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1.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 101: 117609, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364599

RESUMO

In this study, we have designed, synthesized and tested three series of novel dihydropteridone derivatives possessing isoindolin-1-one or isoindoline moieties as potent inhibitors of PLK1/BRD4. Remarkably, most of the compounds showed preferable inhibitory activity against PLK1 and BRD4. Compound SC10 exhibited excellent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.3 nM and 60.8 nM against PLK1 and BRD4, respectively. Meanwhile, it demonstrated significant anti-proliferative activities against three tumor-derived cell lines (MDA-MB-231 IC50 = 17.3 nM, MDA-MB-361 IC50 = 8.4 nM, and MV4-11 IC50 = 5.4 nM). Moreover, SC10 exhibited moderate rat liver microsomal stability (CLint = 21.3 µL·min-1·mg-1), acceptable pharmacokinetic profile (AUC0-t = 657 ng·h·mL-1, oral bioavailability of 21.4 %) in Sprague-Dawley rats, reduced hERG toxicity, acceptable PPB and CYP450 inhibition. Further research indicated that SC10 could induce MV4-11 cell arrest at the S phase and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. This investigation provided us with an initial point for developing novel anticancer agents as dual inhibitors of PLK1 and BRD4.

2.
ACS Nano ; 18(6): 5122-5131, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299871

RESUMO

Colloidal assembly has emerged as an effective avenue for achieving polarized light emission. Here, we showcase the efficacy and versatility of the magnetic colloidal assembly in enabling both linearly and circularly polarized luminescence. Colloidal europium-doped NaYF4 nanorods with surface-bound Fe3O4 nanoparticles are magnetically assembled into linear or chiral superstructures using corresponding fields created in permanent magnets. In a uniform magnetic field generated by opposing poles, the assemblies exhibit photoluminescence with intensity tunable in response to the magnetic field direction, which is higher when the nanorods are perpendicular to light propagation than when they are parallel. The obtained superstructures display strong linearly polarized luminescence when the nanorods are aligned vertically, exhibiting a high degree of polarization up to 0.61. In a quadrupole chiral field generated by permanent magnets, the assemblies emit left-handed or right-handed polarized light depending on the position of the sample placement, attaining a g-factor of 0.04. Furthermore, the superstructures immobilized in a hydrogel film are found to retain their chirality, exhibiting opposite chiroptical responses depending on the sample orientation. The magnetic colloidal assembly approach facilitates the convenient and efficient generation of polarized light emissions from nonmagnetic luminescent materials, thus creating opportunities for tailoring light behavior in developing innovative optoelectronic devices.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315593

RESUMO

The expressive power of neural networks describes the ability to represent or approximate complex functions. The number of linear regions is the standard and most natural measure of expressive power. However, a major challenge in utilizing the number of linear regions as a measure of expressive power is the exponential gap between the theoretical upper and lower bounds, which becomes more pronounced as the neural network capacity increases. In this article, we aim to derive a sharp upper bound on piecewise linear neural networks (PLNNs) to bridge this gap. Specifically, we first establish the relationship between tropical polynomials and PLNNs. In the unexpanded tropical polynomials form, we make the proposition that hyperplanes are not all in the general positions, thereby reducing the number of intersecting hyperplanes. We propose a rank-based approach and present the empirical analysis that this approach outperforms previous Zaslavsky's theorem-based methods. In the expanded tropical polynomials form, accounting for limitations in weight initialization and model computational precision, we raise the concept that the values range of each term is bounded. We propose a precision-based approach that transforms the approximate exponential growth of the number of linear regions into polynomial growth with width, which is effective at larger layer widths. Finally, we compare the number of linear regions that can be represented by each hidden layer in both forms and derive a sharp upper bound for PLNNs. Empirical analysis and experimental results provide compelling evidence for the efficacy and feasibility of this sharp upper bound on both simulated experiments and real datasets.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353114

