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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045234

RESUMO

Highly luminescent inks are desirable for various applications such as decorative coating, art painting, anti-counterfeiting, to name a few. However, present inks display low photoluminescent efficiency requiring a strong excitation light to make them shining. Here, we report a highly luminescent ink based on the copper-iodide/1-Propyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium (Cu4I6(pr-ted)2) hybrid cluster with a quantum efficiency exceeding 98%. Under the interaction between Cu4I6(pr-ted)2 hybrid cluster and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), the highly luminescent Cu4I6(pr-ted)2/PVP ink can be facilely prepared via the one-pot solution synthesis. The obtained ink exhibits strong green light emission that originates from the efficient phosphorescence of Cu4I6(pr-ted)2 nanocrystals. Attractively, the ink displays high conversion efficiency for the ultraviolet light to bright green light emission due to its wide Stokes-shift, implying great potentials for anti-counterfeiting and luminescent solar concentrator coating.

2.
Infect Genet Evol ; : 104238, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045711

RESUMO

In Vibrio cholerae, the lysogenic bacteriophage CTXΦ carries the cholera toxin genes ctxAB, which can be transferred from toxigenic strains to nontoxigenic strains through infection and lysogenic conversion of CTXΦ. This phage also has the precursor genome which does not harbor ctxAB, named pre-CTXΦ. Based on the sequences of the transcriptional regulator-encoding gene rstR alleles in CTXΦ/pre-CTXΦ, multiple types of these prophages have been classified and identified in toxigenic and nontoxigenic V. cholerae strains. In this study, by combining the short-read and long-read sequencing approaches of next generation sequencing, we obtained the complete genome sequence of the studied V. cholerae toxigenic serogroup O139 strain and identified the CTXΦ and a pre-CTXΦ genome type encoding a novel rstR allele, pre-CTXZHJΦ. This pre-CTX prophage integrates into the small chromosome of the V. cholerae host strain and coexists with a typical CTXETΦ prophage present in the large chromosome, which is commonly present in the seventh pandemic serogroup O1 and toxigenic serogroup O139 strains. RstRZHJ could bind to the ig-2 region in the RstAB promotor in the pre-CTXZHJΦ genome, and could repress the expression of its own rstAB genes but could not repress rstAB expression in CTXETΦ and CTXclassΦ, suggesting that the V. cholerae strains carrying the pre-CTXZHJΦ prophage cannot prevent the infection of these epidemic CTXΦs, hence have the potentiality to become toxigenic by acquiring and lysogenic conversion of CTXΦs. Our study identified a novel pre-CTXΦ type, and presents the new evidence for the complexity and diversity of the CTXΦ/pre-CTXΦ family in V. cholerae.

3.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046435

RESUMO

Considerable efforts have been invested to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved in the physiopathology of endometriosis. However, to date, prior research has not been conclusive. This research has examined one particular mechanism, i.e., the effect of ADAR1 on endometriosis lesions. Eutopic endometrium was collected from women with (n = 25) and without endometriosis (n = 25), respectively. The expression of ADAR1 mRNA was measured based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR). Both Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to establish ADAR1 protein expression levels. The results indicated that ADAR1 mRNA and proteins were significantly greater in the eutopic endometrium of the women with endometriosis, compared to the women without (P < 0.05). The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and EdU method were conducted to examine the effect of ADAR1 on cell viability and proliferation in eutopic endometriosis cells. A transwell assay was also used to detect the role of ADAR1 in the invasion of endometrial cells. The results obtained showed that ADAR1 promoted endometrial cell viability, proliferation, and invasion (P < 0.05). This informed our conclusion that the ADAR1 gene is upregulated in endometriosis, potentially paying a pivotal role in the physiopathology of endometriosis.

