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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 127: 112234, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225875

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease which is highly prevalent worldwide. However, no therapy for blocking OA pathogenesis is available currently. In this study, chondroitin sulfate (CS) E oligosaccharides were prepared and we identified disaccharide as the functional unit showing the strongest anti-complement activity and screened out complement C5 as its target in the complement system. We determined that CS-E disaccharide produced anti-inflammatory effects to treat OA by regulating the complement system: it inhibited the formation of complement-dependent complexes such as the membrane-attack complex (MAC) by targeting C5 and suppressed MAC-induced protein expression and the activation of downstream MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways accordingly. By identifying CS-E disaccharide which could be regarded as a complement regulator or inhibitor exhibiting high anti-complement activity and revealing its OA-alleviating mechanism, this study not only provides a new strategy for OA treatment and drug development, but also potentially offers a promising C5 target therapy for other associated diseases.


Assuntos
Sulfatos de Condroitina , Osteoartrite , Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacologia , Complemento C5 , Inativadores do Complemento , Humanos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(7): 751-5, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Jin's three-needle combined with Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture on development level and activity of daily living in children with intellectual disability, and explore its mechanism. METHODS: A total of 60 children with intellectual disability were randomly divided into an observation group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off). In the control group, rehabilitation training and routine acupuncture were adopted, 30 min each time, once a day, 6 times a week for 3 months. On the base of the treatment as the control group, Jin's three-needle combined with Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture were adopted in the observation group. Jin's three-needle was applied at Sishenzhen, Zhisanzhen, Naosanzhen and Niesanzhen for 1 h, Shouzhizhen and Zuzhizhen for 30 min. Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture was applied at Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24), Shuigou (GV 26), etc. for 30 min, once a day, 6 times a week for 3 months. Before and after treatment,the scores of developmental quotient (DQ) and activity of daily living (ADL) were recorded, and the serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine [DA], norepinephrine [NE] and 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) were detected in the two groups. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the scores of DQ and ADL and the serum levels of DA, NE, 5-HT after treatment were increased (P<0.05), the serum levels of NSE were decreased (P<0.05) in the two groups. After treatment, the scores of DQ and ADL and the serum levels of DA, NE, 5-HT in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05), while the serum level of NSE was lower than the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: On the base of rehabilitation training and routine acupuncture, Jin's three-needle combined with Tongdu Tiaoshen acupuncture can significantly improve development level and activity of daily living in children with intellectual disability, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of serum levels of NSE and monoamine neurotransmitter.

3.
Small ; : e2100972, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254433

RESUMO

Quasi-2D perovskites are enchanting alternative materials for solar cells due to their intrinsic stability. The manipulation of crystal orientation of quasi-2D perovskites is indispensable to target efficient devices, however, the origin of orientation during the film fabrication process still lacks in-depth understanding and convincing evidence yet, which hinders further boosting the performance of photovoltaic devices. Herein, the crystallizing processes during spin-coating and annealing are probed by in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), and the incident-angle-dependent GIWAXS is conducted to unveil the phase distribution in the films. It is found that undesirable lead iodide sol-gel formed intermediate phase would disturb oriented crystalline growth, resulting in random crystal orientation in poor quasi-2D films. A general strategy is developed via simple additive agent incorporation to suppress the formation of the intermediate phase. Accordingly, highly oriented perovskite films with reduced trap density and higher carrier mobility are obtained, which enables the demonstration of optimized quasi-2D perovskite solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 15.2% as well as improved stability. This work paves a promising way to manipulate the quasi-2D perovskites nucleation and crystallization processes via tuning nucleation stage.

4.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288342

RESUMO

Pyricularia oryzae is a multi-host pathogen causing cereal disease, including the devastating rice blast. Panicle blast is a serious stage, leading to severe yield loss. Thirty-one isolates (average 4.1%) were collected from the rice panicle lesions at nine locations covering Jiangsu province from 2010 to 2017. These isolates were characterized as Pyricularia sp. jiangsuensis distinct from known Pyricularia species. The representative strain 18-2 can infect rice panicle, root and five kinds of grasses. Intriguingly, strain 18-2 can co-infect rice leaf with P. oryzae Guy11. The whole genome of P. sp. jiangsuensis 18-2 was sequenced. Nine effectors were distributed in translocation or inversion region, which may link to the rapid evolution of effectors. Twenty-one homologs of known blast-effectors were identified in strain 18-2, seven effectors including the homologs of SLP1, BAS2, BAS113, CDIP2/3, MoHEG16 and Avr-Pi54, were up-regulated in the sample of inoculated panicle with strain 18-2 at 24 hpi compared with inoculation at 8 hpi. Our results provide evidences that P. sp. jiangsuensis represents an addition to the mycobiota of blast disease. This study advances our understanding of the pathogenicity of P. sp. jiangsuensis to hosts, which sheds new light on the adaptability in the co-evolution of pathogen and host. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272757

