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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125424, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472384

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of drop shock on physiological responses and genes expression in harvested apple fruit stored at 20 ±â€¯2 °C. Ethylene production, respiratory rate, firmness, soluble solid content, relative electrical conductivity, LOX (lipoxygenase) activity, MDA (malondialdehyde) content, variation of volatile compounds, ethylene biosynthetic genes, and ethylene receptor genes of apple fruit were examined. The results indicated that drop shock observably resulted in the increase of ethylene production, respiratory rate, soluble solid content, relative electrical conductivity, LOX activity, MDA content and gene expression levels in apples. Furthermore, drop shock significantly decreased firmness and high-intensitive drop shock stimulated the accumulation of aldehydes and esters in harvested apples. Overall, the greater impact on apple quality is the effect of larger amplitude of shock during truck transportation, which seriously reduced storage life and quality of postharvest apples.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683922

RESUMO

Iridium oxide pH electrodes employing the carbonate melt oxidation method were fabricated with oxidation temperatures of 750 °C, 800 °C and 850 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images showed that the oxide film regularized with the increase in oxidation temperatures. The pH response, response time and long-term stability of the electrodes indicated that the electrodes made at 850 °C had the best performance. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) surveys investigated the change in the electrodes' chemical composition and element oxidation states at 850 °C, and the results showed that the relative content of Ir3+ had increased by 23.9%, and the Ir4+ and Ir6+ had decreased by 10.9% and 13%, respectively, in the surface oxide layer after one month of aging. However, the relative contents of Ir3+, Ir4+ and Ir6+ were almost constant for the inner oxide layer. Meanwhile, the XPS result also indicated that the outer oxide layer of the electrode had a higher hydration degree than the inner oxide layer.

3.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686052

RESUMO

Transcription factor c-MYC is a potent oncoprotein; however, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation via MYC-protein interactions remains poorly understood. The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is an essential component of the transcription initiation complex TFIID and is required for gene expression. We identify two discrete regions mediating MYC-TBP interactions using structural, biochemical and cellular approaches. A 2.4 -Å resolution crystal structure reveals that human MYC amino acids 98-111 interact with TBP in the presence of the amino-terminal domain 1 of TBP-associated factor 1 (TAF1TAND1). Using biochemical approaches, we have shown that MYC amino acids 115-124 also interact with TBP independently of TAF1TAND1. Modeling reveals that this region of MYC resembles a TBP anchor motif found in factors that regulate TBP promoter loading. Site-specific MYC mutants that abrogate MYC-TBP interaction compromise MYC activity. We propose that MYC-TBP interactions propagate transcription by modulating the energetic landscape of transcription initiation complex assembly.

4.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109363, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703242

RESUMO

The past two decades have witnessed growing global concern about excessive greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by reservoirs and the development of hydropower. Literature review showed that life cycle GHG emissions per energy production of collected global dataset ranged from 0.04 to 237.0 gCO2eq/kW⋅h, with a mean of 25.8 ±â€¯3.0 gCO2eq/kW⋅h. Synthesis from the China's five largest hydro-projects and other publications estimated that the large- and mid-scale hydro-projects in China had a carbon footprint between 6.2 gCO2eq/kWh and 34.6 gCO2eq/kWh, with a mean value of 19.2 ±â€¯6.8 gCO2eq/kWh (mean ±â€¯sd.). Over 80% of the carbon footprint of the hydro-projects could be conservatively allocated to hydroelectricity generation, while the rest could then be allocated to flood control services. In the Three Gorges Dam Project, the allocated life cycle GHG emissions per energy production of its hydroelectricity production was estimated to be 17.8 gCO2eq/kW⋅h. GHG emissions from reservoir sediments and in the phase of operation and maintenance were still uncertain. There is still a need of in-depth research on reservoir carbon cycling to quantify net reservoir GHG emissions.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1453, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care workers have a high risk of occupational exposure. However, the risk of occupational exposure for pediatric health care workers has not been acknowledged in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occupational exposure rate of pediatric health care workers in Chinese public hospitals, to explore risk factors for occupational exposure, and to put forward corresponding countermeasures to reduce occupational exposure of pediatric health care workers and protect their physical and mental health. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with pediatric health care workers in 43 hospitals in 15 provinces in eastern, central, and western China between July and October 2018. With this sample, we computed the descriptive statistics of the demographic characteristics, calculated the frequency of various types of occupational exposure, and tested risk factors for occupational exposure using a chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Most respondents were nursing staff (61.1%) and workers with a low-ranking professional title (50.5%). The most common style of occupational exposure in our sample was a hazard in the work environment (62.6%). Notably, physicians were less likely to experience occupational exposure than nurses (OR = 0.320, 95% CI = 0.241, 0.426). Meanwhile, pediatric health care workers who interpreted the doctor-patient relationship as harmonious (OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.152, 0.607) were less likely to suffer occupational exposure. CONCLUSION: Pediatric health care workers in Chinese public hospitals have a high occupational exposure risk and the risk factors are complex and diverse. The state, society, hospitals should acknowledge this issue and develop strategies to protect the physical and mental health of pediatric health care workers.

