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1.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 109, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian follicles, which are the basic units of female reproduction, are composed of oocytes and surrounding somatic (pre) granulosa cells (GCs). A recent study revealed that signaling in somatic preGCs controlled the activation (initial recruitment) of follicles in the adult ovaries, but it is also known that there are two waves of follicle with age-related heterogeneity in their developmental dynamics in mammals. Although this heterogeneity was proposed to be crucial for female reproduction, our understanding of how it arises and its significance is still elusive. RESULTS: In the current study, by deleting the key secreted factor KIT ligand from preGCs and analyzing the follicle cell developmental dynamics, we revealed distinct patterns of activation and growth associated with the two waves of follicles in mouse ovary. Our results confirmed that activation of adult wave follicles is initiated by somatic preGCs and dependent on the KIT ligand. By contrast, activation of first wave follicles, which are awakened from germ cells before follicle formation, can occur in the absence of preGC-secreted KIT ligand in postnatal ovaries and appears to be oocyte-initiated. We also found that the asynchronous activity of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases (PI3K) signaling and meiotic process in embryonic germ cells lead to the follicle heterogeneity in postnatal ovaries. In addition, we supplied evidence that the time sequence of embryonic germ cell development and its related first wave follicle growth are correlated to the time of puberty onset in females. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study provides evidence that asynchronous development of embryonic oocytes leads to the heterogeneity of postnatal ovarian follicle activation and development, and affects the timing of onset of puberty in females.

2.
Int Orthop ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the most commonly used surgical technique for talar neck fracture, but there are high risks for complications and poor functional outcomes. In this study, we reported the closed reduction and percutaneous internal fixation (CRPIF) technique of the bilateral approach of the Achilles tendon for simple displaced talar neck fracture, in comparison with ORIF. METHODS: Data of 15 patients in the CRPIF group and 22 in the ORIF group were included. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12) score, range of motion (ROM), complications, and radiographic results were recorded and compared. RESULTS: The mean follow-up in the CRPIF group was 33.9 months. Complications included two cases of avascular necrosis (AVN) and two cases of osteoarthritis. All patients achieved bony union and recovered their pre-operative mobility. The mean follow-up in the ORIF group was 39 months. Complications included two cases of bony nonunion, nine AVN, and seven cases of osteoarthritis. Moreover, the mobility of the ORIF group was significantly lower than the CRPIF group post-operatively. The AOFAS score, VAS score, and SF-12 physical component score (PCS) for the CRPIF group were better improved than those for the ORIF group (ALL, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The CRPIF technique of the bilateral approach of the Achilles tendon was an effective method for the treatment of simple displaced talar neck fractures. Compared with the ORIF, the limited blood supply of the talus was protected, provide better functional outcomes and biomechanical fixation, and lower incidence of resurgery and complication in the CRPIF.

3.
ChemSusChem ; 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567361

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of Co-doped Mn 3 O 4 nanocubes via galvanic replacement reactions for photo-reduction of CO 2 . Co@Mn 3 O 4 nanocubes can efficiently photo-reduce CO 2 to CO with a remarkable turnover number of 581.8 using [Ru(bpy) 3 ]Cl 2 ·6H 2 O as photosensitizer and triethanolamine as sacrificial agent in acetonitrile and water. The galvanic replaced Co species are homogeneously distributed at the outer surface of Mn 3 O 4 providing the utmost catalytic active sites during CO 2 reduction reactions, which facilitate the separation and migration of photogenerated charge carriers, further benefit the outstanding photocatalytic performance of CO 2 reduction. Density function theory calculation results reveal that the decreasing of conduction band maximum in Co@Mn 3 O 4 is beneficial to the electron attachment from the excited sensitized molecule, which promotes photocatalytic reduction of CO 2 .

4.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022: 7395506, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531123

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the geographic distribution of HCV genotypes, effectiveness, and safety of DAA treatment for HCV-infected patients in North and Northeast China. Methods: The geographic distribution of HCV genotypes was analyzed in 2162 patients recruited from April 2018 to February 2021. Sustained virologic response rates at 12 (SVR12) or 24 (SVR24) weeks posttreatment and safety were analyzed in 405 patients who completed DAA treatment according to patient baseline characteristics and treatment. Results: Four genotypes and six subtypes were identified as follows: 1b (1187, 54.90%), 2a (790, 36.54%), 3a/b (134, 6.20%), 6a/n (44, 2.04%), mixed genotypes (2a-6a or 2a-3a) (7, 0.32%). Overall, 99.01% patients achieved SVR12, while 98.43% achieved SVR24. All patients treated with elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR), sofosbuvir/velpatasvir ± ribavirin (SOF/VEL ± RBV), and SOF/ledipasvir (LDV) achieved SVR12 or SVR24; 92.86% SVR12 and 95.83% SVR24 were observed in patients using SOF + RBV. SVR12 was higher in noncirrhosis versus compensated cirrhosis patients (100% vs. 97.09%, p=0.022). No severe drug-related adverse event was observed. Conclusions: Genotypes 1b and 2a were dominant subtypes in North and Northeast China. The approved drug regimens EBR/GZR and SOF/LDV for subtype 1b and SOF/VEL for nongenotype 1b are the optimal effective and safety profile.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite C Crônica , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 236: 114331, 2022 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421659