4.
Analyst ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048634

RESUMO

In this work, we report a simple ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method for ultra-sensitive immunoanalysis. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by a mixture of porous g-C3N4 nanosheets and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Secondary antibodies were labeled using CuS nanoparticles as the tags. After immune recognition, CuS nanoparticles in the immunocomplex were dissolved as Cu2+, which can quench the ECL of g-C3N4. The amount of Cu2+ was determined to quantify the concentration of the target antigen. To enhance the sensitivity, Cu2+ ions were firstly enriched and reduced to Cu on the surface of GCE/CNTs-g-C3N4, and the cathodic ECL of g-C3N4 was measured as the reference signal in the ratiometric ECL measurements. After applying a potential of 0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 6 s, Cu was dissolved as Cu2+, which can quench the ECL of g-C3N4 with much higher efficiency because the freshly dissolved Cu2+ ions were distributed mainly within the Helmholtz layer of GCE/CNTs-g-C3N4. By using the ECL intensity ratio of GCE/CNTs-g-C3N4 (Cu2+) to GCE/CNTs-g-C3N4 (Cu) measured under the potentiostatic model as the signal indictor, the ratiometric ECL method was used to detect a biomarker of alpha fetoprotein with the limit of detection of 0.1 fg mL-1. It was shown that the influence of the difference in electrode modification and ECL measurement conditions on the determination of Cu2+ is suppressed greatly in the ratiometric ECL method. The combination of ratiometric ECL with electrochemical enrichment and biometallization is a useful strategy to enhance the sensitivity and reproducibility in immunoanalysis.

5.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 277: 102119, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045722

RESUMO

Emulsions, including oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, can play important roles in both controlling reservoir conformance and displacing residual oil for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. However, current methods, like high-shear mixing, high-pressure homogenizing, sonicators and others, often use lots of extra energy to prepare the emulsions with high costs but very low energy efficiency. In recent decades, spontaneous emulsification methods, which allow one to create micro- and nano-droplets with very low or even no mechanical energy input, have been launched as an overall less expensive and more efficient alternatives to current high extra energy methods. Herein, we primarily review the basic concepts on spontaneous emulsification, including mechanisms, methods and influenced parameters, which are relevant for fundamental applications for industrials. The spontaneity of the emulsification process is influenced by the following variables: surfactant structure, concentration and initial location, oil phase composition, addition of co-surfactant and non-aqueous solvent, as well as salinity and temperature. Then, we focus on the description of importance for emulsions in EOR processes from advances and categories to improving oil recovery mechanisms, including both sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency aspects. Finally, we systematically address the applications and outlooks based on the use of spontaneous emulsification in the practical oil reservoirs for EOR processes, in which conventional, heavy, high-temperature, high-salinity and low-permeability oil reservoirs, as well as wastewater treatments after EOR processes are involved.

6.
Int J Toxicol ; : 1091581819898396, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933405

RESUMO

Azo dyes are used widely as color additives in food, drugs, and cosmetics; hence, there is an increasing concern about their safety and possible health hazards. In the present study, we chose 4 azo dyes tartrazine, Sunset Yellow, amaranth, and Allura red and evaluated their developmental toxicity on zebrafish embryos. At concentration levels of 5 to 50 mM, we found that azo dyes can induce hatching difficulty and developmental abnormalities such as cardiac edema, decreased heart rate, yolk sac edema, and spinal defects including spinal curvature and tail distortion. Exposure to 100 mM of each azo dye was completely embryolethal. The median lethal concentration (LC50), median effective concentration (EC50), and teratogenic index (TI) were calculated for each azo dye at 72 hours postfertilization. For tartrazine, the LC50 was 47.10 mM and EC50 value was at 42.66 mM with TI ratio of 1.10. For Sunset Yellow, the LC50 was 38.93 mM and EC50 value was at 29.81 mM with TI ratio of 1.31. For amaranth, the LC50 was 39.86 mM and EC50 value was at 31.94 mM with TI ratio of 1.25. For Allura red, the LC50 was 47.42 mM and EC50 value was 40.05 mM with TI ratio of 1.18. This study reports the developmental toxicity of azo dyes in zebrafish embryos at concentrations higher than the expected human exposures from consuming food and drugs containing azo dyes.

7.
Small ; : e1904758, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909565

RESUMO

Conductive, stretchable, environmentally-friendly, and strain-sensitive elastomers are attracting immense research interest because of their potential applications in various areas, such as human-machine interfaces, healthcare monitoring, and soft robots. Herein, a binary networked elastomer is reported based on a composite hydrogel of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), which is demonstrated to be ultrastretchable, mechanically robust, biosafe, and antibacterial. The mechanical stretchability and toughness of the hydrogels are optimized by tuning the constituent ratio and water content. The optimal hydrogel (PVA2 PEI1 -75) displays an impressive tensile strain as high as 500% with a corresponding tensile stress of 0.6 MPa. Furthermore, the hydrogel elastomer is utilized to fabricate piezoresistive sensors. The as-made strain sensor displays seductive capability to monitor and distinguish multifarious human motions with high accuracy and sensitivity, like facial expressions and vocal signals. Therefore, the elastomer reported in this study holds great potential for sensing applications in the era of the Internet of Things (IoTs).

