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1.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 385-393, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222822

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to study the effect of miR-33b in regulating sensitivity to daunorubicin (DNR) in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Cell Counting Kit-8 assay to detect the level of miR-33b and cell viability. Cell apoptosis and the expression of eIF5A-2 and MCL-1 protein were detected by flow cytometry analysis and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MiR-33b mimic increased sensitivity of AML cells against DNR, while miR-33b inhibitor had the opposite effect. Furthermore, the results showed that the eIF5A-2 gene was a direct target of miR-33b, and miR-33b regulated eIF5A-2 mRNA and protein expression. Silencing of eIF5A-2 by RNA interference increased the sensitivity of AML cells against DNR. We also found that MCL-1 contributed to the regulation of DNR sensitivity, which was dependent on downregulation of eIF5A-2. Finally, knockdown of eIF5A-2 eliminated the effects of miRNA-33b mimic or inhibitor on DNR sensitivity. These findings indicate that miR-33b maybe as a new therapeutic target in AML cells.

2.
Water Res ; 168: 115145, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614237

RESUMO

A variety of fluorinated alternatives are being manufactured and applied as a consequence of stringent regulations on legacy poly/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, 26 emerging and legacy PFASs were measured in the surface water (including dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter) and sediments taken from Hai River basin, China. The total concentrations of PFASs (∑PFASs) ranged from 1.74 to 172 ng/L, with perfluorooctanonate (PFOA) as the dominant compound (15.2% of the ∑PFASs, median value). Emerging PFASs, such as dimer acid of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) and trimer acid (HFPO-TA), were widely detected in the water samples. Specifically, chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B) was observed to be predominant in some sediment samples. A receptor model, Unmix, was introduced to identify the sources of PFASs in the surface water, and the results indicated that fire-fighting foam/fluoropolymer processing aids (36.6%) were the dominant source. The field-based sediment-water (organic carbon normalized) coefficients, Koc, were correlated to the carbon chain lengths of the PFASs. A technique coupling one-way analysis of variance with chemical mass balance model was developed to trace the manufacturing sources of PFOA. Electrochemical fluorination (ECF) was the major PFOA manufacturing source with considerable contribution by telomerization. For the first time, the isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were quantified in the environmental samples. The lower proportion of branched (br-) PFOSA isomers and higher percentage of br-perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in the water samples relative to their corresponding commercial products, provided more direct evidences that br-PFOSA isomers were biotransformed more easily than n-PFOSA, explaining the observed enrichment of br-PFOS in the aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios
3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124695, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545215

RESUMO

As the effective adsorbents, carbon materials (CMs) are typically used in the removal of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors during the water treatment by adding CMs before disinfection procedure. However, after the separation of CMs from the treated water by flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration, a small amount of loaded activated carbon could be released into the water treatment system and affect the DBP formation in the following disinfection. In this study, three CMs, including coal-made activated carbon (CAC), sawdust charcoal (SCC), and hydroxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNT), were used to explore the effects of residual CMs in the formation of DBPs. The results indicated that some DBP precursors could be irreversibly adsorbed into the pore structure of CMs and hardly to be extracted and determined, then affected the DBP formation in the water system. In the chlorination process of surface water samples, CMs have similar effects on the formation of DBPs. However, given that water samples contain a variety of complex substances, the effects of residual CMs on the formation of DBPs were also slightly changed.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5510, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796745

RESUMO

The study of transition metal clusters exhibiting fast electron hopping or delocalization remains challenging, because intermetallic communications mediated through bridging ligands are normally weak. Herein, we report the synthesis of a nanosized complex, [Fe(Tp)(CN)3]8[Fe(H2O)(DMSO)]6 (abbreviated as [Fe14], Tp-, hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide), which has a fluctuating valence due to two mobile d-electrons in its atomic layer shell. The rate of electron transfer of [Fe14] complex demonstrates the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence in the nanosized spheric surface, wherein high-spin centers are ferromagnetically coupled, producing an S = 14 ground state. The electron-hopping rate at room temperature is faster than the time scale of Mössbauer measurements (<~10-8 s). Partial reduction of N-terminal high spin FeIII sites and electron mediation ability of CN ligands lead to the observation of both an extensive electron transfer and magnetic coupling properties in a precisely atomic layered shell structure of a nanosized [Fe14] complex.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e1906799, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799765

