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1.
Meat Sci ; 171: 108282, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858421

RESUMO

Pseudomonas have a faster growth rate over other bacteria in chilled meat under aerobic conditions. A non-destructive method for modelling the dynamic growth of Pseudomonas in pork stored at different temperatures using gas sensors was presented in our work. Based on selected gas sensor data, the first-order kinetic equations (Gompertz and Logistic Functions) combined with the secondary model (Square-root Function) effectively simulated Pseudomonas growth in pork at different temperatures with R2 and RMSE values of 0.71-0.97 and 0.27-0.84, respectively. Additionally, these models showed high accuracy with correlation coefficients greater than 0.90, in addition to several individual accuracy values. Furthermore, HS-SPME/GC-MS results demonstrated the presence of identified key volatiles in samples inoculated with Pseudomonas, including three amine compounds (mercaptamine, 1-octanamine and 1-heptadecanamine), phenol and indole. Our work showed that gas sensors are a rapid, easy and non-destructive method with acceptable feasibility in modelling the dynamic growth of spoilage microorganisms in meat.

2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105217, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to demonstrate the tolerability and feasibility and the effect of remote ischemic post-conditioning on cognitive functioning in patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized, outcome-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, randomized 1:1 to receive 4 cycles of remote ischemic post-conditioning or a sham procedure for 7 days. The primary outcome measure was tolerability and feasibility of remote ischemic post-conditioning. Secondary outcomes to measure the neurological function with national institute of health stroke scale and the cognitive impairment with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale and Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive (at baseline, 90 days, 180 days). RESULTS: 48 patients (24 RIPC and 24 Control) were recruited. remote ischemic post-conditioning was well tolerated with 90 out of 96 cycles completed in full. 4 patients experienced vascular events in the control group: 3 cerebrovascular and 1 cardiovascular event versus only 2 cerebrovascular events in the RIPC group. We showed the similar result in the neurological function with national institute of health stroke scale score with no statistically significant differences between RIPC and control group at baseline (P = 0.796) and 90 days (P = 0.401) and 180 days (P = 0.695). But compare with baseline, it was significantly difference in the control and RIPC group at 90 days (P < 0.05) and 180 days (P < 0.05). The comparison of Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale between two groups both showed that P > 0.05 at baseline which was no statistical difference, but P < 0.05 at 90 days and 180 days which were significant statistical difference. The comparison of Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive between two groups showed that P > 0.05 at baseline (P = 0.955) and 90 days (P = 0.138) was no statistical difference, but P = 0.005<0.05 at 180 days was significant statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: The remote ischemic post-conditioning for post-stroke cognitive impairment was well tolerated, safe and feasible. The remote ischemic post-conditioning may improve neurological and cognitive outcomes in patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment. A larger trial is warranted. (Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: ChiCTR1800015231.).

3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(10): 1047-51, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the immediate effect of acupuncture and moxibustion at Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zusanli (ST 36) on heart rate variability index in patients with qi deficiency syndrome. METHODS: Ninety patients with qi deficiency syndrome were randomly divided into an acupuncture group, a moxibustion group and a blank group, 30 patients in each group. The patients in the acupuncture group were treated with acupuncture at Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zusanli (ST 36) for 15 min; acupuncture was given once. The patients in the moxibustion group were treated with moxibustion with identical acupoints and treatment duration. The patients in the blank group received no intervention. The symptom scores of qi deficiency syndrome in each group before and after treatment were recorded. The average heart rate and index of heart rate variability including total power, low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and logarithm of LF/HF (log LF/HF) were tested 5 min before treatment, 5 min, 10 min, 15 min into treatment, and 5 min after treatment. RESULTS: The symptom scores of qi deficiency syndrome were reduced in the acupuncture group and moxibustion group after treatment (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, in the acupuncture group, the HF was increased 5 min into treatment (P<0.05), but was reduced 15 min into treatment and 5 min after treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01). The log LF/HF was increased 5 min and 10 min into treatment and 5 min after treatment (P<0.01). The difference of average heart rate between 5 min before treatment and 5 min after treatment in the acupuncture group was higher than that in the moxibustion group and blank group (P<0.05), and the difference of log LF/HF was higher than that in the moxibustion group and blank group (P<0.05, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture and moxibustion has immediate effects on heart rate variability in patients with qi deficiency syndrome, and the effect of acupuncture is superior to moxibustion, which may be related to the benign regulation of acupuncture on autonomic nervous system.