RESUMO

Rational design and preparation of high-performance bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts with effective sites and excellent mass/electron transfer structures are in demand for Zn-air batteries to overcome the sluggish oxygen reduction/evolution kinetics. Herein, a scalable and facile strategy is proposed to obtain brush-like Co/CoSe nanoheterostructures embedded in N-doped carbon catalysts with optimized active sites and hierarchical nanostructures. Systematic investigation indicates that nanoheterogeneous interfaces with appropriate composition deliver significantly improved electrochemical activity. As a result, a zinc-air battery assembled with the obtained Co/CoSe nanoheterostructures embedded in the N-doped carbon (CoSe/Co@NC-1) catalyst exhibits outstanding electrochemical performance with a peak power density of 215 mW cm-2 and excellent stability for 475 hours (2850 cycles). These results indicate that this strategy is an effective method for fabricating multicomponent and hierarchically nanostructured materials with enhanced catalytic efficiency for advanced energy devices.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; : 130334, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387635

RESUMO

Alfalfa polysaccharide (AP) and sulfated alfalfa polysaccharide (SAP) exhibit potential for alleviating obesity. This study aimed to analyze the mechanism of action of AP and SAP in alleviating obesity through combined microbiomics and metabolomics. The research selected validated optimal AP and SAP concentration for experiment. The results showed that AP and SAP down-regulated colonic inflammatory gene expression, regulated intestinal pH to normal, and restored intestinal growth. Microbial sequencing showed that AP and SAP altered the microbial composition ratio. AP increased the relative abundance of Muribaculaceae and Romboutsia. SAP increased the relative abundance of Dubosiella, Fecalibaculum and Desulfovibrionaceae. Metabolomic analysis showed that AP regulated steroid hormone biosynthesis, neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions and bile secretion pathways. SAP focuses more on pathways related to amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, AP and SAP down-regulated the mRNA expression of colonic COX-2, PepT-1 and HK2 and up-regulated the mRNA expression of TPH1. Correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between metabolites and gut bacteria. Dubosiella, Faecalibaculum may be the critical marker flora for polysaccharides to alleviate obesity. This study indicates that AP and SAP alleviate obesity through different pathways and that specific polysaccharide modifications affect characteristic microbial and metabolic pathways, providing new insights into polysaccharide modifications.

6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4208, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378872

RESUMO

The Homeostatic Model Assessment for Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG) and its related indices, including triglyceride glucose-waist circumference (TyG-WC), triglyceride glucose-waist-to-height ratio (TyG-WHtR) and triglyceride glucose-body mass index (TyG-BMI), has emerged as a practical tool for assessing insulin resistance in metabolic disorders. However, limited studies have explored the connection between TyG, TyG-related indices and osteoporosis. This population-based study, utilizing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018, involved 5456 participants. Through weighted multivariate linear regression and smoothed curve fitting, a significant positive correlation was found between TyG, TyG-related indices and total bone mineral density (BMD) after adjusting for covariates [ß = 0.0124, 95% CI (0.0006, 0.0242), P = 0.0390; ß = 0.0004, 95% CI (0.0003, 0.0004), P < 0.0001; ß = 0.0116, 95% CI (0.0076, 0.0156), P < 0.0001; ß = 0.0001, 95% CI (0.0001, 0.0001), P < 0.0001]. In subgroup analysis, race stratification significantly affected the relationship between TyG and total BMD. Additionally, gender and race were both significant for TyG-related indices. Non-linear relationships and threshold effects with inflection points at 9.106, 193.9265, 4.065, and 667.5304 (TyG, TyG-BMI, TyG-WHtR, TyG-WC) were identified. Saturation phenomena were observed between TyG-BMI, TyG-WC and total BMD with saturation thresholds at 314.177 and 1022.0428. These findings contributed to understanding the association between TyG, TyG-related indices and total BMD, offering insights for osteoporosis prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Glucose , Triglicerídeos
7.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 14(4)2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38392755