6.
Mol Med Rep ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702035

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic inflammatory synovitis resulting in progressive joint destruction. Persistent synovial inflammation is induced by activation of various inflammatory cells. G­protein­coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) is a G­protein­coupled receptor activated by various bile acids, which has been reported to act as a key adaptor in regulating various signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses and a diverse array of physiological processes, including bile acid synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, carcinogenesis, immunity and inflammation. In the present study, TGR5 expression was detected in RA peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and its association with clinical disease activity, histological synovitis severity and radiological joint destruction was analyzed. Subsequently, the role and potential underlying mechanisms of TGR5 in the PBMCs of patients with RA and mice with collagen II­induced arthritis (CIA) were investigated. PBMCs were obtained from 50 patients with RA and 40 healthy controls (HCs). The mRNA and protein expression levels of TGR5 were detected in PBMCs via reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT­qPCR) and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Additionally, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were analyzed by RT­qPCR and enzyme­linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of nuclear factor­κB (NF­κB) and IκB kinase a was determined via western blot analysis. The anti­arthritic and anti­inflammatory effects of LCA on mice with CIA were then investigated. The arthritis score was assessed, and the protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the plasma of mice were detected via ELISA. TGR5 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated in the PBMCs of patients with RA compared with in those of the HCs (0.53±0.58 for patients vs. 1.49±0.83 for HCs; P<0.001); similar findings were observed at the protein level. The mRNA expression levels of TGR5 in the PBMCs of patients with RA with a high 28­Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) were significantly decreased compared with in patients with a low DAS28 (0.81±0.65 for low score vs. 0.35±0.46 for high score; P=0.002). Furthermore, TGR5 expression was significantly correlated with the levels of C­reactive protein (r=­0.429; P=0.002) and the DAS28 (r=­0.383; P=0.006). RT­qPCR and ELISA analyses indicated that lithocholic acid (LCA, 10 mg/kg/day) attenuated lipopolysaccharide­induced proinflammatory cytokine production via inhibition of NF­κB activity in the PBMCs of patients with RA. In addition, the arthritis score was significantly decreased in LCA­treated CIA mice compared with in non­treated CIA mice. The increased production of tumor necrosis factor­α, interleukin (IL)­1ß, IL­6 and IL­8 was significantly reduced in the plasma of LCA­treated CIA mice compared with the control. In conclusion, TGR5 may contribute to the inflammation of PBMCs in patients with RA and mice with CIA.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16294, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704945

RESUMO

Most of the recent successful object detection methods have been based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). From previous studies, we learned that many feature reuse methods improve the network performance, but they increase the number of parameters. DenseNet uses thin layers that have fewer channels to alleviate the increase in parameters. This motivated us to find other methods for solving the increase in model size problems introduced by feature reuse methods. In this work, we employ different feature reuse methods on fire units and mobile units. We solved the problem and constructed two novel neural networks, fire-FRD-CNN and mobile-FRD-CNN. We conducted experiments with the proposed neural networks on KITTI and PASCAL VOC datasets.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15769, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673059

RESUMO

A high-performance transfer printing method using a new soluble tape which can be dissolved in acetone is proposed to be used in heterogeneous integration. Si inks array was transferred from SOI wafers onto various substrates without adhesion promoter by this new method which we refer to as the acetone soluble tape (AST) method to compare with other transfer printing methods by using thermal release tape (TRT), water soluble tape (WST) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). By using the AST method, the transfer printing process does not involve interface contention between stamp/inks and inks/receiver substrate so that it maximizes the transfer printing efficiency. Experimental results present the AST method has good performances, and various alien substrates, even curvilinear surfaces, can be selected as receiver substrates by the AST method. To examine the quality of the transferred Si inks, the Si TFTs were fabricated by using the Si membrane transferred by the AST method on sapphire substrate and the devices show the good performance. All the results confirm that the AST method is an effective method in heterogeneous integration.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675212