4.
Food Funct ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048099

RESUMO

Despite that colorectal cancer (CRC) is a severe global health problem, effective chemopreventive strategies against CRC are still lacking. Huang-qin tea (HQT), a healthy herbal tea, is prepared from the aerial parts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been consumed in China for thousands of years. HQT contains abundant flavonoids, which display potent anticancer effects, but no research studies have investigated the cancer-preventive effects of HQT on CRC in vivo. Here, we found that HQT inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in a preneoplastic colonic ACF rat model. The essential role of the gut microbiota in the chemopreventive effect of HQT on CRC in a pseudo-germ-free rat model was confirmed. Besides, HQT modulates inflammatory cytokine expression by significantly decreasing IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α expression, and elevating IFN-γ production. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis indicated that HQT regulated the gut microbiota by increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria (Lachnoclostridium, Alistipes, Roseburia, and Lactococcus) and reducing the levels of Bacteroides, Parasutterella, and unidentified_Clostridiales. Fecal metabolomics showed that HQT modulated the AOM-induced metabolomic disorder, and these altered metabolites were almost involved in the lipid metabolic pathways. The Spearman correlation analysis revealed a correlation between the gut microbiota and fecal metabolites. Collectively, these results suggested that HQT exerted beneficial effects on host health by inhibiting inflammation, and by regulating the gut microbiota profile and certain metabolic pathways. In conclusion, HQT inhibits AOM-induced ACF formation by modulating the gut microbiota composition and improving metabolomic disorders, indicating the potential of HQT as a functional beverage candidate for the prevention and treatment of CRC.

5.
J Pharm Sci ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049263

RESUMO

The Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway is dysregulated in diseases and Wnt inhibitors like PRI-724 are in clinical development. This study evaluated the regulatory actions of PRI-724 and other Wnt inhibitors on the transport activity of human renal Organic anion transporters (OATs) and Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). The substrate uptake by OAT4 and OATP2B1 was markedly decreased by PRI-724 (Vmax/Km: ∼26% and ∼17% of corresponding control), with less pronounced decreases in OAT1, OAT3 and OAT1A2. PRI-724 decreased the plasma membrane expression of inhibited OATs/OATPs but didn't affect their total cellular expression. Two model Wnt inhibitors - FH535 and 21H7 - were also tested in comparative studies. Like PRI-724, they also strongly decreased the activities and membrane expression of multiple OATs/OATPs. In contrast, FH535 didn't affect the substrate uptake by organic cation transporters. In control studies, the EGFR inhibitor lapatinib did not inhibit the function of some OATs/OATPs. Together these findings suggest that Wnt inhibitors selectively modulate the function of multiple organic anions transporters, so their clinical use may have unanticipated effects on drug entry into cells. These findings are pertinent to current clinical trials that have been designed to understand the safety and efficacy of new Wnt inhibitor drugs.

