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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 106: 66-75, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210440

RESUMO

Chemical exposure can indirectly affect leaf microbiota communities, but the mechanism driving this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Results revealed that the co-exposure of glyphosate and multi-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) caused a synergistic inhibitory effect on the growth and metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana shoots. However, only a slight inhibitory effect was induced by nanotubes or glyphosate alone at the tested concentrations. Several intermediate metabolites of nitrogen metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways were upregulated under the combined treatment, which increased the amount of energy required to alleviate the disruption caused by the combined treatment. Additionally, compared with the two individual treatments, the glyphosate/nanotube combination treatment induced greater fluctuations in the phyllosphere bacterial community members with low abundance (relative abundance (RA) <1%) at both the family and genus levels, and among these bacteria some plant growth promotion and nutrient supplement related bacteria were markable increased. Strikingly, strong correlations between phyllosphere bacterial diversity and metabolites suggested a potential role of leaf metabolism, particularly nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, in restricting the range of leaf microbial taxa. These correlations between phyllosphere bacterial diversity and leaf metabolism will improve our understanding of plant-microbe interactions and the extent of their drivers of variation and the underlying causes of variability in bacterial community composition.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Microbiota , Nanotubos de Carbono , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Folhas de Planta
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5040326, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257801

RESUMO

The function and mechanism underlying the suppression of human osteosarcoma cells by ginsenoside-Rg5 (Rg5) was investigated in the present study. MG-63, HOS, and U2OS cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay after Rg5 treatment for 24 h. Rg5 inhibited human osteosarcoma cell proliferation effectively in a dose-dependent manner. The range of effective inhibitory concentrations was 160-1280 nM. Annexin V-FITC and PI double-staining assay revealed that Rg5 induced human osteosarcoma cell apoptosis. Western blotting, qRT-PCR, and FACS experiments revealed that Rg5 inhibited human osteosarcoma cells via caspase-3 activity which was related to the LC3-mediated autophagy pathway. Rg5 decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTORC1 activation. In contrast, LC3-mediated autophagy and caspase-3 activity increased significantly. A PI3K/AKT stimulator, IGF-1, reversed Rg5-induced cell autophagy and apoptosis in MG-63 cells. Collectively, the current study demonstrated that Rg5 induced human osteosarcoma cell apoptosis through the LC3-mediated autophagy pathway. Under physiological conditions, activation of PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 inhibits LC3 activity and caspase-3-related cell apoptosis. However, Rg5 activated LC3 activity by inhibiting the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTORC1. The present study indicated that Rg5 could be a promising candidate as a chemotherapeutic agent against human osteosarcoma.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5533134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258265

RESUMO

Background: The mainstay of treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy that includes carboplatin and paclitaxel, but the prognosis is poor. This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS+HIPEC) as first-line surgical treatment in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). Methods: FIGO stage III/IV AOC patients underwent CRS+HIPEC as first-line surgical treatment at our center from December 2007 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was survival, and the secondary endpoint was safety. Results: Among 100 patients, the median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score was 80 (50-100), median peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 19 (1-39), median completeness of cytoreduction (CC) score was 1 (0-3), number of organ regions removed was 4 (3-9), number of peritoneal regions removed was 4 (1-9), and number of anastomoses was 1 (0-4). The median follow-up was 36.8 months; 75 (75.0%) patients were still alive, and 25 (25.0%) had died. The median overall survival (mOS) was 87.6 (95% CI: 72.1-103.0) months, and the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates were 94.1%, 77.2%, 68.2%, 64.2%, and 64.2%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that better mOS correlated with an age ≤, KPS ≥ 80, ascites ≤ 1000 ml, PCI < 19, and CC score 0-1. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that CC was an independent factor for OS; patients who underwent CRS with a CC score 0-1 had a mPFS of 67.8 (95% CI: 48.3-87.4) months. The perioperative serious adverse event and morbidity rates were 4.0% and 2.0%, respectively. Conclusions: CRS+HIPEC improves survival for AOC patients with acceptable safety at experienced high-volume centers. Stringent patient selection and complete CRS are key factors for better survival.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264448

