 58.57 ± 3.34, P < 0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, TSLP mRNA (2.82 ± 0.81 vs. 1.17 ± 0.10, P < 0.001) decreased, but TSLP promoter methylation increased (58.57 ± 3.34 vs. 92.58 ± 7.30, P < 0.05) in M + DNMT1/pCMV. TSLP mRNA and protein were higher (2.82 ± 0.81 vs. 5.32 ± 0.21, P < 0.001; 1.46 ± 0.11 vs. 1.94 ± 0.11, respectively, P < 0.01), TSLP promoter methylation was lower (58.57 ± 3.34 vs. 33.57 ± 4.29, P < 0.05) in M + DNMT1/pGPH. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of TSLP in asthmatic airway epithelial cells may be regulated by DNA demethylation.

16.
Vaccine ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041100

RESUMO

Recent studies have revealed that the interface of gp120 and gp41 and some parts of gp41 are also critical epitopes for elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, potential trimeric gp41 or gp140 immunogen candidates are needed. Previously, we developed a trimer motif MTQ and demonstrated that it could help formation of trimeric gp120 and gp140 proteins. In the present study, we immunized Balb/c mice using trimeric gp41-expressing plasmid for prime and monomeric gp41 or trimeric gp140 protein as well as a mutant (Q577A) for boost. The antibody responses in the context of regimens with various immunization intervals and DNA adjuvants including praziquantel (PZQ), cimetidine (CIM), and amiloride (AML) were evaluated. We found that these three adjuvants were not enough to elicit remarkable specific Abs after gp41 DNA immunization, while AML could significantly promote humoral immune responses after protein boosts. Long immunization interval could induce the specific binding Abs earlier and higher and maintain a high level of Abs in the following 27 weeks after final protein boost. Moreover, two times of protein boosts with DNA adjuvant and a longer time interval achieved a higher titer of specific Abs than three times of protein boosts with a shorter time interval. Q577A mutant was benefit for trimeric gp140 boost in the production of binding Abs but harmful to inducing neutralizing Abs, while this mutant in monomeric gp41 presented the opposite trend which may be associated with the immunogen structures. This study highlights the significance of DNA adjuvant Amiloride and long immunization interval in promoting antibody responses and provides new insights into effective HIV immunization regimen design in the future.

17.
Biofactors ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043521

RESUMO

Inflammation plays a crucial role in sepsis-induced cardiac injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether interleukin-5 (IL-5) affected lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac injury by regulating the inflammatory response. First, the expression level and source of cardiac IL-5 were examined, and the results showed that LPS treatment and cecal ligation decreased cardiac IL-5 expression in macrophages. In addition, LPS was used to establish a mouse sepsis model, and the effects of IL-5 deletion on cardiac injury, M1 macrophage differentiation and myocardial cell apoptosis were analyzed. The results showed that IL-5 deficiency significantly increased cardiac injury marker expression, worsened cardiac dysfunction, promoted M1 macrophage differentiation and exacerbated myocardial cell apoptosis in LPS-induced septic mice. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 pathway was inhibited by JSH-23, and the results showed that treatment with JSH-23 inhibited M1 macrophage differentiation and alleviated cardiac injury in LPS-treated IL-5-knockout mice. Furthermore, the effects of IL-5 deficiency on M1 macrophage differentiation and myocardial cell apoptosis were measured in vitro. The IL-5-mediated promotion of M1 macrophage differentiation was also reversed by S31-201, and the pro-apoptotic effect of IL-5 knockout on macrophage-mediated myocardial cell apoptosis was also reversed by JSH-23. In conclusion, we found that IL-5 knockout may exacerbate sepsis-induced cardiac injury by promoting M1 macrophage differentiation in mice. IL-5 may be a potential target for the clinical prevention of sepsis-related cardiac injury.

18.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044640

RESUMO

Ischemic postconditioning (PostC) conventionally refers to a series of brief blood vessel occlusions and reperfusions, which can induce an endogenous neuroprotective effect and reduce cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Depending on the site of adaptive ischemic intervention, PostC can be classified as in situ ischemic postconditioning (ISPostC) and remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC). Many studies have shown that ISPostC and RIPostC can reduce cerebral IS injury through protective mechanisms that increase cerebral blood flow after reperfusion, decrease antioxidant stress and anti-neuronal apoptosis, reduce brain edema, and regulate autophagy as well as Akt, MAPK, PKC, and KATP channel cell signaling pathways. However, few studies have compared the intervention methods, protective mechanisms, and cell signaling pathways of ISPostC and RIPostC interventions. Thus, in this article, we compare the history, common intervention methods, neuroprotective mechanisms, and cell signaling pathways of ISPostC and RIPostC.

19.
Theranostics ; 10(24): 11080-11091, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042271

RESUMO

Microsatellite instability (MSI) has been approved as a pan-cancer biomarker for immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. However, current MSI identification methods are not available for all patients. We proposed an ensemble multiple instance deep learning model to predict microsatellite status based on histopathology images, and interpreted the pathomics-based model with multi-omics correlation. Methods: Two cohorts of patients were collected, including 429 from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA-COAD) and 785 from an Asian colorectal cancer (CRC) cohort (Asian-CRC). We established the pathomics model, named Ensembled Patch Likelihood Aggregation (EPLA), based on two consecutive stages: patch-level prediction and WSI-level prediction. The initial model was developed and validated in TCGA-COAD, and then generalized in Asian-CRC through transfer learning. The pathological signatures extracted from the model were analyzed with genomic and transcriptomic profiles for model interpretation. Results: The EPLA model achieved an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 0.8848 (95% CI: 0.8185-0.9512) in the TCGA-COAD test set and an AUC of 0.8504 (95% CI: 0.7591-0.9323) in the external validation set Asian-CRC after transfer learning. Notably, EPLA captured the relationship between pathological phenotype of poor differentiation and MSI (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the five pathological imaging signatures identified from the EPLA model were associated with mutation burden and DNA damage repair related genotype in the genomic profiles, and antitumor immunity activated pathway in the transcriptomic profiles. Conclusions: Our pathomics-based deep learning model can effectively predict MSI from histopathology images and is transferable to a new patient cohort. The interpretability of our model by association with pathological, genomic and transcriptomic phenotypes lays the foundation for prospective clinical trials of the application of this artificial intelligence (AI) platform in ICB therapy.

20.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002209

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a significant and urgent threat to the global health. This review provided strong support for CNS infection with SARS-CoV-2 and shed light on neurological mechanism underlying the lethality of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the published data, only 1.28% COVID-19 patients who underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests were positive to SARS-CoV-2 in CSF. However, this does not mean the absence of CNS infection in most COVID-19 patients, because postmortem studies revealed that some patients with CNS infection showed negative results in CSF tests for SARS-CoV-2. Among 20 neuropathological studies reported so far, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the brain of 58 cases in 9 studies, and three studies have provided sufficient details on the CNS infection in COVID-19 patients. Almost all in vitro and in vivo experiments support the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2. In infected animals, SARS-CoV-2 was found within neurons in different brain areas with a wide spectrum of neuropathology, consistent with the reported clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Several lines of evidence indicate that SARS-CoV-2 used hematopoietic route to enter the CNS. But more evidence supports the trans-neuronal hypothesis. SARS-CoV-2 has been found to invade the brain via the olfactory, gustatory and trigeminal pathways, especially at the early stage of infection. Severe COVID-19 patients with neurological deficits are at a higher risk of mortality, and only the infected animals showing neurological symptoms became dead, suggesting that neurological involvement may be one cause of death. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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