RESUMO

Two-dimensional material indium selenide (InSe) holds great promise for applications in electronics and optoelectronics by virtue of its fascinating properties. However, most multilayer InSe-based transistors suffer from extrinsic scattering effects from interface disorders and the environment, which cause carrier mobility and density fluctuations and hinder their practical application. In this work, we employ the non-destructive method of van der Waals (vdW) integration to improve the electron mobility of back-gated multilayer InSe FETs. After introducing the hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as both an encapsulation layer and back-gate dielectric with the vdW interface, as well as graphene serving as a buffer contact layer, the electron mobilities of InSe FETs are substantially enhanced. The vdW-integrated devices exhibit a high electron mobility exceeding 103 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current on/off ratios of ~108 at room temperature. Meanwhile, the electron densities are found to exceed 1012 cm-2. In addition, the fabricated devices show an excellent stability with a negligible electrical degradation after storage in ambient conditions for one month. Electrical transport measurements on InSe FETs in different configurations suggest that a performance enhancement with vdW integration should arise from a sufficient screening effect on the interface impurities and an effective passivation of the air-sensitive surface.

8.
Sci Adv ; 10(3): eadj6417, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232154

RESUMO

Utilization of in situ/operando methods with broad beams and localized probes has accelerated our understanding of fluid-surface interactions in recent decades. The closed-cell microchips based on silicon nitride (SiNx) are widely used as "nanoscale reactors" inside the high-vacuum electron microscopes. However, the field has been stalled by the high background scattering from encapsulation (typically ~100 nanometers) that severely limits the figures of merit for in situ performance. This adverse effect is particularly notorious for gas cell as the sealing membranes dominate the overall scattering, thereby blurring any meaningful signals and limiting the resolution. Herein, we show that by adopting the back-supporting strategy, encapsulating membrane can be reduced substantially, down to ~10 nanometers while maintaining structural resiliency. The systematic gas cell work demonstrates advantages in figures of merit for hitherto the highest spatial resolution and spectral visibility. Furthermore, this strategy can be broadly adopted into other types of microchips, thus having broader impact beyond the in situ/operando fields.

9.
Nano Lett ; 24(2): 770-776, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180314

RESUMO

van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) based on two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have attracted considerable attention. However, the reported vdWHs are largely based on vertical device structure with large overlapping area, while the realization of lateral heterostructures contacted through 2D edges remains challenging and is majorly limited by the difficulties of manipulating the lateral distance of 2D materials at nanometer scale (during transfer process). Here, we demonstrate a simple interfacial sliding approach for realizing an edge-by-edge lateral contact. By stretching a vertical vdWH, two 2D flakes could gradually slide apart or toward each other. Therefore, by applying proper strain, the initial vertical vdWH could be converted into a lateral heterojunction with intimately contacted 2D edges. The lateral contact structure is supported by both microscope characterization and in situ electrical measurements, exhibiting carrier tunneling behavior. Finally, this approach can be extended to 3D thin films, as demonstrated by the lateral 2D/3D and 3D/3D Schottky junction.

10.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 25(1): 23-37, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163664

RESUMO

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) type 3 receptor (5-HT3R) is the only type of ligand-gated ion channel in the 5-HT receptor family. Through the high permeability of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ and activation of subsequent voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), 5-HT3R induces a rapid increase of neuronal excitability or the release of neurotransmitters from axon terminals in the central nervous system (CNS). 5-HT3Rs are widely expressed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMYG), hippocampus (HIP), periaqueductal gray (PAG), and other brain regions closely associated with anxiety reactions. They have a bidirectional regulatory effect on anxiety reactions by acting on different types of cells in different brain regions. 5-HT3Rs mediate the activation of the cholecystokinin (CCK) system in the AMYG, and the γ|-aminobutyric acid (GABA) "disinhibition" mechanism in the prelimbic area of the mPFC promotes anxiety by the activation of GABAergic intermediate inhibitory neurons (IINs). In contrast, a 5-HT3R-induced GABA "disinhibition" mechanism in the infralimbic area of the mPFC and the ventral HIP produces anxiolytic effects. 5-HT2R-mediated regulation of anxiety reactions are also activated by 5-HT3R-activated 5-HT release in the HIP and PAG. This provides a theoretical basis for the treatment of anxiety disorders or the production of anxiolytic drugs by targeting 5-HT3Rs. However, given the circuit specific modulation of 5-HT3Rs on emotion, systemic use of 5-HT3R agonism or antagonism alone seems unlikely to remedy anxiety, which deeply hinders the current clinical application of 5-HT3R drugs. Therefore, the exploitation of circuit targeting methods or a combined drug strategy might be a useful developmental approach in the future.