8.
Environ Res ; 183: 109156, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000003

RESUMO

The selective degradation of recalcitrant antibiotics into byproducts with low toxicity and high biodegradability has been increasingly popular using peroxymonosulfate (PMS) based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In this paper, two Fe-based heterogeneous catalysts, bentonite supported Fe-Ni composite (BNF) and biochar-supported Fe composite (Fe/C), were tailored and comprehensively characterized for distinctive physicochemical properties, crystalline structures, and interfacial behaviors. Two widely used antibiotics, sulfapyridine (SPY) and oxytetracycline (OTCs) at their common concentrations in pharmaceutical wastewaters (250 and 10 mg L-1) were tested for degradation in three PMS-based oxidation processes, i.e., PMS, PMS-BNF, and PMS-Fe/C, respectively. Results demonstrated that a large amount of PMS (10 and 1 mM) could effectively remove SPY (0.385 min-1, 100% removal) and OTC (2.737 min-1, 100% removal) via1O2 derived from PMS self-decomposition and non-radical pathway, respectively. Additional Fe-based catalysts (0.5 g L-1 Fe/C and BNF) significantly reduced the PMS consumption (1 and 0.25 mM) and accelerated the reaction rate (1.08 and 5.05 min-1) of SPY and OTC removal. Moreover, the supplementary catalysts shifted the degradation route. The biochar matrix in Fe/C composite contributed to predominant interaction with PMS forming 1O2, which preferably attacked SPY via hydroxylation. In contrast, the redox-active Fe-Ni pairs induced SO4- formation, which could selectively degrade OTC through decarboxylation. Thus, these results are conducive to tailoring advanced yet low-cost heterogeneous catalysts for eco-friendly treatment of antibiotics-rich industrial wastewaters.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(1): eaay4289, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922009

RESUMO

The free-standing Au20 cluster has a unique tetrahedral shape and a large HOMO-LUMO (highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) gap of around 1.8 electron volts. The "magic" Au20 has been intensively used as a model system for understanding the catalytic and optical properties of gold nanoclusters. However, direct real-space ground-state characterization at the atomic scale is still lacking, and obtaining fundamental information about the corresponding structural, electronic, and dynamical properties, is challenging. Here, using cluster-beam deposition and low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, atom-resolved topographic images and electronic spectra of supported Au20 clusters are obtained. We demonstrate that individual size-selected Au20 on ultrathin NaCl films maintains its pyramidal structure and large HOMO-LUMO gap. At higher cluster coverages, we find sintering of the clusters via Smoluchowski ripening to Au20n agglomerates. The evolution of the electron density of states deduced from the spectra reveals gap reduction with increasing agglomerate size.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 2084-2091, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932421

RESUMO

BRCA1 promotes error-free, homologous recombination-mediated repair (HRR) of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs). When excessive and uncontrolled, BRCA1 HRR activity promotes illegitimate recombination and genome disorder. We and others have observed that the BRCA1-associated protein RAP80 recruits BRCA1 to postdamage nuclear foci, and these chromatin structures then restrict the amplitude of BRCA1-driven HRR. What remains unclear is how this process is regulated. Here we report that both BRCA1 poly-ADP ribosylation (PARsylation) and the presence of BRCA1-bound RAP80 are critical for the normal interaction of BRCA1 with some of its partners (e.g., CtIP and BACH1) that are also known components of the aforementioned focal structures. Surprisingly, the simultaneous loss of RAP80 and failure therein of BRCA1 PARsylation results in the dysregulated accumulation in these foci of BRCA1 complexes. This in turn is associated with the intracellular development of a state of hyper-recombination and gross chromosomal disorder. Thus, physiological RAP80-BRCA1 complex formation and BRCA1 PARsylation contribute to the kinetics by which BRCA1 HRR-sustaining complexes normally concentrate in nuclear foci. These events likely contribute to aneuploidy suppression.