6.
Med Phys ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a biological dose prediction model considering tissue bio-reactions in addition to patient anatomy for achieving a more comprehensive evaluation of tumor control and promoting the automatic planning of bulky lung cancer. METHODS: A database containing images and partial stereotactic ablation boost radiotherapy (P-SABR) plans of 94 bulky lung cancer patients was studied. Patient-specific parameters of gross tumor boost (GTVb), planning gross target volume (PGTV), and identified organs at risk (OARs) were extracted via Numpy and simple ITK. The original dose and structure maps for P-SABR patients were resampled to have a voxel resolution of 3.9 × 3.9 × 3 mm3 . Biological equivalent dose (BED) distributions were reprogrammed based on physical dose volumes. A developed deep learning architecture, Nestnet, was adopted as the training framework. We utilized two approaches for data organization to correlate the structures and BED: (a) BED programming before training model (B-Nestnet); (b) BED programming after the training process (D-B Nestnet). The early-stop mechanism was adopted on the validation set to avoid overfitting. The evaluation criteria of predictive accuracy contains the minimum BED of GTVb and PGTV, the maximum and the mean BED of all targets, BED-volume metrics. For comparison, we also used the original Unet for BED prediction. The absolute differences were statistically analyzed with the paired-samples t-test. RESULTS: The statistical outcomes demonstrate that D-B Nestnet model predicts biological dose distributions accurately. The average absolute biases of [max, mean] BED for GTVb, PGTV are [2.1%, 3.3%] and [2.1%, 4.7%], respectively. Averaging across most of OARs, the D-B Nestnet model is capable of predicting the errors of the max and mean BED within 6.3% and 6.1%, respectively. While the compared models performed worse with averaged max and mean BED prediction errors surpassing 10% on some specific OARs. CONCLUSIONS: The study developed a D-B Nestnet model capable of predicting BED distribution accurately for bulky lung cancer patients in P-SABR. The predicted BED map enables a quick intuitive evaluation of tumor ablation, modification of the ablation range to improve BED of tumor targets, and quality assessment. It represents a major step forward towards automated P-SABR planning on bulky lung cancer in real clinical practice.

7.
Analyst ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016277

RESUMO

The polypeptide antibiotics colistin (COL) and bacitracin (Baci) are extensively used as veterinary drugs and feedstock additives in the livestock industry, which inevitably causes residues in animal-origin food, which can accelerate human tolerance to antibiotics. In this study, a portable lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the simultaneous determination of COL and Baci residues in milk was developed. The replacement of gold nanoparticles used in the traditional LFIA with fluorescent microspheres (FMs) to label monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) allowed qualitative and quantitative analyses within a few minutes. Based on the principle of competitive binding to FM-labelled mAbs between analytes in samples and fixed antigens on the membrane, the assay provided qualitative cut-off values of 100 and 50 ng mL-1 for Baci and COL in milk samples. Furthermore, a strip reader-based semi-quantitative detection system could detect lower limits of 7.85 and 1.89 ng mL-1 for Baci and COL, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed multiplex LFIA immunosensor provides an auxiliary analytical tool for the rapid and simultaneous screening of COL and Baci in large cohorts of samples.

8.
Can J Microbiol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022188

RESUMO

To understand the diversities of diazotrophs and denitrifiers in red paddy soil under long-term fertilization conditions, nifH, nirK and nosZ libraries were constructed based on the PCR-RFLP method. nirK gene diversity proved to be lower than that of nosZ and nifH, and nirK and nosZ genes were more sensitive to different fertilization treatments than those with the nifH gene. Diverse microbes including the α-, ß-, γ- and δ- subclasses of the Proteobacteria dominated the three libraries. Long-term addition of urea with straw-mulching and azophoska increased the abundance of non-symbiotic diazotrophs, which indicated that non-symbiotic diazotrophs were responsible for the majority of the nitrogen-fixing ability in paddy soil. In addition, a potential link between nifH and nosZ was found due to the existence of nitrogen fixers, such as Bradyrhizobium and Ralstonia in the nosZ library. The main chemical factors affecting the three genes were identified, pH was the most important factor of nifH community, and nirK genes were more affected by pH and organic matter, available potassium and carbon to nitrogen ratio significantly influenced the community structure of the nosZ genes.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044992

RESUMO

Rural-urban inequalities in health status and access to care are a significant issue in China, especially among older adults. However, the rural-urban differences in health outcomes, healthcare use, and expenditures among insured elders following China's comprehensive healthcare reforms in 2009 remain unclear. Using the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Surveys data containing a sample of 2,624 urban and 6,297 rural residents aged 65 and older, we performed multivariable regression analyses to determine rural-urban differences in physical and psychological functions, self-reported access to care, and healthcare expenditures, after adjusting for individual socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions. Nonparametric tests were used to evaluate the changes in rural-urban differences between 2011 and 2014. Compared to rural residents, urban residents were more dependent on activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs. Urban residents reported better adequate access to care, higher adjusted total expenditures for inpatient, outpatient, and total care, and higher adjusted out-of-pocket spending for outpatient and total care. However, rural residents had higher adjusted self-payment ratios for total care. Rural-urban differences in health outcomes, adequate access to care, and self-payment ratio significantly narrowed, but rural-urban differences in healthcare expenditures significantly increased from 2011 to 2014. Our findings revealed that although health and healthcare access improved for both rural and urban older adults in China between 2011 and 2014, rural-urban differences showed mixed trends. These findings provide empirical support for China's implementation of integrated rural and urban public health insurance systems, and further suggest that inequalities in healthcare resource distribution and economic development between rural and urban areas should be addressed to further reduce the rural-urban differences.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 4751349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029280

