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1.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 76: 102091, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on a prospective cohort study in middle-aged Chinese men, the current study characterized the dose-response relationships between fat distribution measurements and the incidence of primary liver cancer. METHODS: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Cox regression models for the association between waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), a body shape index (ABSI), and body roundness index (BRI) with liver cancer incidence. Dose-response curves were characterized using a restricted cubic spline function. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up time of 11.9 (SD = 2.4) years, 440 liver cancer cases were identified from 60,625 participants. WC, WHtR, ABSI, and BRI were found to be associated with an increased risk of liver cancer at a given level of body mass index (BMI), with multivariable-adjusted HRs of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01-1.41), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02-1.50), 1.12 (95% CI: 1.05-1.23) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08-1.53) for per SD increment, respectively. Dose-response curves suggested that the risk increased rapidly above the median levels of WC, WHtR, and BRI. For ABSI, the risk decreased from the minimum level to about the 35th percentile and increased slowly thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested an association between abdominal obesity in middle age and increased risk of primary liver cancer at a given level of BMI. WHtR and BRI were better predictors of liver cancer risk compared with WC and ABSI.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126693, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017094

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2) on biomethane generation from sludge two-phase anaerobic digestion system. In first (acidogenic) phase, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were largely generated when pretreated by Ca(ClO)2, while the methane yield was severely inhibited. In second (methanogenic) phase, the methane yield was observably enhanced by Ca(ClO)2. Further calculation showed that the total methane yield from the two phases was firstly promoted from 156.0 ± 4.5 to 269.9 ± 5.2 mL when Ca(ClO)2 dosage enhanced from 0 to 1.6 g/L, which then reduced to 235.4 ± 5.5 mL when Ca(ClO)2 content reached 2.0 g/L. Mechanism analysis showed that the suppression of Ca(ClO)2 on coenzyme F420 activity was relieved in methanogenic phase, and the abundances of functional microbes in methanogenic phase were enriched when added with Ca(ClO)2. The Ca(ClO)2-based method well realized the balance between efficacy and economy, possessing outstanding potential for large-scale applications.

3.
J Food Biochem ; : e14042, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981530

RESUMO

American ginseng berry (AGB) is a new medicinal source. Total saponins of American ginseng berry (TSAGB) are the main active ingredients. The effects and active saponins of TSAGB on myocardial ischemia (MI) rats were evaluated for the first time. First, there were 69 saponins identified or tentatively characterized by Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) combined with UNIFI platform, among which, about 28 saponins were first identified in AGB. Second, MI model was established by ligating left coronary artery. It has been demonstrated that TSAGB could prevent the ST-segment elevation, reduce myocardial infarct size and levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and elevate the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level. Finally, network pharmacology combined with molecular docking to screen out four active saponins (ginsenoside Re, Rb3 , Rg3 , and PF11 ) and five key targets (SOD1, LDHA, CKB, GOT2, and ROS1) closely related to MI. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This study enriches the chemical composition of TSAGB, and provides a basis for clarifying the pharmacological substances for anti-myocardial ischemia. TSAGB might be a potential anti-myocardial ischemia agent. The effect might be related to alleviating oxidative stress.

4.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112016, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509485

RESUMO

This study was carried out to determine the effect of influent nitrate loading on nitrite accumulation during elemental-sulfur based denitrification process, and proposed to enhance the nitrogen removal efficiency by mitigating nitrite accumulation with thiosulfate as external electron donor. Along with increasing the nitrate influent loading (from 0.09 kg N/m3/d to 1.73 kg N/m3/d) by shortening the empty bed contact time (EBCT) (from 5 h to 0.25 h), the nitrate removal loading increased from 0.08 to 0.83 kg N/m3/d. Meanwhile, the raise of the nitrate influent loading obviously aggravated the nitrite accumulation. Herein, nitrite began to accumulate since the nitrate influent loading was over 0.86 kg N/m3/d, and a maximum nitrite accumulation of 2.39 mg/L was observed under the 0.25 h of EBCT and 15 mg/L of nitrate influent concentration condition. Thiosulfate was used as the external electron donor to accelerate the nitrite reduction rate in order to mitigate the nitrite accumulation. As a result, the nitrite accumulation significantly decreased from 2.39 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L with the thiosulfate dosage of 13.36 mg/L. However, the nitrite accumulation bounced with the on-going increase of the thiosulfate dosage, indicating that the nitrate reduction rate and nitrite reduction rate were accelerated alternatively. After dosing thiosulfate, the relative abundances of sulfurimonas and ferritrophicum grew up significantly.