RESUMO

Metastasis remains the major cause of death in cancer patients. Thus, there is a need to sensitively detect tumor metastasis, especially ultrasmall metastasis, for early diagnosis and precise treatment of cancer. Herein, an ultrasensitive T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, UMFNP-CREKA is reported. By conjugating the ultrasmall manganese ferrite nanoparticles (UMFNPs) with a tumor-targeting penta-peptide CREKA (Cys-Arg-Glu-Lys-Ala), ultrasmall breast cancer metastases are accurately detected. With a behavior similar to neutrophils' immunosurveillance process for eliminating foreign pathogens, UMFNP-CREKA exhibits a chemotactic "targeting-activation" capacity. UMFNP-CREKA is recruited to the margin of tumor metastases by the binding of CREKA with fibrin-fibronectin complexes, which are abundant around tumors, and then release of manganese ions (Mn2+ ) to the metastasis in response to pathological parameters (mild acidity and elevated H2 O2 ). The localized release of Mn2+ and its interaction with proteins affects a marked amplification of T1 -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) signals. In vivo T1 -weighted MRI experiments reveal that UMFNP-CREKA can detect metastases at an unprecedented minimum detection limit of 0.39 mm, which has significantly extended the detection limit of previously reported MRI probe.

6.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786915

RESUMO

Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) are genotoxic DNA lesions and mainly generated on thymine-thymine (T-T) dinucleotides upon UV irradiation. Regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of analytical methods, it is of first choice to develop a reliable assay for simultaneous detection of these DNA lesions using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, the dilemma is the low detection sensitivity of the phosphate-containing dimeric photoproducts even using most favorable negative-ion mode for LC-MS/MS analysis. Unexpectedly, we observed that the detection sensitivity of T-T CPD and 6-4PP could be significantly improved using formic acid/acetic acid (~ppm) as an additive of the mobile phase for reversed-phase LC-MS/MS analysis. This is the first demonstration of the enhancement of LC-MS/MS signals by formic acid/acetic acid in negative-ion mode. Of note, these acidic agents are often used for positive-ion mode in LC-MS assays. Benefited from the developed method, we could quantify both T-T CPD and 6-4PP in mouse embryonic stem cells upon UVC irradiation at low dosage. This sensitive method is applicable to the screening and identification of genes involved in formation, signaling and repair of UV lesion.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e1905145, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788896

RESUMO

Rapid cut-off of blood supply in diseases involving thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the current thrombolysis strategies offer limited results due to the therapeutics' short half-lives, low targeting ability, and unexpected bleeding complications. Inspired by the innate roles of platelets in hemostasis and pathological thrombus, platelet membrane-camouflaged polymeric nanoparticles (nanoplatelets) are developed for targeting delivery of the thrombolytic drug, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), to local thrombus sites. The tailor-designed nanoplatelets efficiently accumulate at the thrombi in pulmonary embolism and mesenteric arterial thrombosis model mice, eliciting a significantly enhanced thrombolysis activity compared to free rt-PA. In addition, the nanoplatelets exhibit improved therapeutic efficacy over free rt-PA in an ischemic stroke model. Analysis of in vivo coagulation indicators suggests the nanoplatelets might possess a low risk of bleeding complications. The hybrid biomimetic nanoplatelets described offer a promising solution to improve the efficacy and reduce the bleeding risk of thrombolytic therapy in a broad spectrum of thrombosis diseases.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(12): 916, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801947

RESUMO

The burgeoning functions of many microRNAs (miRs) have been well study in cancer. However, the level and function of miR-1205 in laryngeal squamous cell cancer remains unknown. In the current research, we validated that miR-1205 was notably downregulated in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) samples in comparison with tissues adjacent to LSCC, and correlated with T stage, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis indicates that high expression of miR-1205 has a favorable prognosis for patients with LSCC. Functional assays show that enforced miR-1205 expression attenuates the migration, growth, and invasion of LSCC cells. And E2F1 is verified to be a target of miR-1205, while E2F1 binds to miR-1205 promoter and transcriptionally inhibits miR-1205 expression. Overexpression of E2F1 reverses the inhibitory impacts of miR-1205 on LSCC cells in part. Importantly, E2F1 is abnormally increased in LSCC tissues, and its protein levels were inversely relevant to miR-1205 expression. High E2F1 protein level is in connection with clinical stage, T stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. Consequently, reciprocal regulation of miR-1205 and E2F1 plays a crucial role in the progression of LSCC, suggesting a new miR-1205/E2F1-based clinical application for patients of LSCC.