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This work was aimed at designing a deep-learning-based approach for MR image phase unwrapping to improve the robustness and efficiency of traditional methods. METHODS: A deep learning network called PHU-NET was designed for MR phase unwrapping. In this network, a novel training data generation method was proposed to simulate the wrapping patterns in MR phase images. The wrapping boundary and wrapping counts were explicitly estimated and used for network training. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated and compared to other methods using a number of simulated datasets with varying signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and MR phase images from various parts of the human body. RESULTS: The results showed that our method performed better in the simulated data even under an extremely low SNR. The proposed method had less residual wrapping in the images from various parts of human body and worked well in the presence of severe anatomical discontinuity. Our method was also advantageous in terms of computational efficiency compared to the traditional methods. CONCLUSION: This work proposed a robust and computationally efficient MR phase unwrapping method based on a deep learning network, which has promising performance in applications using MR phase information.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206281

RESUMO

A rapid and nondestructive method is greatly important for the classification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) concentration of single maize kernel to satisfy the ever-growing needs of consumers for food safety. A novel method for classification of AFB1 concentration of single maize kernel was developed on the basis of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (1100-2000 nm). Four groups of AFB1 samples with different concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 100 ppb) and one group of control samples were prepared, which were preprocessed with Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing and first derivative (FD) algorithms for their raw NIR spectra. A key wavelength selection method, combining the variance and order of average spectral intensity, was proposed on the basis of pretreated spectra. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to reduce the dimensionality of hyperspectral data. Finally, a classification model for AFB1 concentrations was developed through linear discriminant analysis (LDA), combined with five key wavelengths and the first three PCs. The results show that the proposed method achieved an ideal performance for classifying AFB1 concentrations in a single maize kernel with overall accuracy, with an F1-score and Kappa values of 95.56%, 0.9554, and 0.9444, respectively, as well as the test accuracy yield of 88.67% for independent validation samples. The combinations of variance and order of average spectral intensity can be used for key wavelength selection which, combined with PCA, can achieve an ideal dimensionality reduction effect for model development. The findings of this study have positive significance for the classification of AFB1 concentration of maize kernels.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Zea mays , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Análise Discriminante , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
7.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252025

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance (MR) image reconstruction from undersampled k-space data can be formulated as a minimization problem involving data consistency and image prior. Existing deep learning (DL)-based methods for MR reconstruction employ deep networks to exploit the prior information and integrate the prior knowledge into the reconstruction under the explicit constraint of data consistency, without considering the real distribution of the noise. In this work, we propose a new DL-based approach termed Learned DC that implicitly learns the data consistency with deep networks, corresponding to the actual probability distribution of system noise. The data consistency term and the prior knowledge are both embedded in the weights of the networks, which provides an utterly implicit manner of learning reconstruction model. We evaluated the proposed approach with highly undersampled dynamic data, including the dynamic cardiac cine data with up to 24-fold acceleration and dynamic rectum data with the acceleration factor equal to the number of phases. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the Learned DC both quantitatively and qualitatively than the state-of-the-art.

8.
Med Phys ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinically, single radiotracer positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a commonly used examination method; however, since each radioactive tracer reflects the information of only one kind of cell, it easily causes false negatives or false positives in disease diagnosis. Therefore, reasonably combining two or more radiotracers is recommended to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and the sensitivity and specificity of the disease when conditions permit. METHODS: This paper proposes incorporating 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a higher-quality PET image to guide the reconstruction of other lower-count 11 C-methionine (MET) PET datasets to compensate for the lower image quality by using a popular kernel algorithm. Specifically, the FDG prior is needed to extract kernel features, and these features were used to build a kernel matrix using a k-nearest-neighbor (kNN) search for MET image reconstruction. We created a 2-D brain phantom to validate the proposed method by simulating sinogram data containing Poisson random noise and quantitatively compared the performance of the proposed FDG-guided kernelized expectation maximization (KEM) method with the performance of Gaussian and non-local means (NLM) smoothed maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), MR-guided KEM and multi-guided-S KEM algorithms. Mismatch experiments between FDG/MR and MET data were also carried out to investigate the outcomes of possible clinical situations. RESULTS: In the simulation study, the proposed method outperformed the other algorithms by at least 3.11% in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and 0.68% in the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC), and it reduced the mean absolute error (MAE) by 8.07%. Regarding the tumor in the reconstructed image, the proposed method contained more pathological information. Furthermore, the proposed method was still superior to the MR-guided KEM method in the mismatch experiments. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed FDG-guided KEM algorithm can effectively utilize and compensate for the tissue metabolism information obtained from dual-tracer PET to maximize the advantages of PET imaging.