RESUMO

Contact dermatitis (CD) is a common inflammatory skin disease caused by exposure to contact allergens and irritants. It is also the most common reason of occupational dermatitis and contributes greatly to hand dermatitis and facial dermatitis. Besides the two major forms of contact dermatitis: allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis, other subtypes of CD have been recognized including immediate skin reactions, photoinduced contact dermatitis, systemic contact dermatitis, and non-eczematous contact dermatitis. CD is a great imitator which can mimic many kinds of skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, and angioedema. For the diagnosis of CD, a complete medical history, including occupational history, is very important. It can give a clue of CD and provide a list of suspected substances. Besides the well-known diagnostic test, patch testing, there are many other diagnostic tests can be used to help diagnosis of CD and identify the causative allergens, including photopatch test, skin tests for detecting of immediate contact reactions, serum allergen-specific IgE test, and qualitative and quantitative testing of allergen in the suspected materials patients exposed to and challenge test. Before the treatment, the suspected irritants or allergens should be avoided completely. This includes both the removal of the patient from the environment that contains those substances and the promotion of the metabolism and expulsion of the allergens that have been absorbed by the body. In addition, it is also important to restore the skin barrier and reduce skin inflammation through multiple treatments, such as emollients, topical corticosteroids, and antihistamines, as well as systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Early and appropriate treatments are important to prevent further deterioration and persistence of the skin condition.

5.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(7): 528-535, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247776

RESUMO

In this study, three new germacranolide sesquiterpenes (1-3), together with six related known analogues (4-9) were isolated from the whole plant of Carpesium cernuum. Their structures were established by a combination of extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, HR-ESIMS data, and ECD calculations. The anti-leukemia activities of all compounds towards three cell lines (HEL, KG-1a, and K562) were evaluated in vitro. Compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 1.59 to 5.47 µmol·L-1. Mechanistic studies indicated that 2 induced apoptosis by decreasing anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and activating the caspase family in K562 cells. These results suggest that compound 2 is a potential anti-leukemia agent.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251462

RESUMO

The inhibitory mechanisms of artemisinin anti-algae sustained-release granules (AASG) on algal cells at cytoplasmic level were investigated. The results showed that 0.2 g L-1 AASG could effectively inhibit the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa (M.aeruginosa). The stress of 0.2 g L-1 AASG changed the excitation energy distribution pattern of Photosystem II (PSII) of algal cells, which showed the increase of heat dissipation share and the inhibition of physiological activities related to PSII. At the same time, AASG induced a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which aggravated the membrane lipid peroxidation and caused serious damage to algae cell membrane. AASG also resulted in the decrease of esterase activity and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in algal cells. Results showed that AASG inhibited algal growth by exerting adverse effects on PSII, ROS and metabolic activity of M.aeruginosa.

7.
Anal Chem ; 93(27): 9621-9627, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197082

RESUMO

Manganese dioxide nanosheets combined with cysteine-assisted emitting manganese dioxide nanospheres (Cys-MnO2 nanospheres) is fabricated for the first time as an "off-on" fluorescence detection platform for glutathione (GSH). In this sensing system, Cys-MnO2 nanospheres served as energy donors, while MnO2 nanosheets were used as both energy acceptors and recognition units. MnO2 nanosheets can effectively quench the fluorescence of Cys-MnO2 nanospheres through the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The addition of GSH could reduce MnO2 nanosheets into Mn2+, disrupting the FRET process and restoring the fluorescence of Cys-MnO2 nanospheres. Under the optimum conditions, the "switch-on" platform we established has a wide response to GSH with a range of 5-50 µM and 150-800 µM, as well as a superior specificity. Importantly, all components of the sensor are nontoxic, biocompatible, easily prepared, and have a high utilization of raw materials. Moreover, the sensing system achieved satisfactory results in human serum, showing a tremendous potential in the field of biomedicine.


Assuntos
Glutationa/análise , Compostos de Manganês , Nanosferas , Cisteína , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Óxidos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281221

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been approved as a new class of anti-diabetic drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glucose reabsorption through renal systems, thus improving glycemic control in all stages of diabetes mellitus, independent of insulin. This class of drugs has the advantages of no clinically relevant hypoglycemia and working in synergy when combined with currently available anti-diabetic drugs. While improving sugar level control in these patients, SGLT2 inhibitors also have the advantages of blood-pressure improvement and bodyweight reduction, with potential cardiac and renal protection. In randomized control trials for patients with diabetes, SGLT2 inhibitors not only improved cardiovascular and renal outcomes, but also hospitalization for heart failure, with this effect extending to those without diabetes mellitus. Recently, dynamic communication between autophagy and the innate immune system with Beclin 1-TLR9-SIRT3 complexes in response to SGLT2 inhibitors that may serve as a potential treatment strategy for heart failure was discovered. In this review, the background molecular pathways leading to the clinical benefits are examined in this new class of anti-diabetic drugs, the SGLT2 inhibitors.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293859