Assuntos
Receptores 5-HT3 de Serotonina , Serotonina , Ansiedade , Neurônios , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 165, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167517

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors hold great promises for ultra-scaled transistors. In particular, the gate length of MoS2 transistor has been scaled to 1 nm and 0.3 nm using single wall carbon nanotube and graphene, respectively. However, simultaneously scaling the channel length of these short-gate transistor is still challenging, and could be largely attributed to the processing difficulties to precisely align source-drain contact with gate electrode. Here, we report a self-alignment process for realizing ultra-scaled 2D transistors. By mechanically folding a graphene/BN/MoS2 heterostructure, source-drain metals could be precisely aligned around the folded edge, and the channel length is only dictated by heterostructure thickness. Together, we could realize sub-1 nm gate length and sub-50 nm channel length for vertical MoS2 transistor simultaneously. The self-aligned device exhibits on-off ratio over 105 and on-state current of 250 µA/µm at 4 V bias, which is over 40 times higher compared to control sample without self-alignment process.

12.
J Biotechnol ; 381: 57-66, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185430

RESUMO

Dextranases are hydrolases that exclusively catalyze the disruption of α-1,6 glycosidic bonds. A series of variant enzymes were obtained by comparing the sequences of dextranases from different sources and introducing sequence substitutions. A correlation was found between the number of amino acids in the 397-401 region and the hydrolytic process. When there were no more than 5 amino acids in the 397-401 region, the enzyme first hydrolyzed the dextran T70 to a low molecular weight dextran with a molecular weight of about 5000, then IMOs1 appeared in the system if the degradation continued, showing a clear sequential relationship. And when there are more than 5 amino acids in the 397-401 region, IMOs were produced at the beginning of hydrolysis and continue to increase throughout the hydrolytic process. At the same time, we investigated the enzymatic properties of the variants and found that the hydrolytic rate of A-Ca was 11 times higher than that of the original enzyme. The proportion of IMOs produced by A-Ca was 80.68%, which was nearly10% higher than the original enzyme, providing a new enzyme for the industrial preparation of IMOs.


Assuntos
Dextranase , Dextranos , Hidrólise , Dextranase/genética , Dextranase/química , Dextranos/química , Peso Molecular , Aminoácidos
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 465: 133449, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218036

RESUMO

Nuclear power emerges as a beacon of hope in tackling the energy crisis. However, the emission of radioactive iodine originating from nuclear waste and accidents poses a serious danger to nature and human well-being. Therefore, it becomes imperative to urgently develop suitable adsorbents capable of iodine capture and long-term storage. It's generally recognized that achieving high iodine capture efficiency necessitates the presence of electron-rich pores/cavities that facilitate charge-transfer (CT) interactions, as well as effective sorption sites capable of engaging in lone pair interactions with iodine. In this study, an unprecedented iodine capture paradigm by nonporous amorphous electron-deficient tetracationic cycloalkanes in vapor and aqueous solutions is revealed, overturning preconceived notions of iodine trapping materials. A newly reported tetracationic cyclophane, BPy-Box4+, exhibited an exceptional iodine vapor sorption capacity of 3.99 g g-1, remarkable iodine removal efficiency in aqueous media, and outstanding reusability. The iodine capture mechanism is unambiguously elucidated by theoretical calculations and the single-crystal structures of cyclophanes with a gradual increase in iodine content, underlining the vital role of host-guest (1:1 or 1:2) interactions for the enhanced iodine capture. The current study demonstrates a new paradigm for enhanced iodine capture by nonporous amorphous electron-deficient cyclophanes through host-guest complexation.