9.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252024

RESUMO

Deep learning methods have achieved attractive performance in dynamic MR cine imaging. However, most of these methods are driven only by the sparse prior of MR images, while the important low-rank (LR) prior of dynamic MR cine images is not explored, which may limit further improvements in dynamic MR reconstruction. In this paper, a learned singular value thresholding (Learned-SVT) operator is proposed to explore low-rank priors in dynamic MR imaging to obtain improved reconstruction results. In particular, we put forward a model-based unrolling sparse and low-rank network for dynamic MR imaging, dubbed as SLR-Net. SLR-Net is defined over a deep network flow graph, which is unrolled from the iterative procedures in the iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (ISTA) for optimizing a sparse and LR-based dynamic MRI model. Experimental results on a single-coil scenario show that the proposed SLR-Net can further improve the state-of-the-art compressed sensing (CS) methods and sparsity-driven deep learning-based methods with strong robustness to different undersampling patterns, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Besides, SLR-Net has been extended to a multi-coil scenario, and achieved excellent reconstruction results compared with a sparsity-driven multi-coil deep learning-based method under a high acceleration. Prospective reconstruction results on an open real-time dataset further demonstrate the capability and flexibility of the proposed method on real-time scenarios.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242859

RESUMO

Fenoldopam is an approved drug used to treat hypotension. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an LC-MS method to quantify fenoldopam and its major metabolites fenoldopam-glucuronide and fenoldopam-sulfate in plasma and apply the method to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. A Waters C18 column was used with 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phases to elute the analytes. A positive-negative switching method was performed in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode. A one-step protein precipitation using methanol and ethyl acetate was successfully applied for plasma sample preparation. The method was validated following the FDA guidance. The results show that the LLOQ of fenoldopam, fenoldopam-glucuronide and fenoldopam-sulfate is 0.98, 9.75 and 0.98 nM, respectively. The intraday and interday variance is less than 8.4% and the accuracy is between 82.5 and 116.0 %. The extraction recovery for these three analytes ranged from 81.3 ± 4.1% to 113.9 ± 13.2%. There was no significant matrix effect and no significant degradation under the experimental conditions. PK studies showed that fenoldopam was rapidly eliminated (t1/2 = 0.63 ± 0.24 h) from the plasma and glucuronide is the major metabolite. This method was suitably selective and sensitive for pharmacokinetic and phase II metabolism studies.

11.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077922

RESUMO

To reduce overall patient radiation exposure in some clinical scenarios (since cancer patients need frequent follow-ups), noncontrast CT is not used in some institutions. However, although less desirable, noncontrast CT could provide additional important information. In this article, we propose a deep subtraction residual network based on adjacency content transfer to reconstruct noncontrast CT from contrast CT and maintain image quality comparable to that of a CT scan originally acquired without contrast. To address the slight structural dissimilarity of the paired CT images (noncontrast CT and contrast CT) due to involuntary physiological motion, we introduce a contrastive loss network derived from the adjacency content-transfer strategy. We evaluate the results of various similarity metrics (MSE, SSIM, NRMSE, PSNR, MAE) and the fitting curve (HU distribution) of the output mapping to estimate the reconstruction performance of the algorithm. To build the model, we randomly select a total of 15,405 CT paired images (noncontrast CT and contrast-enhanced CT) for training and 10,270 CT paired images for testing. The proposed algorithm preserves the robust structures from the contrast-enhanced CT scans and learns the noncontrast attenuation pattern from the noncontrast CT scans. During the evaluation, the deep subtraction residual network achieves higher MSE, MAE, NRMSE, and PSNR scores (by 30%) than those of the baseline models (BEGAN, CycleGAN, Pixel2Pixel) and better simulates the HU curve of noncontrast CT attenuation. After validation based on an analysis of the experimental results, we can report that the noncontrast CT images reconstructed by our proposed algorithm not only preserve the high-quality structures from the contrast-enhanced CT images, but also mimic the CT attenuation of the originally acquired noncontrast CT images.

12.
Opt Lett ; 46(11): 2791-2794, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061115

RESUMO

In this work, a novel, to the best of our knowledge, approach based on an x-ray thin lens imaging theory is proposed to predict the angular sensitivity responses of dual-phase-grating differential phase contrast (DPC) interferometers. Experimental validations have been performed to demonstrate the high accuracy of theoretical predictions using two different setups: one with real source images and the other with virtual source images. This new sensitivity calculation method is helpful to optimize the DPC imaging performance of a dual-phase-grating system.