RESUMO

High-throughput screening and fast identification of single bacterial cells is crucial for clinical diagnosis, bioengineering and fermentation engineering. Although single cell techonogies have been developed extensively in recent years, the single cell techonogies for bacteria still need further explorition. In this study, we demonstrate an identification and screening technology for single bacterial cells based on a large-scale nanobowl array, which is well-ordered and size-adjustable for use with different kinds of bacteria. When culture medium with monodispersed bacteria was placed on the nanobowl array, it successfully enabled loading of single bacterium into single nanobowl. Because of the limitative size and depth of the nanobowls, mixture of different bacteria species could be screened according to their sizes. In addition, with the help of a low electrical current, the bacteria can be further screened according to their intrinsic surface charges. If combined with micromanipulation technology, high-throughput single bacterial selection can be achieved in future.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582230

RESUMO

Recently, a mutation in NUS1 has been reported to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a Chinese population. To further investigate the relationship between NUS1 and sporadic PD, we sequenced all exons and exon-intron boundaries of NUS1 in Chinese Han population including 494 PD patients and 478 healthy control individuals. As a result, we did not find the pathogenic mutation of NUS1 in PD patients. However, we detect 9 exonic variants including 4 synonymous variants and 5 nonsynonymous variants. Pathogenicity predictions indicated that 2 novel nonsynonymous variants (c.432 T>G, c.86 G>C) may be deleterious. All variants showed no significant association with sporadic PD. These results suggested that NUS1 mutation may not be a common genetic factor for Chinese patients with sporadic PD.

11.
Lasers Surg Med ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the depth of ablative fractional CO2 laser (CO2 -AFL) penetration of pathological burn scars influences clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting to the Concord Repatriation General Hospital (CRGH) Scar Clinic received ultrasound measurement at the thickest point of their burn scars. Subsequently, the effect of various CO2 -AFL settings (energy which correlates to penetration depths) on different outcome parameters was analysed. Patients were divided into five groups depending on minimal scar penetration depth. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients (158 scars) had complete data allowing for analysis. Median scar thickness was 3,400 µm and median laser scar penetration depth was 900 µm. Scar penetration categories were as follows: 0-25% (n = 40), 25-50% (n = 67), 50-75% (n = 31), 75-100% (n = 8), >100% (n = 3) of scar thickness. The median reduction in maximum scar thickness was 800 µm following one treatment (P < 0.001). However, this effect depended on scar penetration depth, whereby scars that were penetrated ≥75% showed no significant improvement in scar thickness and those penetrated >100% indicated a tendency to become worse. Other assessed outcome parameters included: the Vancouver Scar Scale, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, a neuropathic pain score (DN4 Pain Questionnaire), and a pruritus score (modified D4 Pruritus Score). All these factors showed significant improvement in the categories up to 75% scar penetration depth. CONCLUSIONS: CO2 -AFL scar penetration depth significantly influences subjective and objective pathologic burn scar modulation. The penetration depth of 51-75% achieves the greatest reduction in scar thickness. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

12.
Brain Res ; : 146489, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589828

RESUMO

Spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCII) remains an unresolved complication and its underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we studied the role of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13) in a rat model of SCII. We examined the time course and cellular distribution of CXCL13 protein in rats after SCII. The effects of siRNA targeting CXCL13 or C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) in SCII were also investigated. Neurological function, histological assessment, and disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) were evaluated. The expression levels of CXCL13, CXCR5, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), caspase-3, interleukin 6 (IL-6), TNF-α, and IL-1ß were determined. We found that SCII resulted in impaired hind limb function and increased the expression of CXCL13. In addition, CXCL13 expression demonstrated the most pronounced effect at 24 h after SCII. We reveal that CXCL13 protein was co-expressed with the mature neuron marker NeuN and the microglial marker IBA-1 in spinal cord tissues of model rats. SCII also increased the expression of CXCR5, p-ERK, caspase-3, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß at 24 h after SCII. Pre-treatment with CXCL13 siRNA protected the rats against SCII and decreased the expression of signalling pathway proteins and proinflammatory cytokines mentioned above. CXCR5 siRNA also showed similar protective effects. These findings indicate that CXCL13 is involved in SCII. The CXCL13/CXCR5 axis promotes the development of SCII, possibly via ERK-mediated pathways. Targeting the mechanism of CXCL13 involved in the development of SCII might be a potential approach for the treatment of this condition.