11.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951022

RESUMO

Traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head (TONFH) is a common orthopedic disease caused by physical injury in hip. However, the unclear pathogenesis mechanism of TONFH and lacking of simple noninvasive early diagnosis method cause the necessity of hip replacement for most patients with TONFH. In this study, we aimed to identify circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) by integrated bioinformatics analyses as potential biomarker of TONFH. mRNA expression profiles were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Then we combined two miRNA screen methods: Weighted gene co-expression network analysis and fold change based differentially expressed miRNAs analysis. As a result, we identified 14 key miRNAs as potential biomarkers for TONFH. Besides, 302 target genes of these miRNAs were obtained and the miRNA-mRNA interaction network was constructed. Furthermore, the results of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome pathway analysis, Gene Ontology function analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and PPI network module analysis showed close correlation between these 14 key miRNAs and TONFH. Then we established receiver operating characteristic curves and identified 6-miRNA signature with highly diagnosis value including miR-93-5p (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.93), miR-1324 (AUC = 0.92), miR-4666a-3p (AUC = 0.92), miR-5011-3p (AUC = 0.92), and miR-320a (AUC = 0.89), miR-185-5p (AUC = 0.89). Finally, the results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the significantly higher expression of miR-93-5p and miR-320a in the serum of patients with ONFH. These circulating miRNAs could serve as candidate early diagnosis markers and potential treatment targets of TONFH.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922886

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged in the field of RNA research and their biological functions are now being gradually identified. circRNAs are divided into three categories: exonic circular RNAs (ecircRNAs), exon-intron circular RNAs (EIciRNAs), and intronic circular RNAs (ciRNAs). The circular structure of circRNAs confers unique biological characteristics upon them, such as enhanced stability over linear RNAs.Areas covered: circRNAs function to competitively bind with microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins, participate in protein coding, regulate transcription, and form pseudogenes after reverse transcription. In gastric cancer, the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA axis is the most studied mechanisms underlying gastric cancer occurrence and development. Some specific and sensitive circRNAs, such as hsa_circ_102958, hsa_circ_0000520, and hsa_circ_0001017 may have potential diagnostic potential in early-stage gastric cancer. Abnormal expression of some circRNAs, including circ-LMTK2, circ-PSMC3, and circ-DLST are associated with the development of gastric cancer. Other circRNAs, such as hsa_circ_0001368, circ-ZFR, and circ-ERBB2, may also play important roles in gastric cancer treatment.Expert opinion: Exploring the roles of circRNAs in gastric cancer occurrence and development will help us to elucidate the functions of circRNAs and develop potential tools for early diagnosis and effective treatment of gastric cancer.

14.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis with gastric cancer remains challenging. This study explored the abnormal computed tomography (CT) signs of occult peritoneal metastasis (OPM) and evaluated it by region-to-region comparison using staging laparoscopy, from which a 4-point CT score system was developed. METHODS: Patients with advanced gastric cancer (stage cT ≥ 2M0) diagnosed by CT were enrolled in the study. Occult peritoneal metastasis detected during staging laparoscopy was compared with preoperative CT to investigate the presence of abnormal signs by a region-to-region comparison. A 4-point CT score system was developed to define the radiologic characteristics. Subsequently, the diagnostic efficacy of the CT score system was prospectively verified. RESULTS: In this study, 57 OPM regions were detected by staging laparoscopy in 33 of the 385 enrolled patients. The greater omentum was the most frequent site of OPM (38.60%, 22/57), which usually exhibited a smudge-like ground-glass opacity (S-GGO) (90.91%, 20/22) with a mean CT score of 2.14. The parietal and perihepatic peritoneum was the second most common site (22.81%, 13/57). A 4-point CT score system was developed based on the results. A cutoff CT score of 2 or higher was associated with a false-negative rate of 2% (2/99). This CT score system had a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 76.4% for an OPM-positive diagnosis (area under the curve, 0.848). The agreement between two radiologists on the assigned final score was 76.2% (kappa, 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OPM mostly exhibited S-GGO on CT, which should be interpreted cautiously. The 4-point CT score system may improve the pretreatment evaluation of occult peritoneal metastasis, and staging laparoscopy might not be necessary for patients with a score lower than 2.