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation often induces neuroinflammation and disrupts neural functions, ultimately causing cognitive impairment. Furthermore, neuronal inflammation is the key cause of many neurological conditions. It is particularly important to develop effective neuroprotectants to prevent and control inflammatory brain diseases. Baicalin (BAI) has a wide variety of potent neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement properties in various models of neuronal injury through antioxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and stimulating neurogenesis. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether BAI can resolve neuroinflammation and cognitive decline triggered by systemic or distant inflammatory processes. In the present study, intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration was used to establish neuroinflammation to evaluate the potential neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of BAI. Here, we report that BAI activated silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) to deacetylate high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in response to acute LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive deficits. Furthermore, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and cognitive enhancement effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of BAI in modulating microglial activation and systemic cytokine production, including tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukin- (IL-) 1ß, after LPS exposure in mice and in the microglial cell line, BV2. In the hippocampus, BAI not only reduced reactive microglia and inflammatory cytokine production but also modulated SIRT1/HMGB1 signaling in microglia. Interestingly, pretreatment with SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 abolished the beneficial effects of BAI against LPS exposure. Specifically, BAI treatment inhibited HMGB1 release via the SIRT1/HMGB1 pathway and reduced the nuclear translocation of HMGB1 in LPS-induced BV2 cells. These effects were reversed in BV2 cells by silencing endogenous SIRT1. Taken together, these findings indicated that BAI reduced microglia-associated neuroinflammation and improved acute neurocognitive deficits in LPS-induced mice via SIRT1-dependent downregulation of HMGB1, suggesting a possible novel protection against acute neurobehavioral deficits, such as delayed neurocognitive recovery after anesthesia and surgery challenges.

11.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 145, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of master regulators (MRs) using transcriptome data in cervical cancer (CC) could help us to develop biomarkers and find novel drug targets to fight this disease. METHODS: We performed differential expression (DE) analyses of public microarray and RNA-seq transcriptome data of CC and normal cervical tissues (N). Virtual Inference of Protein activity by Enriched Regulon analysis (VIPER) was used to convert the DE outcomes to differential activity (DA) signature for MRs. Synergy analysis was conducted to study synergistic effect of MR-pairs. TCGA and microarray data were used to test the association of expression of a MR and a clinical feature or a molecular feature (e.g. somatic mutations). Various bioinformatic tools/websites (DAVID, GEPIA2, Oncomine, cBioPortal) were used to analyze the expression of the top MRs and their regulons. RESULTS: Ten DE and 10 DA signatures were generated for CC. Two MRs, DNA topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) and centromere protein F (CENPF) were found to be up-regulated, activated and synergistic in CC compared to N across the 10 datasets. The two MRs activate a common set of genes (regulons) with functions in cell cycle, chromosome, DNA damage etc. Higher expression of CENPF was associated with metastasis. High expression of both MRs is associated with somatic mutation of a set of genes including tumor suppressors (TP53, MSH2, RB1) and genes involved in cancer pathways, cell cycle, DNA damage and repair. The magnitude of up-regulation and the absolute expression level of both MRs in CC are significantly higher compared to many other cancer types. CONCLUSION: TOP2A and CENPF are a synergistic pair of MRs that are overexpressed and activated in CC. Their high expression is correlated with some prognosis features (e.g. metastasis) and molecular features (e.g. somatic mutations) and distinctly high in CC vs. many other cancer types. They may be good biomarkers and anticancer drug targets for CC.