13.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098534

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can be used for early detection, diagnosis and postoperative patient monitoring of many diseases. Traditional PET imaging requires not only additional computed tomography (CT) imaging or magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to provide anatomical information but also attenuation correction (AC) map calculation based on CT images or MR images for accurate quantitative estimation. During a patient's treatment, PET/CT or PET/MR scans are inevitably repeated many times, leading to additional doses of ionizing radiation (CT scans) and additional economic and time costs (MR scans). To reduce adverse effects while obtaining high-quality PET/MR images in the course of a patient's treatment, especially in the stage of evaluating the effect of postoperative treatment, in this work, we propose a new method based on deep learning, which can directly obtain synthetic attenuation-corrected PET (sAC PET) and synthetic T1-weighted MR (sMR) images based only on non-attenuation-corrected PET (NAC PET) images. Our model, based on the Wasserstein generative adversarial network, first removes noise and artifacts from the NAC PET images to generate sAC PET images and then generates sMR images from the obtained sAC PET images. To evaluate the performance of this generative model, we evaluated it on paired PET/MR images from a total of eighty clinical patients. Based on qualitative and quantitative analysis, the generated sAC PET and sMR images showed a high degree of similarity to the real AC PET and real MR images. These results indicated that our proposed method can reduce the frequency of additional anatomical imaging scans during PET imaging and has great potential in improving doctors' clinical diagnosis efficiency, saving patients' economic expenditure and reducing the radiation risk brought by CT scanning.

14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 222: 113608, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119833

RESUMO

The catalytic properties of small-molecule proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) may lead to uncontrolled degradation. Therefore, the main disadvantages of PROTACs are non-cancer specificity and relatively high toxicity, which limit the clinical application of PROTACs. The photocontrolled PROTACs (photoPROTACs) were proposed to overcome this issue, in which they can be triggered by ultraviolet A (UVA) or visible light to induce the degradation of the target protein. Herein, we designed several photoPROTACs to cause the degradation of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) on-demand using 365 nm light. The representative compound N2 is proved to induce the degradation of BRD4 upon irradiation. Moreover, compound N2 was successfully applied in vivo to inhibit tumor growth in a zebrafish xenograft model of skin cancer tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) in a photocontrol manner.

15.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185370

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the in vivo dissolution of tricalcium silicate (Ca3 SiO5 , C3 S) bone cement in the rabbit femoral defect. Results indicated that C3 S paste directly integrated with the bone tissue without the protection of the bone-like apatite. Calcium silicate hydrate gel (C-S-H gel) and Ca(OH)2 were the main components of C3 S paste. The dissolution model of C3 S paste was a mass loss rather than a decrease in volume. The initial dissolution of C3 S paste (0 ~ 6 weeks) was greatly attributed to the release of Ca(OH)2 , and the later dissolution (>6 weeks) was attributed to the decalcification of C-S-H gel. Although the mass of C3 S paste could decrease by more than 19 wt % after 6 weeks of implantation, the created pores (<1 µm) were not large enough for the bone tissue to migrate into C3 S paste. The loss of Ca ions also resulted in the transformation of SiO4 tetrahedrons from Q1 and Q2 to Q0 , Q3 , and Q4 in C-S-H gel. Because only isolated SiO4 tetrahedrons (Q0 ) and Ca ions could be absorbed by the bone tissue, C3 S paste gradually transformed into a silica-rich gel. The fundamental reason for no decrease in volume of C3 S paste was that the SiO4 tetrahedron network still maintained the frame structure of C3 S paste during the implantation.

16.
Phys Med Biol ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192685

RESUMO

We investigate the reconstruction of low-count positron emission tomography (PET) projection, which is an important, but challenging, task. Using the texture feature extraction method of radiomics, i.e., the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), texture features can be extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images with high spatial resolution. In this work, we propose a kernel reconstruction method combining autocorrelation texture features derived from the GLCM. The new kernel function includes the correlations of both the intensity and texture features from the prior image. By regarding the GLCM as a discrete approximation of a probability density function, the asymptotically gray-level-invariant autocorrelation texture feature is generated, which can maintain the accuracy of texture features extracted from small image regions by reducing the number of quantized image gray levels. A computer simulation shows that the proposed method can effectively reduce the noise in the reconstructed image compared to the maximum likelihood expectation maximum (MLEM) method and improve the image quality and tumor region accuracy compared to the original kernel method for low-count PET reconstruction. A simulation study on clinical patient images also shows that the proposed method can improve the whole image quality and that the reconstruction of a high-uptake lesion is more accurate than that achieved by the original kernel method.