9.
Org Lett ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755722

RESUMO

Two novel phloroglucinol-terpenoid adducts (1 and 2), featuring a rare 2,2,4-trimethyl-cinnamyl-ß-triketone unit, were isolated from the buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus. Their structures with absolute configurations were established by spectroscopic analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and quantum chemical calculations. Structurally, compound 1 represents a new carbon skeleton possessing a densely functionalized tricyclo[11.3.1.03;8]heptadecane bridged ring system with an unusual bridgehead enol. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant in vitro antiviral activities against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

10.
Adv Mater ; : e1905582, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721337

RESUMO

Superconducting topological crystalline insulators are expected to form a new type of topological superconductors to host Majorana zero modes under the protection of lattice symmetries. The bulk superconductivity of topological crystalline insulators can be induced through chemical doping and the proximity effect. However, only conventional full gaps are observed, so the existence of topological superconductivity in topological crystalline insulators is still controversial. Here, the successful fabrication of atomically flat lateral and vertical Sn1- x Pbx Te-Pb heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The superconductivity of the Sn1- x Pbx Te-Pb heterostructures can be directly investigated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Unconventional peak-dip-hump gap features and fourfold symmetric quasiparticle interference patterns taken at the zero energy in the superconducting gap support the presence of the topological superconductivity in superconducting Sn1- x Pbx Te. Strong superconducting proximity effect and easy preparation of various constructions between Sn1- x Pbx Te and Pb make the heterostructures to be a promising candidate for topological superconducting devices to detect and manipulate Majorana zero modes in the future.

11.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 107: 50-59, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757265

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tobacco use is highly prevalent within addiction treatment settings, despite the potential benefits that cessation may provide to patients' psychosocial functioning and overall sobriety. Moreover, tobacco cessation is often insufficiently addressed in addiction treatment programs, although evidence suggests that tobacco control policies, such as access to evidence-based treatment or tobacco-free policies, may be effective. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of the implementation of these two tobacco control policies in an inpatient addiction treatment centre. METHODS: Using a 3-group quasi-experimental design, we examined how the implementation of the Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation (OMSC) and a subsequent campus-wide tobacco ban influenced patients' overall smoking status, frequency, amount used per day, and quit attempts during treatment, compared to usual care. Participants (N = 397) responded to a comprehensive questionnaire upon admission and discharge from an addiction treatment program. We used generalized linear mixed modelling to measure changes over time while accounting for relevant sociodemographic covariates. RESULTS: Patients exposed to a more comprehensive tobacco control environment (i.e., the OMSC, plus complete tobacco ban) were over 80% less likely to report having used tobacco during treatment, compared to patients exposed to usual care (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI [0.05-0.63]). Receiving treatment in this setting also contributed to a 35% decrease in the average number of days patients used tobacco compared to usual care (AOR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.53-0.98]), and a 27% decrease in the average number of cigarettes used per day compared to usual care (AOR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.58-0.93]). CONCLUSION: Comprehensive tobacco control policy interventions within inpatient addiction treatment hospitals promote tobacco cessation. Such interventions should include a combination of evidence-based treatment for patients and environmental restrictions to discourage tobacco use. The results of our study suggest that, within inpatient addiction treatment settings, use of the OMSC in combination with a campus-wide tobacco ban may be more effective than usual care or the OMSC alone.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757424

RESUMO

Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Danshen, exhibits broad cardiovascular protective effects. However, the effect of Tan IIA on Homocysteine (Hcy)-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remains unknown. We herein determined whether Tan IIA exerted anti-proliferative effect in Hcy-treating VSMCs, and further investigated the underlying mechanism (miR-145/CD40 signaling). The results showed that Tan IIA significantly inhibited VSMCs proliferation induced by Hcy in a dose-dependent manner, and reversed the VSMCs injury as indicated by decreased KLF4 and increased Calponin expression. In view of the key role of miR-145 in VSMCs, we further explored the role of miR-145 on the protective effect of Tan IIA against Hcy-induced VSMCs proliferation. The miR-145 expression was down-regulated and its targeted gene CD40 was up-regulated in Hcy-treating VSMCs, while the Tan IIA reversed the effect of Hcy, suggesting the miR-145/CD40 may be involve in the protective effect of Tan IIA. To determine the speculation, miR-145 inhibitor was used to inhibit miR-145 expression. The results indicated that miR-145 inhibitor can suppress the protective effects of Tan IIA against Hcy-induced VSMCs proliferation. Collectively, present study demonstrates that Tan IIA inhibits Hcy-induced proliferation of VSMCs via miR-145/CD40 signaling.