Assuntos
Nitritos , Tiossulfatos , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Elétrons , Nitratos , Nitrogênio
5.
Diabet Med ; : e14762, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877688

RESUMO

AIMS: Limited epidemiologic data on the combined impact of several lifestyle factors on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence was reported in Chinese population. This study aimed to examine how combinations of BMI, physical activity and diet relate to T2DM incidence and estimate corresponding population attributable risk in the general population. METHODS: 56,691 male and 70,849 female participants aged 40-74 years old in two population-based cohorts from Shanghai Men's and Women's Health Studies were used for analysis. Cox regression model was used to estimate the association between lifestyle factors collected at baseline and T2DM incidence. Multivariable-adjusted population attributable risks were calculated for specific combinations of lifestyle factors. RESULTS: There were 3315 male and 5925 female incident T2DM, with corresponding density incidence rates of 6.39 and 6.04 per 1000 person-years. If the healthiest group of healthy lifestyle index (HLI) was used as a reference, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of T2DM increased monotonically in males [2.04(1.75,2.38); 2.94 (2.53,3.42); 4.31(3.66,5.07)] and females [1.85(1.64,2.08); 2.79 (2.49,3.13); 4.14(3.66,4.67)]. One point increase of HLI was related to a 35% and 35% lower risk in males and females. About 52.7% and 58.4% cases in males and females could have been avoided if participants had been adherent to a healthy lifestyle of maintaining healthy body weight, eating a healthy diet and keeping physically active. CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of healthy lifestyle factors were associated with a decreased risk of T2DM in the Chinese population. Future interventions targeted at combined healthy lifestyle factors are needed to reduce the burden of T2DM.

6.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850402

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to explore the application value of two laboratory tests in the diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis (EBV-IM) in children. METHODS: From January 2018 to December 2020, 166 patients with EBV-IM were included in this study. Two methods were used in the analysis. The results of both tests were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The age of onset of EBV-IM is mainly distributed in the range of 0-6 years, and no difference by gender is observed. The sensitivity and specificity of EBV testing by PCR were 49.4% and 89.8%, respectively, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.714 (0.662-0.762). When using the immunofluorescence method to detect EBV antibodies, the two indices with the highest diagnostic efficacy were low-affinity EBV-CA IgG and EBV-CA IgM, and their AUC values were 0.798 (0.751-0.840) and 0.663 (0.609-0.713), respectively. When combining the two indices for testing, the AUC values of EBV-CA IgM + low-affinity EBV-CA IgG, EBV-DNA + EBV-CA IgM, and EBV-DNA + low-affinity EBV-CA IgG were 0.904(0.867-0.933), 0.768 (0.719-0.812) and 0.963 (0.937-0.981), respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of the combined EBV-DNA + EBV-CA IgM + low-affinity EBV-CA IgG test was optimal compared with that of a single index or the combination of two indices, with an AUC of 0.999 (0.986-1.000) (P < 0.05), sensitivity of 100%, and specificity of 89.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The combined immunofluorescence and real-time PCR method has high sensitivity and specificity and good application value in the clinical diagnosis of EBV-IM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autistic people with eating disorders (EDs) may have special needs that are not met in standard ED treatment, raising the need for treatment adaptations to accommodate co-existing autism spectrum condition (ASC). Little is currently known about the nature of existing treatment options or adaptations for this population. We conducted a pre-registered systematic review to: (1) identify research articles describing existing interventions for patients with ED and comorbid ASC, and to critically review evidence of their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (Review 1); (2) review the impact of ASC comorbidity on ED clinical outcomes (Review 2). METHOD: Peer-reviewed studies published until the end of December 2020 were identified through a systematic search of the electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus and Cochrane Library. RESULTS: Only one clinical pathway of treatment adaptations (the 'PEACE' pathway) was identified in Review 1 with early evidence of cost-savings and favourable treatment outcomes. ASC characteristics were shown in Review 2 to have no direct impact on physical outcomes or ED symptoms, but could be associated with higher rates of comorbidities and greater use of intensive ED treatment. Additionally, patients with ASC characteristics may benefit more from individual sessions, rather than group sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Any new treatments or treatment adaptations may not directly impact on ED symptoms, but may be better able to support the complex needs of the ASC population, thus reducing subsequent need for intensive treatment. Future research is warranted to explore evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions for this population.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 781718, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868056