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the primary cause of organic nitrate drug tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. In order to scavenge the ROS and maintain the therapeutic effect of nitrates, we designed and synthesized ten new types of dual-acting nitrate molecules by combining NIT-type nitroxides and 5-ISMN. These included two types of novel epimeric nitroxide-nitrate conjugates (15(S) and 15(R)), which had pharmacophore connections. We also synthesized 8 NIT radicals without 5-ISMN in order to compare the activities of these novel nitric oxide donors. Several dual-acting nitroxide-based nitrate conjugates showed the ability to release NO and cause anti-oxidant effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Among these conjugates, 15(S) showed the most prominent pro-vasodilative effect. In angiotensin II infusion-induced hypertensive mice, 15(S) treatment for 4 weeks decreased both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and ameliorated the vascular endothelial and smooth muscle functions of isolated thoracic aortas. In addition, the vascular structure of the mice was restored and their vascular oxidative stress was decreased. The results suggest that these novel nitric oxide donors can be used as potential drugs in the treatment of vascular diseases. Therefore, the strategy of using a combination of antioxidants and NO-donors can be a promising way to develop novel organic nitrate drugs for future use in combating disease.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 433: 128808, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381514

RESUMO

The use of aerogels to selectively recover oil from oily wastewater is effective but challenging. In this study, a new carboxylated carbon nanotube/chitosan aerogel (CCNT/CA) with switchable wettability was developed as a smart adsorbent for fast oil absorption and oil recovery. Vinyltrimethoxysilane and thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted onto the surface of the CCNT/CA skeleton, and the resulting smart aerogel (PNI-Si@CCNT/CA) exhibited temperature responsiveness. PNI-Si@CCNT/CA exhibited an excellent reversible conversion between hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity when the temperature was changed to below or above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAAm (~32 °C). Most importantly, CCNT significantly increased the oil absorption capacity, improved the mechanical properties, accelerated phonon conduction, enhanced thermal conductivity (80.57 mW m-1 K-1), improved the temperature response rate, shortened the oil desorption time (15 min), and improved the oil/water separation efficiency of PNI-Si@CCNT/CA because a strong interface interaction occurred between CCNT and chitosan. Moreover, PNI-Si@CCNT/CA absorbed oil at 45 °C and released the absorbed oil at 25 °C. It maintained its good adsorption performance after 15 cycles, and this was ascribed to its excellent mechanical properties and stable structure.

7.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(6): 341, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434001

RESUMO

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the most common precancerous lesion of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Studies have confirmed that pathological changes in intestinal lymphatic vessels (LVs) significantly promoted the development of IBD-associated carcinogenesis. An imbalance in the microecology of the intestinal flora is a key factor in the progression of IBD. As a result, therapeutic techniques that focus on the relationship between LV regeneration and flora management might be a potential treatment strategy. Methods: We investigated the role of Clostridium butyricum (C butyricum) in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD mouse model. Balb/c mice were given 3% DSS in their drinking water for 8 days to produce acute colitis and simultaneously administrated with C butyricum for 12 days. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to evaluate the degree of colitis tissue damage. Levels of the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-specific marker LYVE-1 and intestinal expressions of pro-lymphatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D were determined using immunohistochemical assays. Results: In a DSS-induced IBD mouse model, we found that butyric acid-producing C butyricum significantly reduced disease activity index (DAI) scores in mice, reversed the shortening of the colon, weakened the degree of damage to colonic epithelial tissues, inhibited lymphocyte infiltration, and reduced pathological damage to the colon. To our knowledge, this is the first time that tissue expressions of LYVE-1, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D have been seen to increase in IBD-model mice after treatment with C butyricum. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that C butyricum might alleviate IBD in DSS-induced IBD-model mice by promoting intestinal LV regeneration.

8.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427231

RESUMO

Constrained multiobjective optimization problems (CMOPs) involve multiple objectives to be optimized and various constraints to be satisfied, which challenges the evolutionary algorithms in balancing the objectives and constraints. This article attempts to explore and utilize the relationship between constrained Pareto front (CPF) and unconstrained Pareto front (UPF) to solve CMOPs. Especially, for a given CMOP, the evolutionary process is divided into the learning stage and the evolving stage. The purpose of the learning stage is to measure the relationship between CPF and UPF. To this end, we first create two populations and evolve them by specific learning strategies to approach the CPF and UPF, respectively. Then, the feasibility information and dominance relationship of the two populations are used to determine the relationship. Based on the learned relationship, specific evolving strategies are designed in the evolving stage to improve the utilization efficiency of objective information, so as to better solve this CMOP. By the above process, a new constrained multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (CMOEA) is presented. Comprehensive experimental results on 65 benchmark functions and ten real-world CMOPs show that the proposed method has a better or very competitive performance in comparison with several state-of-the-art CMOEAs. Moreover, this article demonstrates that using the relationship between CPF and UPF to guide the utilization of objective information is promising in solving CMOPs.