RESUMO

Violent inflammation has impeded worry-free application of polypropylene (PP) hernia meshes. Efficient anti-inflammatory coatings are urgently needed to alter the situation. Here, we present a zipper-like, two-layer coating with an intermediate antioxidant layer (I) and an outer antifouling layer (II) to endow PP meshes with synergistic anti-inflammatory effects. The controllable antioxidant ability of layer I was obtained by modulating the assembly cycle of the metal-phenolic network (MPN) composed of tannic acid (TA) and Fe3+. Polyzwitterionic (PMAD) brush-based layer II was generated upon multiple interactions between the catechol side groups of PMAD and layer I. To consolidate the entire assembly architecture, aryloxy radical coupling was initiated through alkali-catalyzed oxidation. The reaction is similar to a "zipping up" process to construct covalent bonds in the I-II interface and layer I by coupling adjacent catechol groups, which facilely achieved grafting and cross-linking. The obtained coating (PMAD-TA/Fe) did not affect the original properties of the PP mesh and remained stable during cyclic tensile testing or degradation. Most importantly, the excellent antioxidant and antifouling capacities enabled PMAD-TA/Fe-PP to exhibit desirable anti-inflammatory effects and reduce collagen deposition when compared with the bare material. The synergistic anti-inflammatory coating eliminates a major hindrance in the design of biocompatible meshes, and its potential application in developing medical implants with low immunogenicity is promising.

11.
J Clin Nurs ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289524

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in longer-term sedentary behaviours and mental health problems. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the Otago exercise programme (OEP) on physical function and mental health among elderly with cognitive frailty during COVID-19. BACKGROUND: Lockdowns and restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic result in longer-term sedentary behaviours related disease and mental problem. Older people with cognitive frailty are more vulnerable to be influenced. Timely intervention may achieve better outcomes, OEP exercise was designed as a balance and muscle-strengthening programme for elderly people. DESIGN: A parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was performed according to CONSORT guidelines. METHODS: This study was conducted from July 2020 to October 2020 among 62 elderly people with cognitive frailty from a nursing home. Participants were randomly divided into an OEP group (n = 31) or a control group (n = 31). Both groups received sleep- and diet-related health education. The OEP group also received a 12-week group exercise programme. The Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) were used to assess physical function. The Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey Mental Component Summary (SF-12 MCS) were used to assess mental health. Outcomes were measured at 6 and 12 weeks. RESULTS: Physical function and mental health were similar in the two groups at baseline. At 12 weeks, the OEP group (difference in change from baseline: FTSST, -2.78; TUGT, -3.73; BBS, 2.17; GDS-15, -0.72; SF-12 MCS, 2.58; all p < .001) exhibited significantly greater improvements than the control group (difference in change from baseline: FTSST, 1.55; TUGT, 1.66; BBS, -0.10; GDS-15, 1.07; SF-12 MCS, -5.95; all p < .001). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed the OEP group had better physical function and mental health outcomes than the control group. OEP can be used to improve the physical and mental function among elderly people with cognitive frailty during the COVID-19 pandemic. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Otago exercise program intervention programmes should be implemented to improve physical function for cognitive frailty elderly to reduce the harm of longer-term sedentary behaviours, and to ruduce depression symptom and improve mental health, particularly during COVID-19 pandemic period.

12.
J Chem Inf Model ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289687

RESUMO

The endeavors to pursue a robust multitask model to resolve intertask correlations have lasted for many years. A multitask deep neural network, as the most widely used multitask framework, however, experiences several issues such as inconsistent performance improvement over the independent model benchmark. The research aims to introduce an alternative framework by using the problem transformation methods. We build our multitask models essentially based on the stacking of a base regressor and classifier, where the multitarget predictions are realized from an additional training stage on the expanded molecular feature space. The model architecture is implemented on the QM9, Alchemy, and Tox21 datasets, by using a variety of baseline machine learning techniques. The resultant multitask performance shows 1 to 10% enhancement of forecasting precision, with the task prediction accuracy being consistently improved over the independent single-target models. The proposed method demonstrates a notable superiority in tackling the intertarget dependence and, moreover, a great potential to simulate a wide range of molecular properties under the transformation framework.