12.
J Anim Sci ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027517

RESUMO

This investigation evaluated the potential of natural antioxidants, pterostilbene (PT) and its parent compound resveratrol (RSV), to alleviate hepatic damage, redox imbalance, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in early-weaned piglets. A total of 144 suckling piglets were randomly assigned to four treatments (six replicates per group, n = 6): (1) sow-reared, (2) early-weaned and fed a basal diet, (3) early-weaned and fed the basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg PT or with (4) 300 mg/kg RSV. Early weaning increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.004) and aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.009) activities and hepatic apoptotic rate (P = 0.001) in piglets compared with the sow-reared piglets. Early weaning decreased hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP; P = 0.006) content and mitochondrial complex III (P = 0.019) and IV activities (P = 0.038), but it increased superoxide anion accumulation (P = 0.026) and the expression levels of ER stress markers, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (P < 0.001), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-homologous protein (P = 0.001), and activating transcription factor 4 (P = 0.006). Pterostilbene was superior to RSV at mitigating liver injury and oxidative stress after early weaning, as indicated by decreases in the number of apoptotic cells (P = 0.036) and the levels of superoxide anion (P = 0.002) and 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (P < 0.001). Pterostilbene increased mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid content (P = 0.031) and the activities of citrate synthase (P = 0.005), complexes I (P = 0.004) and III (P = 0.011), and ATP synthase (P = 0.041), which may contribute to the mitigation of hepatic ATP deficit (P = 0.017) in the PT-treated weaned piglets. Pterostilbene also prevented increases in the ER stress marker and activating transcription factor 6 expression levels and in the phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha caused by early weaning (P < 0.05). Pterostilbene increased sirtuin 1 activity (P = 0.031) in the liver of early-weaned piglets than those in the early-weaned piglets fed a basal diet. In conclusion, PT supplementation alleviates liver injury in weanling piglets probably by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress.

13.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hospitalizations are common among long-stay nursing home (NH) residents, but the role of rurality in hospitalization is understudied. This study examines the relationships between rurality, NH, and market characteristics and NH quarterly risk-adjusted hospitalization rates of long-stay residents over 10 quarters (2011 Q2-2013 Q3). DESIGN: The longitudinal associations of NH and market factors and hospitalization rates were modeled separately on urban, micropolitan, and rural NHs using generalized estimating equation models and a fully interacted model of all NH and market characteristics with micropolitan and rural indicators to test significance of differences compared with urban NHs. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In total, 14,600 unique NHs. MEASURES: Risk-adjusted hospitalization rates were calculated from 2011 to 2013 national Medicare claims and NH Minimum Data Set 3.0. Rurality was defined based on the 2010 Rural Urban Commuting Area codes. NH and market characteristics were extracted from Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting and Area Health Resources File. RESULTS: Over the study period, risk-adjusted hospitalization rates averaged 9.8% (standard deviation = 8.2%). No difference was found in the overall hospitalization rates of long-stay NH residents among urban, micropolitan, and rural NHs. Generalized estimating equation models show that urban NHs with higher percentages of Medicare and Medicaid residents and any nurse practitioner/physician assistant were associated with lower rates, but these associations were insignificant in rural settings. Higher registered nurse to total nurses ratio was only associated with lower hospitalization rates in urban settings. Higher median household income was associated with lower hospitalization rates in micropolitan and rural NHs. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Rurality is not associated with hospitalization rates of long-stay residents, but NH and market factors (eg, payer distribution, staffing, and population income) may affect hospitalization differently in micropolitan/rural NHs than urban NHs. Future intervention on hospitalization should target factors unique to micropolitan/rural NHs which adopt strategies appropriate to their setting.