RESUMO

Norovirus (NoV) is a zoonotic virus that causes diarrhea in humans and animals. Outbreaks in nosocomial settings occur annually worldwide, endangering public health and causing serious social and economic burdens. The latter quarter of 2016 witnessed the emergence of the GII.P16-GII.2 recombinant norovirus throughout Asia. This genotype exhibits strong infectivity and replication characteristics, proposing its potential to initiate a pandemic. There is no vaccine against GII.P16-GII.2 recombinant norovirus, so it is necessary to design a preventive vaccine. In this study, GII.P16-GII.2 type norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) were constructed using the baculovirus expression system and used to conduct immunizations in mice. After immunization of mice, mice were induced to produce memory T cells and specific antibodies, indicating that the VLPs induced specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Further experiments were then initiated to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in antigen presentation. Towards this, we established co-cultures between dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages (Mø) and naïve CD4+T cells and simulated the antigen presentation process by incubation with VLPs. Thereafter, we detected changes in cell surface molecules, cytokines and related proteins. The results indicated that VLPs effectively promoted the phenotypic maturation of Mø but not DCs, as indicated by significant changes in the expression of MHC-II, costimulatory factors and related cytokines in Mø. Moreover, we found VLPs caused Mø to polarize to the M1 type and release inflammatory cytokines, thereby inducing naïve CD4+ T cells to perform Th1 immune responses. Therefore, this study reveals the mechanism of antigen presentation involving GII.P16-GII.2 recombinant norovirus VLPs, providing a theoretical basis for both understanding responses to norovirus infection as well as opportunities for vaccine development.

9.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 63, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype and occurs in approximately 15-20% of diagnosed breast cancers. TNBC is characterized by its highly metastatic and recurrent features, as well as a lack of specific targets and targeted therapeutics. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed in a variety of tumors, especially in TNBC. LR004-VC-MMAE is a new EGFR-targeting antibody-drug conjugate produced by our laboratory. This study aimed to evaluate its antitumor activities against EGFR-positive TNBC and further studied its possible mechanism of antitumor action. METHODS: LR004-VC-MMAE was prepared by coupling a cytotoxic payload (MMAE) to an anti-EGFR antibody (LR004) via a linker, and the drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) was analyzed by HIC-HPLC. The gene expression of EGFR in a series of breast cancer cell lines was assessed using a publicly available microarray dataset (GSE41313) and Western blotting. MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with LR004-VC-MMAE (0, 0.0066, 0.066, 0.66, 6.6 nmol/L), and the inhibitory effects of LR004-VC-MMAE on cell proliferation were examined by CCK-8 and colony formation. The migration and invasion capacity of MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells were tested at different LR004-VC-MMAE concentrations (2.5 and 5 nmol/L) with wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. Flow cytometric analysis and tumorsphere-forming assays were used to detect the killing effects of LR004-VC-MMAE on cancer stem cells in MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The mouse xenograft models were also used to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of LR004-VC-MMAE in vivo. Briefly, BALB/c nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. Then they were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group) and treated with PBS, naked LR004 (10 mg/kg), LR004-VC-MMAE (10 mg/kg), or doxorubicin, respectively. Tumor sizes and the body weights of mice were measured every 4 days. The effects of LR004-VC-MMAE on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the effects of LR004-VC-MMAE on EGFR, ERK, MEK phosphorylation and tumor stemness marker gene expression. RESULTS: LR004-VC-MMAE with a DAR of 4.02 were obtained. The expression of EGFR was found to be significantly higher in TNBC cells compared with non-TNBC cells (P < 0.01). LR004-VC-MMAE inhibited the proliferation of EGFR-positive TNBC cells, and the IC50 values of MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells treated with LR004-VC-MMAE for 72 h were (0.13 ± 0.02) nmol/L and (0.66 ± 0.06) nmol/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of cells treated with MMAE [(3.20 ± 0.60) nmol/L, P < 0.01, and (6.60 ± 0.50) nmol/L, P < 0.001]. LR004-VC-MMAE effectively inhibited migration and invasion of MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, LR004-VC-MMAE also killed tumor stem cells in EGFR-positive TNBC cells and impaired their tumorsphere-forming ability. In TNBC xenograft models, LR004-VC-MMAE at 10 mg/kg significantly suppressed tumor growth and achieved complete tumor regression on day 36. Surprisingly, tumor recurrence was not observed until the end of the experiment on day 52. In a mechanistic study, we found that LR004-VC-MMAE significantly induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in MDA-MB-468 [(34 ± 5)% vs. (12 ± 2)%, P < 0.001] and MDA-MB-231 [(27 ± 4)% vs. (18 ± 3)%, P < 0.01] cells. LR004-VC-MMAE also inhibited the activation of EGFR signaling and the expression of cancer stemness marker genes such as Oct4, Sox2, KLF4 and EpCAM. CONCLUSIONS: LR004-VC-MMAE showed effective antitumor activity by inhibiting the activation of EGFR signaling and the expression of cancer stemness marker genes. It might be a promising therapeutic candidate and provides a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of EGFR-positive TNBC.