14.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 196: 114181, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224755

RESUMO

Hyperpigmentation, a prevalent dermatological condition characterized by melanin overproduction, poses treatment challenges due to the hydrophilicity of alpha-arbutin, a widely utilized tyrosinase inhibitor. This study investigates the efficacy of dissolving microneedles (DMNs) in augmenting skin permeation for alpha-arbutin delivery to the targeted epidermal site. Porcine full-thickness skin was employed in a 24-hour Franz cell study, commencing with the assessment of commercial alpha-arbutin-containing products. Solid steel microneedles (CMNs) from Dermapen® were utilized as both pre- and post-treatment modalities to evaluate the influence of different applications on alpha-arbutin delivery. Additionally, alpha-arbutin-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate (PVPVA) DMNs, containing 2 % w/w alpha-arbutin, were fabricated and examined for their permeation-enhancing capabilities. HPLC analysis and 3D Orbitrap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (OrbiSIMS) were employed to quantify and visualize alpha-arbutin in various Franz cell components. Results indicate that alpha-arbutin permeation to the skin was restricted (less than 1 %) without microneedle application and significantly increased by 6-fold (4-5 %) with post-treatment CMNs and DMNs, but not with pre-treatment CMNs. Notably, DMNs exhibited a more sustainable and robust capacity than post-treatment CMNs. OrbiSIMS imaging analysis revealed that DMNs visually enhance skin permeation of alpha-arbutin by delivering the compound to the basal layer of the targeted skin location. Overall, this study underscores the potential of DMNs as a promising delivery system for promoting targeted intradermal delivery of alpha-arbutin, providing a comprehensive exploration of various methodologies to identify innovative and improved microneedle approaches for alpha-arbutin permeation.


Assuntos
Arbutina , Nevo Pigmentado , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário , Suínos , Animais , Administração Cutânea , Pele , Epiderme , Polímeros , Agulhas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 395: 130360, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266786