14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010176

RESUMO

Tumor-infiltrating immune cells as integral component of the tumor microenvironment are associated with tumor progress, prognosis and responses to immunotherapy. Genetic variants have been demonstrated to impact tumor-infiltrating, underscoring the heritable character of immune landscape. Therefore, identification of immunity quantitative trait loci (immunQTLs), which evaluate the effect of genetic variants on immune cells infiltration, might present a critical step toward fully understanding the contribution of genetic variants in tumor development. Although emerging studies have demonstrated the determinants of germline variants on immune infiltration, no database has yet been developed to systematically analyze immunQTLs across multiple cancer types. Using genotype data from TCGA database and immune cell fractions estimated by CIBERSORT, we developed a computational pipeline to identify immunQTLs in 33 cancer types. A total of 913 immunQTLs across different cancer types were identified. Among them, 5 immunQTLs are associated with patient overall survival. Furthermore, by integrating immunQTLs with GWAS data, we identified 527 immunQTLs overlapping with known GWAS linkage disequilibrium regions. Finally, we constructed a user-friendly database, CancerImmunityQTL (http://www.cancerimmunityqtl-hust.com/) for users to browse, search and download data of interest. This database provides an informative resource to understand the germline determinants of immune infiltration in human cancer and benefit from personalized cancer immunotherapy.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006017

RESUMO

One of the reasons hindering large-scale application of sophorolipids (SLs) is high production cost. In this study, six recombinant strains of Starmerella bombicola, sbEG1, sbEG2, sbCBH1, sbCBH1-2, sbBGL1, and sbCBH2 expressing cellulase genes eg1, eg2, cbh, cbh1-2, bgl1, and cbh2 from Penicillium oxalicum were respectively constructed. Four strains showed cellulase activities and were co-cultivated in fermentation media containing 2% glucose, 1% Regenerated Amorphous Cellulose (RAC), 2% glucose, and 1% RAC, respectively. After 7 days' cultivation, concentration of SLs in medium with 1% RAC (g/L) reached 1.879 g/L. When 2% glucose and 1% of RAC were both contained, the titer of SLs increased by 39.5% than that of control strain and increased by 68.8% than that in the medium with only 2% glucose. Results demonstrated that cellulase genes from filamentous fungi in S. bombicola can function to degrade lignocellulosic cellulose to produce SLs.

16.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111395, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038671

RESUMO

The multi-sectoral metabolisms of substance and energy in rural areas are complex, whose optimization is the key to realize resource recycling and energy cascade utilization. Through Substance Flow Analysis (SFA), we establish a Multi-sectoral Metabolism Analysis Model specific to rural areas (MMAM-rural), and investigated the multi-sectoral metabolisms of Liujiadian Town in Beijing city. We simulate the water, energy and nutrients (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus) metabolisms of a total of five sectors (water, waste management, livestock husbandry, forestry, and residential sectors), and identify the key metabolic flows significant for improving regional metabolism performance of Liujiadian Town. For further technical path optimization, we construct an index system made up of resource utilization efficiency, environmental burden of production and recycling efficiency, and adopt Scenario Analysis to evaluate the water-energy-nutrient metabolism performance under multiple technical scenarios different from disposals of agricultural waste, livestock and poultry manure, and domestic waste. Results show that, for agricultural wastes disposal, the combination scenario of edible fungi cultivation, anaerobic fermentation and aerobic composting is optimal. For livestock and poultry manure, all pig manure should be composted after anaerobic fermentation. For domestic wastes, food wastes require anaerobic fermentation and composting for optimization. Our study provides a model to evaluate metabolism performance of water-energy-nutrient nexus in rural areas, and raises solutions for optimization in the process of eco-town construction.

17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt A): 107029, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045567

RESUMO

Growing evidence shows that gut microbiota and neuroinflammatory responses play a critical role in the pathogenesis of depression. Our previous study demonstrated that schisandrin (SCH) could reduce proinflammatory factors of depressive mice. Therefore, our present study is to research the potential connection between gut microbial and anti-inflammatory effects of SCH on a depressive mouse model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that SCH pre-treatment could decrease the immobility time of forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). And the results of 16S rRNA demonstrated that SCH pre-administration attenuated the dysbiosis of gut microbiota of depressive mice, along with altered fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Furthermore, SCH reduced the levels of proinflammatory factors of depressive mice and the expression of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in the hippocampus. Overall, our study indicated that SCH might recover the gut microbial disorder of depressive mice through suppressing the expression of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