15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23218, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemolysis is the main cause of unqualified clinical samples. In this study, we established a method for detecting and evaluating hemolysis in whole blood test. We used a mathematical formula for correcting the influence of hemolysis on complete blood cell count (CBC) so as to avoid re-venipuncture and obtain more accurate parameters of red blood cell detection, reduce the burden of patients, and improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Hemolytic samples were selected and then corrected using the new formula. Plasma free hemoglobin (fHB) was used as the criterion to determine the degree of hemolysis; the uncertainty of measurement is acceptable as the limit value of deviation between the measured value and the revised value. Hemolysis simulation analysis in vitro and continuous monitoring of clinical patients were used to verify the correction effect. RESULTS: A total of 83 clinical samples with hemolysis were collected and analyzed; fHB 1.4 g/L was selected as the unacceptable value for clinical hemolysis detection. In hemolytic samples, the red blood cell parameters corrected by formula are significantly different from those uncorrected and had a good consistency with those before hemolysis. CONCLUSION: The results show that the hemolysis phenomenon of CBC has a significant impact on routine blood testing. By using the new formula, the influence of hemolysis on erythrocyte and related parameters can be quickly and easily corrected, thus avoiding venipuncture again for re-examination, reducing diagnostic errors, and saving medical resources.

16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 57, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the effects of a motivational interviewing (MI)-based patient empowerment program (PEP) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patient self-management compared to traditional diabetes health education. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five patients, recruited from community health centers (CHCs) and the family medicine clinic in the University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital in Shenzhen, were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups. Patients in the intervention group (n = 117) received a four-session PEP in small groups over 1 month by trained nurses and doctors. The control group (n = 108) received the traditional lecture-style health education on DM. All the patients were followed up for 3 months. Outcomes included problem areas in diabetes (PAID) that measures diabetes-related emotional distress, patient enablement index (PEI), mental health, patient satisfaction respectively as well as lifestyle behaviors were assessed at baseline, post-activity and 3 months. RESULTS: At post-intervention and the 3-month follow-up, the PAID score improved significantly in the intervention group (12.7 ± 13.6, 5.8 ± 7.6) compared to the control group (22.7 ± 22.8, 11.7 ± 14.6). No difference was found between groups for changes to exercise, diet, and medication adherence. The PEI score improved significantly at the 3-month follow-up in the MI group (7.27 ± 2.45 vs 5.81 ± 2.97). CONCLUSION: The PEP has a significant effect on improving diabetes-related distress, but MI was not significantly different from the traditional health education programs when it comes to the readiness to change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04120844, ClinicalTrials.Gov. Date of registration: October 9th 2019 (Retrospectively registered).

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136176, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972914

RESUMO

The widespread use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has raised serious concerns regarding their potential ecotoxicological effects. We examined the photosynthetic toxicity of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i.e. ibuprofen (rac-IBU and S-(+)-IBU), aspirin (ASA) and ketoprofen (KEP) on the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Our results showed that NSAIDs exerted inhibitory effects on algal growth; the IC50-24h of S-(+)-IBU, rac-IBU, ASA, and KEP was 123.29, 107.91, 103.05, and 4.03 mg/L, respectively. KEP was the most toxic, ASA was slightly more toxic than rac-IBU, and S-(+)-IBU was the least toxic. NSAIDs adversely affected the cellular ultrastructure, as evident from plasmolysis, chloroplast deformation and disintegration. NSAID treatments decreased the chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as minimum fluorescence yield (F0), maximum fluorescence yield (Fm), maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm), PSII (photosystem II) effective quantum yield [Y(II)], photosynthetic electron transfer rate (ETR), and the photochemical quenching (qP), were also adversely affected. Algal photosynthetic and respiratory rates decreased following NSAID treatments, and the expression of genes involved in photosynthetic electron transport (psaA, psaB, psbB, psbD, and rbcL) was down-regulated. Furthermore, the functioning of the photosynthetic electron transport chain from PSI (photosystem I) to PSII, carbon assimilation, and photorespiration were affected. Our results suggest that NSAIDs can exert considerable toxic effects on the photosynthetic system of S. obliquus. These results provide a basis for evaluating the environmental safety of NSAIDs.