RESUMO

A novel suspended carrier was prepared by sticking activated carbon (AC) and magnetite (Fe3O4) onto polypropylene slices. Although this carrier could not reverse the decreased denitrification capacity trends under anoxic conditions at an influent carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 2, it enhanced denitrification by stimulating sludge reduction and accelerating electron transfer to certain extent. The carrier stuck by mixed AC/Fe3O4 exhibited better performance in terms of sludge reduction, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion, and denitrification than that merely stuck by AC and Fe3O4 at an influent C/N ratio of 2. The carrier stuck by mixed AC/Fe3O4 increased the total nitrogen removal efficiency by 24.6 % ± 12.5 % in a 72-h denitrification batch experiment compared to the common polypropylene carrier. Moreover, the carrier improved EPS secretion and nitrogen metabolism and promoted the growth of Trichococcus and some denitrifying genera. This study provides a reference for the treatment of low C/N ratio sewage.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Esgotos , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico , Carvão Vegetal , Nitrogênio , Polipropilenos , Reatores Biológicos
16.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 44(3): e99-e115, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgE has been known for mediating endothelial cell dysfunction and mast cell (MC) activation to fuel asthma-aggravated high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear for the mechanism of asthma-mediated atherosclerosis, especially the potential involvement of IgE in the exacerbation of asthma-mediated atherosclerosis with a standard laboratory diet, and the cross talk between endothelial cells and MCs. METHODS: Asthma-mediated atherosclerosis mice models under a standard laboratory diet and FcεR1 knock-out mice were used to determine the role of IgE-FcεR1 signaling in asthma-mediated atherosclerosis, which was assessed by Oil Red O staining and immunohistochemistry. Various in vitro assays including nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate exosome characteristics. Immunofluorescence and fluorescent in situ hybridization approaches were used to evaluate the effect and mechanism of MC-secreted exosomes encapsulated circular RNA CDR1as (cerebellar degeneration-related 1 antisense) on endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Finally, cohort studies examined the plasma CDR1as levels in patients with atherosclerosis with or without allergies. RESULTS: Asthma mice with a standard laboratory diet showed increased atherosclerotic lesions and inflammatory infiltration depending on IgE-FcεR1 signal. FcεR1 knockout mice and blockage of IgE-FcεR1 signaling with IgE monoclonal antibody, omalizumab, all significantly alleviated asthma-mediated atherosclerosis and vascular inflammatory remodeling. Anti-inflammation with dexamethasone and stabilization of MC with cromolyn partially alleviated atherosclerotic lesions and mitigated the inflammatory infiltration in arteries. Mechanistically, IgE stimulation upregulates MC CDR1as expression in exosomes and upregulates the endothelial cell adhesive factors VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) via the CDR1as-FUS (fused in sarcoma)-phos-p65 axis. Knockdown of CDR1as in vivo significantly decreased the endothelial adhesion function and mitigated asthma-mediated atherosclerosis. Furthermore, a cohort study indicated higher plasma CDR1as levels in patients with atherosclerosis with allergies than in patients with atherosclerosis and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exosomes from IgE-stimulated MCs aggravated atherosclerosis through circular RNA CDR1as-mediated endothelial dysfunction, providing a novel insight into asthma-mediated atherosclerosis and potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Asma , Aterosclerose , Exossomos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Imunoglobulina E/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Circular/metabolismo
17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 63(8): e202319876, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183367

RESUMO

Utilizing covalent organic framework (COF) as a hypotoxic and porous scaffold to encapsulate enzyme (enzyme@COF) has inspired numerous interests at the intersection of chemistry, materials, and biological science. In this study, we report a convenient scheme for one-step, aqueous-phase synthesis of highly crystalline enzyme@COF biocatalysts. This facile approach relies on an ionic liquid (2 µL of imidazolium ionic liquid)-mediated dynamic polymerization mechanism, which can facilitate the in situ assembly of enzyme@COF under mild conditions. This green strategy is adaptive to synthesize different biocatalysts with highly crystalline COF "exoskeleton", as well evidenced by the low-dose cryo-EM and other characterizations. Attributing to the rigorous sieving effect of crystalline COF pore, the hosted lipase shows non-native selectivity for aliphatic acid hydrolysis. In addition, the highly crystalline linkage affords COF "exoskeleton" with higher photocatalytic activity for in situ production of H2 O2 , enabling us to construct a self-cascading photo-enzyme coupled reactor for pollutants degradation, with a 2.63-fold degradation rate as the poorly crystalline photo-enzyme reactor. This work showcases the great potentials of employing green and trace amounts of ionic liquid for one-step synthesis of crystalline enzyme@COF biocatalysts, and emphasizes the feasibility of diversifying enzyme functions by integrating the reticular chemistry of a COF.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Líquidos Iônicos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Polimerização , Lipase
18.
Org Lett ; 26(3): 676-680, 2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235713

RESUMO

A palladium-catalyzed divergent cascade decarboxylative annulation of aryl iodides and α-oxocarboxylic acids using norbornene (NBE) derivatives as a controlled switch is reported. When NBE is used as a mediator, fluorenones are synthesized with moderate to excellent yields via a Catellani reaction that involves sequential ortho-C-H arylation and ipso-decarboxylative acylation of aryl iodides. Employing oxanorbornadiene (ONBD) instead of NBE enables the assembly of dibenzo[a,c]cycloheptenones by a retro-Diels-Alder reaction rather than the release of an ONBD. Additionally, the synthetic utility of this method is demonstrated by the diversification of the products.