10.
Stem Cell Res ; 57: 102608, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856467

RESUMO

We have successively constructed several induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines of middle-aged and elderly male, but cell samples from young donors are still scarce. In this project, we recruited a healthy 29-year-old Chinese Han male, obtained his skin fibroblasts and successfully established iPSC line using non-integrated reprogramming technology. The iPSC line showed normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency markers and differentiated into three germ layers in vivo. The cell line will serve as an available control in the research of pathological mechanisms of early-onset neurological diseases.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865466

RESUMO

Ethylene (C2H4) is one of the most significant substances in the petrochemical industry; however, the capture of acetylene (C2H2) in about 1% from C2H2/C2H4 mixtures is a difficult task because of the similarity of their physical properties. With the aggravation of the energy crisis, using metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to purify C2H4 through adsorptive separation is a promising way to save energy and reduce emission. Pore-space partition (PSP) with the aim of enhancing the density of the binding sites and the strength of the host-guest interactions is an effective means to promote a solution for the challenging gas separation problems. Herein, we report a new embedding metal-carboxylate chain-induced topology upgrade strategy within a MOF to realize PSP and separation of C2H2/C2H4 mixtures. As a proof of concept, we construct a microporous MOF (NUM-12) utilizing the in situ insertion of cobalt terephthalic chains into a pretargeted ant-type framework during synthesis. Because of the attainment of an elaborately tuned aperture size and a specific pore environment through this strategy, NUM-12a (activated NUM-12) not only has a remarkable gas sorption capacity and strong interactions for C2H2 but also possesses an excellent purification performance for C2H2/C2H4 mixtures. Both experiments and simulation calculations clearly reveal that NUM-12 is a promising candidate for the separation of C2H2/C2H4, proving the feasibility of this new strategy for developing newly fashioned MOFs with adjustable structure and performance.