13.
Nanoscale ; 11(47): 22730-22733, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755513

RESUMO

Herein, NaGdF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles were anchored on a Material of Institute Lavoisier (MIL-101). In the well-defined heterostructure, MIL-101/NaGdF4:Yb,Er, the absorption and fluorescence could be tuned, and the composite facilitated the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the heterostructure displayed a higher photocurrent and better degradation ability for Rhodamine B that its individual components owing to its synergistic effect.

14.
J Nat Prod ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747283

RESUMO

Five new matrine-type alkaloid dimers, alopecuroides A-E, were isolated from the aerial parts of Sophora alopecuroides. Alopecuroides A and B represent the first dimeric matrine-type alkaloids possessing a cyano group and an epoxy moiety. Alopecuroides C and D are dimeric matrine-type alkaloids connected via C-2-C-9' and C-10-C-3' bonds, respectively. The chemical structures of alopecuroides A-E were elucidated by spectroscopic methods combined with single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The anti-inflammatory effects of alopecuroides A-E were evaluated, and alopecuroide B exhibited the most significant activity, better than that of matrine, the representative compound from S. alopecuroides.

15.
Neuromolecular Med ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758388

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of topiramate (TPM) on rats with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Differentially expressed genes in propofol-treated group and vehicle control group were filtered out and visualized in heatmap based on R program. POCD rat models were established for validation of TPM's anti-inflammatory action and Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed for assessment of spatial learning and memory ability of rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was applied to detect the neurodegeneration, and the apoptosis status was detected using TUNEL assay. In vitro, hippocampal microglia was treated with lipopolysaccharide or TPM to validate the TPM's anti-inflammatory action. Cell apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Inflammatory factors were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and factor-associated suicide (Fas), Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) expression were detected by western blot. As results, TPM administration improved the spatial learning and memory ability in POCD rat by decreasing the expression levels of Fas, FADD, and inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α; interleukin-1ß, IL-1ß; interleukin-6, IL-6) in POCD rats. In addition, TPM down-regulated cell apoptotic rate to suppress POCD by decreasing the expression of Caspase8, Bcl2-associated X (Bax), and poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1) yet enhancing B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression. Besides, inhibition of Fas enhanced TPM-induced down-regulation of apoptosis of neuronal cell in hippocampus tissues of POCD rats. Our results revealed that treatment of POCD rats with TPM could suppress neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus tissues, and the neuroprotective effects of TPM may relate with the regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway.

16.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 170, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate-binding adaptor SPOP is frequently mutated in primary prostate cancer, but how SPOP mutations contribute to prostate cancer pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Stress granules (SG) assembly is an evolutionarily conserved strategy for survival of cells under stress, and often upregulated in human cancers. We investigated the role of SPOP mutations in aberrant activation of the SG in prostate cancer and explored the relevanve of the mechanism in therapy resistance. METHODS: We identified SG nucleating protein Caprin1 as a SPOP interactor by using the yeast two hybrid methods. A series of functional analyses in cell lines, patient samples, and xenograft models were performed to investigate the biological significance and clinical relevance of SPOP regulation of SG signaling in prostate cancer. RESULTS: The cytoplasmic form of wild-type (WT) SPOP recognizes and triggers ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Caprin1. Caprin1 abundance is elevated in SPOP-mutant expressing prostate cancer cell lines and patient specimens. SPOP WT suppresses SG assembly, while the prostate cancer-associated mutants enhance SG assembly in a Caprin1-dependent manner. Knockout of SPOP or expression of prostate cancer-associated SPOP mutants conferred resistance to death caused by SG inducers (e.g. docetaxel, sodium arsenite and H2O2) in prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: SG assembly is aberrantly elevated in SPOP-mutated prostate cancer. SPOP mutations cause resistance to cellular stress induced by chemtherapeutic drug such as docetaxel in prostate cancer.