19.
Nanomicro Lett ; 16(1): 72, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175313

RESUMO

Lithium-ion thermoelectrochemical cell (LTEC), featuring simultaneous energy conversion and storage, has emerged as promising candidate for low-grade heat harvesting. However, relatively poor thermosensitivity and heat-to-current behavior limit the application of LTECs using LiPF6 electrolyte. Introducing additives into bulk electrolyte is a reasonable strategy to solve such problem by modifying the solvation structure of electrolyte ions. In this work, we develop a dual-salt electrolyte with fluorosurfactant (FS) additive to achieve high thermopower and durability of LTECs during the conversion of low-grade heat into electricity. The addition of FS induces a unique Li+ solvation with the aggregated double anions through a crowded electrolyte environment, resulting in an enhanced mobility kinetics of Li+ as well as boosted thermoelectrochemical performances. By coupling optimized electrolyte with graphite electrode, a high thermopower of 13.8 mV K-1 and a normalized output power density of 3.99 mW m-2 K-2 as well as an outstanding output energy density of 607.96 J m-2 can be obtained. These results demonstrate that the optimization of electrolyte by regulating solvation structure will inject new vitality into the construction of thermoelectrochemical devices with attractive properties.

20.
Phytomedicine ; 123: 155262, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catalpol, a major active component of the Chinese herb Rehmannia glutinosa, possesses various pharmacological benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antitumor properties. Recent studies have reported that catalpol can attenuate bone loss and enhance bone formation. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects on osteoporosis pathogenesis remain unclear. PURPOSE: We investigated whether catalpol had a protective effect against postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) and explored its exact mechanism of action. METHODS: Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham, model, low-dose catalpol (5 mg/kg/day), medium-dose catalpol (10 mg/kg/day), high-dose catalpol (20 mg/kg/day), and positive control (alendronate, 2.5 mg/kg). In this experiment, a ovariectomy was performed to establish a female rat model of PMOP. After 12 weeks of gavage, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histochemical staining were performed to evaluate bone mass, bone microstructure and histological parameters. Furthermore, RAW 264.7 cells were induced by RANKL to form mature osteoclasts to investigate the effect of catalpol on osteoclast differentiation and apoptosis in vitro. Additionally, the osteoclast apoptosis-related proteins of Sirt6, ERα, FasL, NFATc1, cleaved-caspase 8, cleaved-caspase 3, and Bax were assessed using western blotting. The expressions of NFATc1, Ctsk, Oscar, and Trap were quantified using RT-qPCR. The apoptotic rate of the osteoclasts was determined using flow cytometry. Sirt6 knockdown was performed using siRNA gene silencing in experiments to investigate its role in catalpol-mediated osteoclast apoptosis. The deacetylation of ERα in osteoclasts was tested via co-immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Catalpol (10 and 20 mg/kg) and alendronate (2.5 mg/kg) could significantly improve bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure and decrease osteoclast density in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. In addition, catalpol (10 and 20 mg/kg) upregulated the expression of Sirt6, ERα, FasL, cleaved-caspase 8, cleaved-caspase 3, Bax, and downregulated the expression of NFATc1, Ctsk, Oscar, Trap both in vivo and in vitro. Catalpol also promoted ERα deacetylation and stabilized ERα protein to enhance the expression of FasL. In addition, Sirt6 knockdown by siRNA prevented ERα deacetylation and eliminated catalpol-mediated osteoclast apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that catalpol prevents estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis by promoting osteoclast apoptosis via the Sirt6-ERα-FasL axis. These findings revealed a novel molecular mechanism underpinning the impact of catalpol in the progression of osteoporosis and provided novel insights into the treatment of osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Osteoporose , Humanos , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Osteoclastos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Alendronato/metabolismo , Alendronato/farmacologia , Alendronato/uso terapêutico , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Osteogênese , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Apoptose , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Ovariectomia , Diferenciação Celular , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico
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