12.
Life (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947951

RESUMO

The base editing 3 (BE3) system, a single-base gene editing technology developed using CRISPR/Cas9n, has a broad range of applications for human disease model construction and gene therapy, as it is highly efficient, accurate, and non-destructive. P53 mutations are present in more than 50% of human malignancies. Due to the similarities between humans and pigs at the molecular level, pig models carrying P53 mutations can be used to research the mechanism of tumorigenesis and improve tumor diagnosis and treatment. According to pathogenic mutations of the human P53 gene at W146* and Q100*, sgRNAs were designed to target exon 4 and exon 5 of the porcine P53 gene. The target editing efficiencies of the two sgRNAs were 61.9% and 50.0%, respectively. The editing efficiency of the BE3 system was highest (about 60%) when C (or G) was at the 5th base. Puromycin screening revealed that 75.0% (21/28) and 68.7% (22/32) of cell colonies contained a P53 mutation at sgRNA-Exon5 and sgRNA-Exon4, respectively. The reconstructed embryos from sgRNA-Exon5-5# were transferred into six recipient gilts, all of which aborted. The reconstructed embryos from sgRNA-Exon4-7# were transferred into 6 recipient gilts, 3 of which became pregnant, resulting in 14 live and 3 dead piglets. Sequencing analyses of the target site confirmed 1 P53 monoallelic mutation and 16 biallelic mutations. The qPCR analysis showed that the P53 mRNA expression level was significantly decreased in different tissues of the P53 mutant piglets (p < 0.05). Additionally, confocal microscopy and western blot analysis revealed an absence of P53 expression in the P53 mutant fibroblasts, livers, and lung tissues. In conclusion, a porcine cancer model with a P53 point mutation can be obtained via the BE3 system and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(11): 4059-4067, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898122

RESUMO

Better understanding of the changes in high-temperature would be helpful for improving the monitoring of hot extremes and mitigating their impacts towards a sustainable regional development. Based on the data of daily maximum temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed from 23 meteorological stations in Liaoning Province in summer (June to August) during 1961 to 2019, we analyzed the variations of daily maximum temperature (Tx), daily maximum apparent temperature (AT), and heat wave events (3 consecutive days ≥35 ℃). The effects of meteorological variables on daily maximum apparent temperature were examined by the grey relational analysis method. The results showed that the average Tx (AT) of all stations was 26.19 (27.35), 28.29 (31.13), and 28.14 (31.08) ℃, respectively, while the average trends in Tx (AT) was 0.17 (0.38), 0.20 (0.35), and 0.17 (0.28) ℃·(10 a)-1, respectively, in June, July and August during 1961 to 2019. The average AT and its trends in each month were larger than the Tx. From June to August, there was significant negative correlation between Tx (AT) and its climate tendency rate, indicating that the range of warming in the area with low Tx and AT was larger than that in the area with high values. We should therefore pay more attention to the protection against high temperature in the low value area of Tx and AT in summer. From June to August, the average number of hot days with AT ≥ 35 ℃ was 0.85 d·a-1, with an average increase rate of 0.20 d·(10 a)-1. Hot days were signifi-cantly more in June and July than in August. The area with more hot days was mainly located in the west of Liaoning, and the area with less hot days was mainly located in the south and coastal areas. The number of heat wave events was 0.071 times per year, which was large in western Liaoning. There was no high temperature heat wave event in the southern and coastal areas of Liaoning. The correlation analysis showed that the AT in June was strongly associated with relative humidity, while AT in July and August had the closest relationship with Tx. Therefore, the importance of relative humidity on the monitoring and forecasting of high temperature and hot weather cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Clima , Temperatura Alta , China , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 780667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899743

RESUMO

Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP1), encoded by the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 6 (ptpn6) gene, belongs to the family of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and participates in multiple signaling pathways of immune cells. However, the mechanism of SHP1 in regulating fish immunity is largely unknown. In this study, we first identified two gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) ptpn6 homeologs (Cgptpn6-A and Cgptpn6-B), each of which had three alleles with high identities. Then, relative to Cgptpn6-B, dominant expression in adult tissues and higher upregulated expression of Cgptpn6-A induced by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), poly deoxyadenylic-deoxythymidylic (dA:dT) acid and spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) were uncovered. Finally, we demonstrated that CgSHP1-A (encoded by the Cgptpn6-A gene) and CgSHP1-B (encoded by the Cgptpn6-B gene) act as negative regulators of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated interferon (IFN) response via two mechanisms: the inhibition of CaTBK1-induced phosphorylation of CaMITA shared by CgSHP1-A and CgSHP1-B, and the autophagic degradation of CaMITA exclusively by CgSHP1-A. Meanwhile, the data support that CgSHP1-A and CgSHP1-B have sub-functionalized and that CgSHP1-A overwhelmingly dominates CgSHP1-B in the process of RLR-mediated IFN response. The current study not only sheds light on the regulative mechanism of SHP1 in fish immunity, but also provides a typical case of duplicated gene evolutionary fates.