17.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2019: 9108108, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781290

RESUMO

In recent years, functional brain network topological features have been widely used as classification features. Previous studies have found that network node scale differences caused by different network parcellation definitions significantly affect the structure of the constructed network and its topological properties. However, we still do not know how network scale differences affect the classification accuracy, performance of classification features, and effectiveness of the feature selection strategy using P values in terms of the machine learning method. This study used five scale parcellations, involving 90, 256, 497, 1003, and 1501 nodes. Three local properties of resting-state functional brain networks were selected (degree, betweenness centrality, and nodal efficiency), and the support vector machine method was used to construct classifiers to identify patients with major depressive disorder. We analyzed the impact of the five scales on classification accuracy. In addition, the effectiveness and redundancy of features obtained by the different scale parcellations were compared. Finally, traditional statistical significance (P value) was verified as a feature selection criterion. The results showed that the feature effectiveness of different scales was similar; in other words, parcellation with more regions did not provide more effective discriminative features. Nevertheless, parcellation with more regions did provide a greater quantity of discriminative features, which led to an improvement in the accuracy of the classification. However, due to the close distance between brain regions, the redundancy of parcellation with more regions was also greater. The traditional P value feature selection strategy is feasible with different scales, but our analysis showed that the traditional P < 0.05 threshold was too strict for feature selection. This study provides an important reference for the selection of network scales when applying topological properties of brain networks to machine learning methods.

18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733095

RESUMO

Circular RNA FOXO3 (CircFOXO3, also termed as Hsa_circ_0006404) is derived from exon 2 of forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) gene, and abnormal expression is shown in different diseases. However, whether circFOXO3 plays important roles in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. In this study, we found that circFOXO3 was up-regulated in both PCa tissues and serum samples. Moreover, circFOXO3 was positively correlated with the Gleason score in PCa samples. CircFOXO3 was observed to be up-regulated in Gleason score > 6 PCa samples compared with Gleason score = 6 PCa samples. Knock-down circFOXO3 could remarkably inhibit PCa cell cycle, proliferation and promote cell apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated circFOXO3 could act as miR-29a-3p sponge to up-regulate SLC25A15 expression by bioinformatics analysis, dual-luciferase reporter assays and biotinylated RNA pull-down assays. SLC25A15 could reverse the tumour suppressing roles of knock-down circFOXO3 in PCa. Of note, we found that miR-29a-3p was down-regulated; however, SLC25A15 was overexpressed in PCa samples compared with normal tissues. In conclusion, circFOXO3 acts as a miR-29a-3p sponge to exhibit oncogenic activity that affects the cell cycle and cell apoptosis in PCa through transcriptional up-regulation of SLC25A15. Our analysis suggests circFOXO3 could act as promising prostate cancer biomarkers.

19.
Zootaxa ; 4674(4): zootaxa.4674.4.6, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715996

RESUMO

A new species of xenodermatid snake, Achalinus yunkaiensis J. Wang, Y. Li Y.Y. Wang, sp. nov. was described based on a series of specimens collected from Dawuling Forestry Station located in the Yunkai Mountains of western Guangdong Province. It can be distinguished from known congeners by a significant genetic divergence at the mitochondrial CO1 gene fragment examined (p-distance ≥ 12.0%) and the following combination of characters: (1) dorsal scales strongly keeled, in 23 rows throughout the body, the most outer row on each side smooth and significantly enlarged; (2) tail relatively shorter, TaL/TL ratio 18.5-20.0%; (3) maxillary teeth 20-22; (4) length of suture between internasals subequal to that between the prefrontals; (5) nasal divided into two sections by nasal cleft, posterior one half as long as anterior; (6) loreal elongated, nearly twice as wide as high; (7) supralabials six; (8) infralabials six; (9) temporals 2+2+3 (rarely 2+2+4), the two anterior temporals in contact with eye; (10) ventrals 151-162, subcaudals 49-56 arranged in single row, not paired; (11) cloacal entire; (12) uniform brown (in adults) or black (in juveniles) above, tinged weakly iridescent, with a longitudinal dark-colored vertebral line; (13) light brown (in adults) or greyish white (in juveniles) beneath; and (14) dorsum with a longitudinal dark brown vertebral stripe from posterior margin of parietals to tail tip. Currently, 13 species are known in the genus Achalinus, with seven from mainland China.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Serpentes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Agricultura Florestal
20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(14): 148003, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702175

RESUMO

While the behavior of vesicles in thermodynamic equilibrium has been studied extensively, how active forces control vesicle shape transformations is not understood. Here, we combine theory and simulations to study the shape behavior of vesicles containing active Brownian particles. We show that the combination of active forces, dimensionality, and membrane bending free energy creates a plethora of novel phase transitions. At low swim pressure, the vesicle exhibits a discontinuous transition from a spherical to a prolate shape, which has no counterpart in two dimensions. At high swim pressure it exhibits stochastic spatiotemporal oscillations. Our work helps researchers to understand and control the shape dynamics of membranes in active-matter systems.

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