13.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 134, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent joint disease, and there are still no effective therapeutic agents or clinical methods for the cure of this disease to date. The degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major cause of OA. METHOD: IL-1ß was used to induce chondrogenic degradation. Q-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein level, respectively. ELISA was used to detect the secreted TNF-α and IL-6 level. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the protein level of Aggrecan, Collagen II and ki67. TUNEL and flow cytometry were used to examine cell apoptosis of chondrocytes. ChIP and luciferase assay were used to study molecular gene regulation. Osteoarthritic animal model and Safranin-O staining were used to determine the in vivo OA phenotype. RESULTS: The expression of ADAM8 was up-regulated in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Knockdown of ADAM8 suppressed the OA phenotype in the in vitro OA cell model. ADAM8 regulated OA progression through the activation of EGFR/ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway. Inhibition of Notch signaling suppressed OA phenotype in the in vitro OA cell model. Notch signaling regulated the gene expression of ADAM8 directly via Hes1. Notch1-ADAM8 positive feedback loop promoted the progression of OA in vivo. CONCLUSION: Notch1-ADAM8 feed-back loop regulates the degradation of chondrogenic extracellular matrix and osteoarthritis progression.

14.
Burns ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to characterise burn induced hypermetabolism in a mouse model. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: There are many mouse models of burn injury currently available however, their use in burns research is limited by the general assumption that post-burn hypermetabolism is difficult to study in these models. METHODS: Male Balb/c mice were subjected to either a small (1 cm2) or large (4 cm2) contact burn. The hypermetabolic response to burn injury was determined by measuring changes in basal energy expenditure. The hormonal and inflammatory mediators of hypermetabolism, and the catabolic alterations secondary to hypermetabolism were also examined. RESULTS: Post-burn hypermetabolism was induced in both models of small and large burn. However, large burns resulted in prolonged wound healing, a more pronounced and sustained increase in basal energy expenditure, and a greater stress and systemic inflammatory response with profound catabolic consequences. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we have successfully characterised the burn induced systemic hypermetabolic response in a mouse model of small and large burn. These models may prove useful for researchers studying the complex aetiology of hypermetabolism and interventions.

15.
Burns ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal studies indicate treating burn injuries with running water (first aid) for 20 min up to 3 h after burn reduces healing time and scarring. We have previously demonstrated the benefits of first aid in minor burn injuries with respect to a reduction in wound depth, faster healing, and decreased skin grafting utilisation. The purpose of this cohort study was to assess the effect of first aid on clinical outcomes in large body surface area burn injuries (≥20%). METHODS: Data was prospectively collected for patients with ≥20% TBSA burns from 2004- 2018. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the association of adequate first aid with 8 outcomes - mortality, total length of stay, total body surface area (TBSA), percentage/proportion of TBSA that was full thickness [PFTI], TBSA grafted, number of re-grafting sessions, intensive care admission, and intensive care length of stay. Adequate first aid was defined as the application of 20 min of cool, running tap water up to 3 h following the burn injury. FINDINGS: 390 patients were identified. Adequate first aid was received in 35.6% (139) of patients. There was a trend towards a reduction in mortality (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.12-1.13; P = 0.08). Patients who received adequate first aid had a statistically significant 9.8% reduction in TBSA (95% CI -13.6% to -6.1%; P < 0.0001) as well as a 12% lower PTFI compared to patients who received inadequate first aid (95% CI -19% to -4%; P < 0.01). Whilst there was no significant effect of adequate first aid on the TBSA grafted (P = 0.37), adequate first aid was associated with a significantly less number of re-grafting sessions (95% CI --0.29 to -0.08; P < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Adequate first aid with 20 min of running water is associated with improved outcomes in large burn injuries. Significant benefits are seen in a reduction in TBSA, proportion of the burn wound that is full thickness, as well as decreased re-grafting. This has significant patient and health system benefits and adds to the body of evidence supporting 20 min of cooling in burns care.

16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109695, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577992

RESUMO

Operation of recession and inundation in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) revealed a potential contribution to the migration of heavy metals in soil and fluvial systems, thus led to negative ecological impacts. The work herein investigated the concentration and speciation of three typical heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Cu) in a water-level-fluctuation zone of TGR, as well as simulated the adsorption and desorption behavior of heavy metals on soils, which aimed at elucidating the fate of heavy metals in this special area. Field investigation revealed that water level fluctuation greatly enabled the migration of heavy metals to inner or upper soil layers. Laboratory experiments showed that adsorption of Cd(II) was a chemical process and dissolved organic matters (DOM) in soils strengthened the combination of Cd(II) to soil surface which inhibited the desorption process. Cr(VI) was physically adsorbed and readily to be desorbed. DOM enabled deposition of Cr(VI) in soils. Cation exchange was dominate mechanism in Cu(II) adsorption process, whereas DOM presented positive effects on desorption of Cu(II). The results presented in this study would provide basic theory for scientific research in TGR.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(40): 22283-22292, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589234