15.
J Mass Spectrom ; 56(12): e4791, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905806

RESUMO

Jilin Province and Shandong Province are two main American ginseng (AG) producing areas in China. The geographical difference existed in these two provinces. Aiming at evaluating the similarities and differences of the secondary metabolites, the comprehensive metabolite profiling of AG from Jilin Province (AGJ ) and Shandong Province (AGS ) was performed based on UPLC-QTOF-MS for the first time. In screening analysis, a total of 111 shared compounds, with ginsenosides being major components, were identified or tentatively characterized, which indicated that AGJ and AGS were all rich in phytochemicals and contained similar structural types. Untargeted metabolomics analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the contents of certain constituents in AGJ and AGS . Nineteen (12 for AGJ , 7 for AGS ) potential producing area-dependent chemical markers were discovered. Based on the contents and MS responses, ginsenoside Rg1 , Re, and pseudoginsenoside F11 could be considered as the characteristical markers of AGJ , whereas ginsenoside Rg3 and Rh2 of AGS . This comprehensive phytochemical profile study could provide valuable chemical evidence for evaluating the characteristics qualities of AG from various producing areas.

16.
Insect Sci ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939317

RESUMO

Male-specific wing spots are usually associated with wing displays in the courtship behavior of Drosophila and may play important roles in sexual selection. Two closely related species, D. nepalensis and D. trilutea, differ in wing spots and scissoring behavior. Here we compare male morphological characters, pigmentation intensity of male wing spots, wing-scissoring behavior, courtship songs and reproductive isolation between two species. F1 fertile females and sterile males result from the cross between females of D. nepalensis and males of D. trilutea. The pigmentation of wing spots is significantly weaker in D. trilutea than in D. nepalensis and the F1 hybrid. Males scissor both wings in front of the female during courtship, with a posture spreading wings more widely, and at a faster frequency in D. nepalensis than in D. trilutea and the F1s. Males of D. trilutea vibrate wings to produce two types (A and B) of pulse songs, whereas D. nepalensis and the F1s sing only type B songs. The incidence of wing vibration and scissoring during courtship suggests that wing vibration is essential but scissoring is a facultative courtship element for successful mating in both species. The association between the darker wing spots with more elaborate scissoring might be the consequence of correlated evolution of these traits in D. nepalensis, however D. trilutea retains wing scissoring during courtship despite having weaker pigmentation of wing spots. The genetic architecture of two traits differs in the F1s, consistent with maternal or sex-linked effects for spots but non-additive effects for scissoring. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942617

RESUMO

Objective Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-bound uremic toxin that is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, the factors affecting the levels of IS are currently unclear. This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing serum IS concentrations in HD patients. Methods We included 100 HD patients from Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital. Baseline characteristics, including sex, age, clinical features, duration of HD, echocardiography findings, electrocardiogram results, and biochemical indicators, were collected and analyzed in relation to serum total-form IS levels. Results Among all 100 patients, serum IS levels were significantly higher in patients aged ≥ 60 years, males, and patients with mitral regurgitation and inadequate dialysis. Among patients aged < 60 years, IS levels were significantly higher among patients with mitral regurgitation compared with those without. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis identified sex, age, ventricular septal thickness, and mitral regurgitation as factors independently associated with serum IS (STDß = -0.475, 0.162, -0.153, 0.142, and 0.136, respectively; all P < 0.05) adjusted for body mass index, smoking, and fasting plasma glucose. Conclusions Male sex, age ≥ 60 years, ventricular septal thickness, and mitral regurgitation are factors associated with high total serum IS concentrations in Chinese HD patients. Elevated IS levels may play a role in the process of mitral regurgitation in HD patients < 60 years old.