13.
J Adolesc Health ; 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with St. John Providence Health System, initiated voluntary school-wide sexually transmitted disease (STD) screenings in four Detroit public high schools. We sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of the STD screening program from 2010 to 2015, with a focus on chlamydia. METHODS: The costs and effectiveness of the school-based screening were compared with those of a "no school screening" scenario using a healthcare system perspective. A decision tree model was constructed to project cases of chlamydia, epididymitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in each of the two scenarios among students tested positive and their partners. Health effects were measured as cases of PID prevented, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Cost estimates included program costs, chlamydia testing/treatment costs in the absence of school screening, and treatment costs for epididymitis, PID, and PID sequelae. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was measured as cost/QALY gained. Multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted on key parameter estimates and assumptions used. RESULTS: Under base-case assumptions, at a total program cost of $333,848 over 5 years, the program prevented an estimated 1.9 cases of epididymitis and 17.3 cases of PID, resulting in an ICER of $38,235/QALY gained (yearly ICER ranging from $27,417 to $50,945/QALY). Of 10,000 Monte Carlo simulation runs, the yearly ICER remained ≤$50,000/QALY in 64%-98% of the simulation runs. CONCLUSIONS: We found favorable cost-effectiveness ratios for Michigan's school-wide STD screening program in Detroit. School-based STD screening programs of this type warrant careful considerations by policy makers and program planners.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291637

RESUMO

One mononuclear complex [Dy(Htpy)(NO3)2(acac)] (1) and a tpy--extended 1D chain {[Dy(CH3OH)(NO3)2(tpy)]·CH3OH}n (2) (Htpy = 4'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, Hacac = acetylacetone) were successfully designed to investigate the effect of bond length tuning around the DyIII cation on the magnetic dynamics of single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Interestingly, two magnetic entities possess the same local coordination sphere (N3O6-donor) as well as the configuration (Muffin, Cs) of dysprosium centers. Only a slight difference in structure results from purposefully substituting the acetylacetone ligand in 1 with hydroxyl oxygen from tpy- linkage and one methanol molecule in 2. However, the remarkable differences in dynamics behavior were clearly found between them. Compound 1 possesses a thermal-activated effective energy barrier (Ueff/kB) of 22.7 K under a 0 kOe direct current (dc) field and negligible hysteresis loop at 2.0 K, while complex 2 shows high-performance SMM behavior with the largest energy barrier of 354.36 K among the reported nine-coordinated DyIII-based systems and the magnetic hysteresis up to 4.0 K at a sweep rate of 200 Oe s-1. These experimental results combined with the previous reported data reveal that the shortest bond and the bond length difference around the DyIII center synergistically determine the dynamics of SMMs. The uniaxial anisotropy increases with the decrease of the shortest bond and the increase of the bond length difference, which is confirmed by the theoretical calculations.

15.
Rheumatol Ther ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is characterized by multi-focal pain and is associated with fatigue, unrefreshing sleep and psychological impairment. Pregabalin is one of the most frequently used agents in fibromyalgia treatment. However, it has failed to demonstrate benefit over placebo for reducing fatigue and psychological impairment, and may cause adverse effects (e.g. somnolence, dizziness). "Ba-Duan-Jin" (BDJ) is a common form of "Qigong" exercise for health promotion in China. Growing evidence suggests that BDJ may achieve satisfactory control of fibromyalgia-related symptoms in Chinese patients. Therefore, we wish to ascertain if BDJ could overcome the disadvantages of pregabalin. METHODS: A single-blind randomized controlled trial has been designed which will recruit 104 patients with fibromyalgia (age 18-70 years) with a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score of ≥ 40 mm These patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) BDJ group (to undertake guided BDJ exercise and take a placebo capsule) or (2) pregabalin group (to take a pregabalin capsule and receive wellness education and guided muscle-relaxation exercises). The primary endpoint will be changes in the VAS score for pain. The secondary endpoints will be changes in the score for the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck II Depression Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Short Form-36 Health Survey Questionnaire. These parameters will be assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks of follow-up. PLANNED OUTCOMES: Our results are expected to provide more clinical evidence for the beneficial effects of BDJ in treating fibromyalgia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03797560.