RESUMO

Hybridisation of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials to enhance charge storage has received considerable attention, but a fundamental understanding of the inherent ratio-dependent charge transfer mechanisms associated with the modulation of their molecular interactions is still within the community. Herein, we examined 1D surface oxidised carbon nanotubes (Ox-CNTs) and 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to understand their ratio-dependent charge transfer and molecular interaction dynamics. We found that stepwise ultrasonication and the self-assembly process can control the thermodynamic molecular interactions, which result in rGO and Ox-CNT suspensions not only well dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide but also self-organised into sandwiched nanoarchitectures. We reveal that the enhanced charge storage performance originated from the Ox-CNT-mediated low contact resistance between the active material and the current collector, and the incorporation of rGO leads to a significant ion diffusion coefficient and gives rise to numerous ion diffusion channels for high rate retention. Through a systematic electrochemical characterisation, we found that the GC5 : 5 hybrids (mass ratio of rGO to Ox-CNT) provide the best compromise-balance ratio between rGO and Ox-CNT for realising a champion energy density (9 W h kg-1) and power density (10 kW kg-1) beyond the state-of-the-art performance of the individual materials. Our results herald the advent of molecular level hybridisation of 1D-2D materials for high-performance electrochemical energy storage.

18.
J Exp Med ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628186

RESUMO

T cells demand massive energy to combat cancer; however, the metabolic regulators controlling antitumor T cell immunity have just begun to be unveiled. When studying nutrient usage of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in mice, we detected a sharp increase of the expression of a CrT (Slc6a8) gene, which encodes a surface transporter controlling the uptake of creatine into a cell. Using CrT knockout mice, we showed that creatine uptake deficiency severely impaired antitumor T cell immunity. Supplementing creatine to WT mice significantly suppressed tumor growth in multiple mouse tumor models, and the combination of creatine supplementation with a PD-1/PD-L1 blockade treatment showed synergistic tumor suppression efficacy. We further demonstrated that creatine acts as a "molecular battery" conserving bioenergy to power T cell activities. Therefore, our results have identified creatine as an important metabolic regulator controlling antitumor T cell immunity, underscoring the potential of creatine supplementation to improve T cell-based cancer immunotherapies.

19.
Free Radic Res ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631710

RESUMO

Of all the aerobic respiration by-products, cytotoxic superoxide derived from mitochondrial-leaked electrons, is the only one known to be disposed of intracellularly. Is this fate the only destiny for mitochondrial-leaked electrons? When Cynomolgus monkeys were injected intravenously with reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicators, the connective tissues of dura mater, facial fascia, pericardium, linea alba, dorsa fascia and other body parts, emitted specific and intense fluorescent signals. Moreover, the fluorescent signals along the linea alba of SD rats, did not result from the local presence of ROS but from the interaction of ROS indicators with electrons flowing through this tissue. Furthermore, the electrons travelling along the linea alba of mice were revealed to originate from mitochondria. These data suggest that mitochondrial-leaked electrons may be transported extracellularly to a hitherto undescribed system of connective tissues, which is pervasively networked, electrically conductive and metabolically related.

20.
Cancer Sci ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599076

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have a covalently closed circular conformation and are structurally stable. Those circRNAs with tumor-suppressive properties play an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis and thus may be used as therapeutic targets of cancers. Herein, we review the current understanding of the classification of circRNAs and summarize the functions and mechanisms of circRNAs that have tumor-suppressive roles in various cancers, including liver cancer (circARSP91, circADAMTS13, circADAMTS14, circMTO1, hsa_circ_0079299, and circC3P1), bladder cancer (circFNDC3B, circITCH, circHIPK3, circRNA-3, cdrlas, and circLPAR1), gastric cancer (circLARP4, circYAP1, hsa_cric_0000096, hsa_circ_0000993, and circPSMC3), breast cancer (circ_000911, hsa_circ_0072309, and circASS1), lung cancer (hsa_circ_0000977, circPTK2, circ_0001649, hsa_circ_100395, and circ_0006916), glioma (circ_0001946, circSHPRH, and circFBXW7), and colorectal cancer (circITGA7 and hsa_circ_0014717). Thanks to their structural stability, these tumor-suppressive circRNAs may be used as potential and potent therapeutic targets. Moreover, we propose a new method for the classification of circRNAs. Based on whether they can be translated, circRNAs can be divided into noncoding circRNAs and coding circRNAs.

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