18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 140, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reaching optimal vaccination rates is an essential public health strategy to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to simulate the optimal vaccination strategy to control the disease by developing an age-specific model based on the current transmission patterns of COVID-19 in Wuhan City, China. METHODS: We collected two indicators of COVID-19, including illness onset data and age of confirmed case in Wuhan City, from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. The reported cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, ≤ 14 years old; group 2, 15 to 44 years old; group 3, 44 to 64 years old; and group 4, ≥ 65 years old. An age-specific susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed model was developed to estimate the transmissibility and simulate the optimal vaccination strategy. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was used to estimate the transmission interaction in different age groups. RESULTS: A total of 47 722 new cases were reported in Wuhan City from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. Before the travel ban of Wuhan City, the highest transmissibility was observed among age group 2 (Reff = 4.28), followed by group 2 to 3 (Reff = 2.61), and group 2 to 4 (Reff = 1.69). China should vaccinate at least 85% of the total population to interrupt transmission. The priority for controlling transmission should be to vaccinate 5% to 8% of individuals in age group 2 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% of age group 2), followed by 10% of age group 3 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% age group 3). However, the optimal vaccination strategy for reducing the disease severity identified individuals ≥ 65 years old as a priority group, followed by those 45-64 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 85% of the total population (nearly 1.2 billion people) should be vaccinated to build an immune barrier in China to safely consider removing border restrictions. Based on these results, we concluded that 90% of adults aged 15-64 years should first be vaccinated to prevent transmission in China.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Cidades , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Biomaterials ; 281: 121316, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959028

RESUMO

The presentation of development-relevant bioactive cues by biomaterial scaffolds is essential to the guided differentiation of seeded human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and subsequent tissue regeneration. Wnt5a is a critical non-canonical Wnt signaling ligand and plays a key role in the development of musculoskeletal tissues including cartilage. Herein we investigate the efficacy of biofunctionalizing the hyaluronic acid hydrogel with a synthetic Wnt5a mimetic ligand (Foxy5 peptide) to promote the chondrogenesis of hMSCs and the potential underlying molecular mechanism. Our findings show that the conjugation of Foxy5 peptide in the hydrogels activates non-canonical Wnt signaling of encapsulated hMSCs via the upregulation expression of PLCE1, CaMKII-ß, and downstream NFATc1, leading to enhanced expression of chondrogenic markers such as SOX9. The decoration of Foxy5 peptide also promotes the metabolic activities of encapsulated hMSCs as evidenced by upregulated gene expression of mitochondrial complex components and glucose metabolism biomarkers, leading to enhanced ATP biosynthesis. Furthermore, the conjugation of Foxy5 peptide activates the non-canonical Wnt, PI3K-PDK-AKT and IKK/NF-κB signaling pathways, thereby inhibiting the hypertrophy of the chondrogenically induced hMSCs in the hydrogels under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. This enhanced chondrogenesis and attenuated hypertrophy of hMSCs by the biomaterial-mediated bioactive cue presentation facilitates the potential clinical translation of hMSCs for cartilage regeneration. Our work provides valuable guidance to the rational design of bio-inductive scaffolds for various applications in regenerative medicine.

20.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 7: 102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917394

RESUMO

Large-pixel-array infrared emitters are attractive in the applications of infrared imaging and detection. However, the array scale has been restricted in traditional technologies. Here, we demonstrated a light-driven photothermal transduction approach for an ultralarge pixel array infrared emitter. A metal-black coating with nanoporous structures and a silicon (Si) layer with microgap structures were proposed to manage the thermal input and output issues. The effects of the nanoscale structures in the black coating and microscale structures in the Si layer were investigated. Remarkable thermal modulation could be obtained by adjusting the nanoscale and microscale structures. The measured stationary and transient results of the fabricated photothermal transducers agreed well with the simulated results. From the input view, due to its wide spectrum and high absorption, the black coating with nanoscale structures contributed to a 5.6-fold increase in the temperature difference compared to that without the black coating. From the output view, the microgap structures in the Si layer eliminated the in-plane thermal crosstalk. The temperature difference was increased by 340% by modulating the out-of-plane microstructures. The proposed photothermal transducer had a rising time of 0.95 ms and a falling time of 0.53 ms, ensuring a fast time response. This method is compatible with low-cost and mass manufacturing and has promising potential to achieve ultralarge-array pixels beyond ten million.

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