18.
Cancer Biomark ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNA testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 15 (TTTY15) is oncogenic in prostate cancer, however its expression and function in colorectal cancer remain largely unknown. METHODS: Paired colorectal cancer samples/adjacent tissues were collected, and the expression levels of TTTY15, miR-29a-3p and disheveled segment polarity protein 3 (DVL3) were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR); TTTY15 shRNA and overexpression plasmids were transfected into HT29 and HCT-116 cell lines using lipofectamine reagent, respectively; the proliferation and colony formation were detected by CCK-8 assay and plate colony formation assay; qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to analyze the changes of miR-29a-3p and DVL3; dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine the regulatory relationships between miR-29a-3p and TTTY15, miR-29a-3p and DVL3. RESULTS: TTTY15 was significantly up-regulated in cancerous tissues of colorectal cancer samples, positively correlated with the expression of DVL3, while negatively correlated with the expression of miR-29a-3p. After TTTY15 shRNAs were transfected into colorectal cancer cells, the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells were significantly inhibited, while TTTY15 overexpression had opposite biological effects. TTTY15 shRNA could reduce the expression of DVL3 on both mRNA and protein levels, and the luciferase activity of TTTY15 sequence was also inhibited by miR-29a-3p. DVL3 was also validated as a target gene of miR-29a-3p, and it could be repressed by miR-29a-3p mimics or TTTY15 shRNA. CONCLUSION: TTTY15 is abnormally upregulated in colorectal cancer tissues, and it can modulate the proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells. It functions as the ceRNA to regulate the expression of DVL3 by sponging miR-29a-3p.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923016

RESUMO

No therapeutics have been proven effective yet for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To assess the efficacy and safety of Triazavirin therapy for COVID-19, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial involving hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. Participants were enrolled from ten sites, and were randomized into two arms of the study with a ratio of 1:1. Patients were treated with Triazavirin 250 mg versus a placebo three or four times a day for 7 d. The primary outcome was set as the time to clinical improvement, defined as normalization of body temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough, and absorption of pulmonary infection by chest computed tomography (CT) until 28 d after randomization. Secondary outcomes included individual components of the primary outcome, the mean time and proportion of inflammatory absorption in the lung, and the conversion rate to a repeated negative SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test of throat swab sampling. Concomitant therapeutic treatments, adverse events, and serious adverse events were recorded. Our study was halted after the recruitment of 52 patients, since the number of new infections in the participating hospitals decreased greatly. We randomized 52 patients for treatment with Triazavirin (n = 26) or a placebo (n = 26). We found no differences in the time to clinical improvement (median, 7 d vs. 12 d; risk ratio (RR), 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-5.6; p = 0.2), with clinical improvement occurring in ten patients in the Triazavirin group and six patients in the placebo group (38.5% vs. 23.1%, RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.6-7.0; p = 0.2). All components of the primary outcome normalized within 28 d, with the exception of absorption of pulmonary infection (Triazavirin 50.0%, placebo 26.1%). Patients in the Triazavirin group used less frequent concomitant therapies for respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, or coagulation supports. Although no statistically significant evidence was found to indicate that Triazavirin benefits COVID-19 patients, our observations indicated possible benefits from its use to treat COVID-19 due to its antiviral effects. Further study is required for confirmation.

20.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(5): 3862-3872, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901869

RESUMO

Unstable angina (UA) is a coronary disease with a high mortality and morbidity worldwide. The present study aimed to use non­invasive techniques to identify urine biomarkers in patients with UA, so as to provide more information for the early diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Based on metabolomics, urine samples from 28 patients with UA and 28 healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed using ultra­high­performance liquid chromatography­quadrupole time­of­flight mass spectrometry (UPLC­Q­TOF/MS). A total of 16 significant biomarkers that could distinguish between patients with UA and HCs, including D­glucuronic acid, creatinine, succinic acid and N­acetylneuraminic acid, were identified. The major metabolic pathways associated with UA were subsequently analyzed by non­targeted metabolomics. The results demonstrated that amino acid and energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, purine metabolism and steroid hormone biosynthetic metabolism may serve important roles in UA. The results of the current study may provide a theoretical basis for the early diagnosis of UA and novel treatment strategies for clinicians. The trial was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registration Center (registration no. ChiCTR­ROC­17013957) at Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

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