18.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-24, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983360

RESUMO

Nutritional therapy is a cornerstone of burns management. The optimal macronutrient intake for wound healing after burn injury has not been identified, although high-energy, high-protein diets are favoured. This study aimed to identify the optimal macronutrient intake for burn wound healing. The Geometric Framework (GF) was used to analyse wound healing after a 10% TBSA contact burn in mice ad libitum fed one of 11 high-energy diets, varying in macronutrient composition with protein (P5%-60%), carbohydrate (C20%-75%) and fat (F20%-75%). In the GF study, the optimal ratio for wound healing was identified as a moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat (P:C:F) ratio of 1:4:2. High-carbohydrate intake was associated with lower mortality, improved body weight and a beneficial pattern of body fat reserves. Protein intake was essential to prevent weight loss and mortality, but a protein intake target of ~7 kJ/day (~15% of energy intake) was identified, above which no further benefit was gained. High-protein intake was associated with delayed wound healing and increased liver and spleen weight. As the GF study demonstrated that an initial very high-protein intake prevented mortality, a very high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate diet (P40:C42:F18) was specifically designed. The dynamic diet study was also designed to combine and validate the benefits of an initial very high-protein intake for mortality, and subsequent moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate intake for optimal wound healing. The dynamic feeding experiment showed switching from an initial very high-protein diet to the optimal moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet accelerated wound healing whilst preventing mortality and liver enlargement.

19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 179: 113010, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816469

RESUMO

Measurement of Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) in peripheral blood is a useful tool to assess inflammatory responses in a large range of diseases. One of the major challenges for cytokine analysis is the availability of a proper analytical tool with high specificity, accuracy, linearity, precision, stability, and analytical sensitivity. Although available immunoassays are usually robust and reproducible, it is also true that they are not interchangeable. Two ELISA, four flow cytometric bead array (CBA) and four Luminex immunoassays were compared. Correlation between different techniques was almost absent, while some immunoassays based on the same technique showed significant correlation. Among the ten different assays evaluated, just few of them complied with the pre-established acceptance validation criteria. Interestingly, sera and plasma collected from the same healthy donor had significant different reference values. Samples stability was maintained in serum up to one week at four degrees, while plasma was stable only when it was frozen. Since several anti-inflammatory treatments are based on biologics targeting TNF-α (anti-TNF-α antibodies), potential interference with the immunoassays was tested and resulted relevant. This study shows that although each immunoassay presents benefits and drawbacks, just few assays are suitable for the measurement of TNF-α in clinical laboratories, demonstrating that, so far, the measurement of TNF-α in human blood is still not yet harmonised. In addition, we found that false negative results caused by anti-TNF-α treatments should be carefully considered for results interpretation.

20.
Neurosci Lett ; 718: 134669, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805371

RESUMO

Spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury remains an unresolved problem, and the mechanism is not fully elaborated. In a rat model of spinal cord I/R injury, we performed microarray analysis to examine the altered expression of microRNAs (miRs) at 24 h after the modelling. miR-186-5p was chosen for further study. An miR mimic or anti-miR oligonucleotide was intrathecally infused before the surgical procedure. The participation of miR-186-5p and its potential target genes based on bioinformatics analysis were analysed next. Pre-treatment with the miR-186-5p mimic improved neurological function and histological assessment scores; reduced Evans Blue extravasation; attenuated spinal cord oedema; and decreased interleukin 15 (IL-15), IL-6, IL-1ß, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression at 24 h after the modelling. KEGG analysis showed that the group of potential target genes of miR-186-5p was notably enriched in several signalling cascades, such as the Wnt, Hippo, and PI3K-AKT pathways. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the group of potential target genes of miR-186-5p was significantly enriched in several biological processes, such as 'Wnt signalling pathway', 'regulation of inflammatory response', and 'Toll-like receptor signalling pathway'. We further found that Wnt5a, TLR3, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13) were upregulated after the modelling and the miR-186-5p mimic reduced the induction of the aforementioned target genes. These data provide evidence that upregulation of miR-186-5p improves neurological outcomes induced by spinal cord I/R injury and may inhibit neuroinflammation through Wnt5a-, TLR3-, or CXCL13-mediated signal pathway in spinal cord I/R injury.

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