16.
Chem Biodivers ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292661

RESUMO

A new neo -clerodane diterpenoid, salvihispin H ( 1 ), and six known ones ( 2 - 7 ) were identified from the aerial parts of Salvia hispanica L. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic ( 1 H, 13 C, and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The anti-diabetic effects of salvihispin H ( 1 ) and salvifaricin ( 2 ) were evaluated in diabetic db/db mice. The data showed that 1 and 2 could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose level and improve insulin resistance, and compound 1 exerted glucose-lowering effect more quickly than metformin. In addition, 1 and 2 could also reduce serum TG level in db/db mice. These results demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 could be considered as potent candidates for the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4195, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234119

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 can infect many domestic animals, including dogs. Herein, we show that dog angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (dACE2) can bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD), and that both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2 can infect dACE2-expressing cells. We solved the crystal structure of RBD in complex with dACE2 and found that the total number of contact residues, contact atoms, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges at the binding interface in this complex are slightly fewer than those in the complex of the RBD and human ACE2 (hACE2). This result is consistent with the fact that the binding affinity of RBD to dACE2 is lower than that of hACE2. We further show that a few important mutations in the RBD binding interface play a pivotal role in the binding affinity of RBD to both dACE2 and hACE2. Our work reveals a molecular basis for cross-species transmission and potential animal spread of SARS-CoV-2, and provides new clues to block the potential transmission chains of this virus.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
18.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(3): 445-451, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238422

RESUMO

Breast cancer patients with bone,liver and lung metastases tend to have a poor prognosis.According to Paget's "seed and soil" theory,metastatic cancer cell "seeds" must fall on congenial target organ "soil".Studies have shown that myeloid-derived suppressor cells(MDSCs)can be recruited at the site of breast cancer metastasis in advance and play a role in the metastasis of breast cancer cells.This paper reviews the biological characteristics of MDSCs,the roles of MDSCs in peripheral circulation,prometastatic niche,and metastatic site during breast cancer metastasis,as well as the research progress of MDSCs-targeted treatment of breast cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Células Supressoras Mieloides , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255837

RESUMO

Recent technical advance attracts great attention to the promotion of programming skills, in particular, and computational thinking (CT), in general, as a new intellectual competency. However, the understanding of its cognitive substrates is limited. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of programming to understand the cognitive substrates of CT. Specifically, magnetic resonance imaging signals were collected while the participants were mentally solving programming problems, and we found that CT recruited distributed cortical regions, including the posterior parietal cortex, the medial frontal cortex, and the left lateral frontal cortex. These regions showed extensive univariate and multivariate resemblance with arithmetic, reasoning, and spatial cognition tasks. Based on the resemblance, clustering analyses revealed that cortical regions involved in CT can be divided into Reasoning, Calculation, Visuospatial, and Shared components. Further, connectivity increased during programming within the CT network constructed by these four components and decreased between the CT network and other cortical regions. In sum, our study revealed the cognitive components underlying CT and their neural correlates and further suggests that CT is not a simple sum of parallel cognitive processes, but a composite cognitive process integrating a set of intellectual abilities, particularly those in the science, technology, engineering, and math domains.

20.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 18(1): 76, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from the 2010-2012 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey showed that the vast majority of postmenopausal women in China had dual deficiencies in calcium and estrogen. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify whether calcium supplementation alleviated bone loss caused by calcium restriction combined with estrogen deficiency in rats. METHODS: Forty-eight female rats aged 9 weeks were assigned to 4 groups and fed a low-calcium diet: sham-operated (SHAM-LC), ovariectomized (OVX-LC), and ovariectomized rats treated with 750 mg/kg (OVX-LC-M) or 2800 mg/kg CaCO3 (OVX-LC-H). CaCO3 or distilled water was administered orally for 13 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) and histomorphometry of the femur, serum biochemical parameters, and serum metabolites were analyzed. RESULTS: The OVX-LC rats showed a significant increase in body weight and serum levels of lipid markers, a significant decrease in serum estradiol, calcium, phosphorus, and 25(OH)D levels, and deterioration of the femur. At 750 mg/kg and 2800 mg/kg, CaCO3 reduced the deterioration of trabecular bone and increased the trabecular area percentage (Tb.Ar %) and BMD of the femur. Serum estradiol levels increased in a dose-dependent manner after CaCO3 supplementation (p < 0.01). The administration of 2800 mg/kg CaCO3 decreased serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels (p < 0.05) and decreased the levels of the bone turnover markers osteocalcin, N-telopeptide of type I collagen and ß-crosslaps. The results of the metabolomics analysis showed that the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway was closely related to calcium supplementation, and more DG (44:6 n3), LysoPC (22:2) and PE (P-34:3) and less Cer (d43:0) and PE-NMe2 (46:3) were produced. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicated that calcium supplementation was beneficial for decreasing bone loss in OVX-LC rats. The present study is the first to show that calcium supplementation increased the estradiol content in OVX-LC rats, and the effect of calcium on bone loss may be partially attributed to the increase in the estrogen level that subsequently induced the changes in metabolite levels, eventually increasing the bone mineral density to a relatively higher level to reduce bone deterioration.

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