17.
Phytother Res ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979464

RESUMO

Xiyanping (XYP) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in the clinic to treat respiratory infection and pneumonia. Recent evidence identified XYP as a potential inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, implying XYP as a possible treatment for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter, open-label and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of XYP injection in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. We consecutively recruited 130 COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptoms from five study sites, and randomized them in 1:1 ratio to receive XYP injection in combination with standard therapy or receive standard supportive therapy alone. We found that XYP injection significantly reduced the time to cough relief, fever resolution and virus clearance. Less patients receiving XYP injection experienced disease progression to the severe stage during the treatment process. No severe adverse events were reported during the study. Taken together, XYP injection is safe and effective in improving the recovery of patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate the efficacy of XYP in an expanded cohort comprising COVID-19 patients at different disease stages.

18.
Phytother Res ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224977

RESUMO

Xiyanping (XYP) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in the clinic to treat respiratory infection and pneumonia. Recent evidence identified XYP as a potential inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, implying XYP as a possible treatment for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter, open-label and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of XYP injection in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. We consecutively recruited 130 COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptoms from five study sites, and randomized them in 1:1 ratio to receive XYP injection in combination with standard therapy or receive standard supportive therapy alone. We found that XYP injection significantly reduced the time to cough relief, fever resolution and virus clearance. Less patients receiving XYP injection experienced disease progression to the severe stage during the treatment process. No severe adverse events were reported during the study. Taken together, XYP injection is safe and effective in improving the recovery of patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate the efficacy of XYP in an expanded cohort comprising COVID-19 patients at different disease stages.

19.
New Phytol ; 231(3): 1183-1194, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982802

RESUMO

Latitudinal gradients provide opportunities to better understand soil fungal community assembly and its relationship with vegetation, climate, soil and ecosystem function. Understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is essential for predicting compositional responses to changing environments. We quantified the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in structuring soil fungal communities using patterns of community dissimilarity observed within and between 12 natural forests and related these to environmental variation within and among sites. The results revealed that whole fungal communities and communities of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi consistently exhibited divergent patterns but with less divergence for ectomycorrhizal fungi at most sites. Within those forests, no clear relationships were observed between the degree of divergence within fungal and plant communities. When comparing communities at larger spatial scales, among the 12 forests, we observed distinct separation in all three fungal groups among tropical, subtropical and temperate climatic zones. Soil fungal ß-diversity patterns between forests were also greater when comparing forests exhibiting high environmental heterogeneity. Taken together, although large-scale community turnover could be attributed to specific environmental drivers, the differences among fungal communities in soils within forests was high even at local scales.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Micobioma , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Fungos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores
20.
Transl Oncol ; 14(8): 101045, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023560

RESUMO

Previous study has confirmed that hsa_circ_0092276 is highly expressed in doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant breast cancer cells, indicating that hsa_circ_0092276 may be involved in regulating the chemotherapy resistance of breast cancer. Here we attempted to investigate the biological role of hsa_circ_0092276 in breast cancer. We first constructed DOX-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/DOX and MDA-MB-468/DOX). The 50% inhibiting concentration of MCF-7/DOX and MDA-MB-468/DOX cells was significantly higher than that of their parental breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-46. MCF-7/DOX and MDA-MB-468/DOX cells also exhibited an up-regulation of drug resistance-related protein MDR1. Compared with MCF-7 and MDA-MB-46 cells, hsa_circ_0092276 was highly expressed in MCF-7/DOX and MDA-MB-468/DOX cells. Hsa_circ_0092276 overexpression enhanced proliferation and the expression of LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin-1, and repressed apoptosis of breast cancer cells. The effect of hsa_circ_0092276 up-regulation on breast cancer cells was abolished by 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor). Hsa_circ_0092276 modulated autophagy-related gene 7 (ATG7) expression via sponging miR-384. Hsa_circ_0092276 up-regulation promoted autophagy and proliferation, and repressed apoptosis of breast cancer cells, which was abolished by miR-384 overexpression or ATG7 knockdown. In addition, LV-circ_0092276 transfected MCF-7 cell transplantation promoted autophagy and tumor growth of breast cancer in mice. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that hsa_circ_0092276 promotes autophagy and DOX resistance in breast cancer by regulating miR-348/ATG7 axis. Thus, this article highlights a novel competing endogenous RNA circuitry involved in DOX resistance in breast cancer.

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