9.
Cell Death Discov ; 8(1): 178, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396503

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a fatal heart disease that affects millions of lives worldwide each year. This study investigated the roles of HIF-1α/lncRNA-TUG1 in mitochondrial dysfunction and pyroptosis in MI. CCK-8, DHE, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, and JC-1 staining were performed to measure proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), LDH leakage, and mitochondrial damage in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-treated cardiomyocytes. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and flow cytometry were used to detect LDH, creatine kinase (CK), and its isoenzyme (CK-MB) levels and caspase-1 activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), luciferase assay, and RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP) were used to assess the interaction between HIF-1α, TUG1, and FUS. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to measure HIF-1α, TUG1 and pyroptosis-related molecules. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE), 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP risk end labelling (TUNEL) staining were employed to examine the morphology, infarction area, and myocardial injury in the MI mouse model. Mitochondrial dysfunction and pyroptosis were induced in H/R-treated cardiomyocytes, accompanied by an increase in the expression of HIF-α and TUG1. HIF-1α promoted TUG1 expression by directly binding to the TUG1 promoter. TUG1 silencing inhibited H/R-induced ROS production, mitochondrial injury and the expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD. Additionally, H/R elevated FUS levels in cardiomyocytes, which were directly inhibited by TUG1 silencing. Fused in sarcoma (FUS) overexpression reversed the effect of TUG1 silencing on mitochondrial damage and caspase-1 activation. However, the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) promoted the protective effect of TUG1 knockdown on H/R-induced cardiomyocyte damage. The in vivo MI model showed increased infarction, myocardial injury, ROS levels and pyroptosis, which were inhibited by TUG1 silencing. HIF-1α targeting upregulated TUG1 promotes mitochondrial damage and cardiomyocyte pyroptosis by combining with FUS, thereby promoting the occurrence of MI. HIF-1α/TUG1/FUS may serve as a potential treatment target for MI.

10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5899, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393483

RESUMO

Social isolation induces stress, anxiety, and mild cognitive impairment that could progress towards irreversible brain damage. A probable player in the mechanism of social isolation-induced anxiety is astrocytes, specialized glial cells that support proper brain function. Using a social isolation mouse model, we observed worsened cognitive and memory abilities with reductions of Object Recognition Index (ORI) in novel object recognition test and Recognition Index (RI) in novel context recognition test. Social isolation also increased astrocyte density, reduced astrocyte size with shorter branches, and reduced morphological complexity in the hippocampus. Dihydromyricetin, a flavonoid that we previously demonstrated to have anxiolytic properties, improved memory/cognition and restored astrocyte plasticity in these mice. Our study indicates astrocytic involvement in social isolation-induced cognitive impairment as well as anxiety and suggest dihydromyricetin as an early-stage intervention against anxiety, cognitive impairment, and potential permanent brain damage.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Flavonóis/uso terapêutico , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Isolamento Social/psicologia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265216, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385487

RESUMO

A structural vector autoregressive model and spillover index analysis based on generalized prediction error variance decomposition were used to explore the impact of public health emergencies on the dry bulk shipping market and provide suggestions for addressing the impact of public health emergencies. Moreover, the risk fluctuation and spillover of the dry bulk shipping market during public health emergencies were analyzed to understand the ways in which public health emergencies impact the dry bulk shipping market and to quantify the impact intensity. In related studies, the influence of the international crude oil price index and dry bulk ship port berthing volume were also considered. The results show that considering the immediate impact, the increase of newly confirmed cases of COVID-19 has a significant impact on the dry bulk shipping market, which lasts for more than 3 weeks and is always a negative shock. Different types of public health emergencies have different effects on the dry bulk shipping segmented shipping market. Dry bulk shipping companies should fully understand the development of public health emergencies, make full use of risk aversion forecasting tools in financial markets and make deployments for different situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Navios , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emergências , Previsões , Humanos , Saúde Pública
12.
Curr Protoc ; 2(4): e406, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384403

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of complex drug formulations, including liposomes, suspensions, and emulsions, are important for understanding drug release mechanisms, quality control, and regulatory assessment. It is ideal to characterize these complex drug formulations in their native hydrated state. This article describes the characterization of complex drug formulations in a frozen-hydrated state using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). In comparison to other techniques, such as optical microscopy or room-temperature scanning electron microscopy, cryo-SEM combines the advantage of studying hydrated samples with high-resolution imaging capability. Detailed information regarding cryo-fixation, cryo-fracture, freeze-etching, sputter-coating, and cryo-SEM imaging is included in this article. A multivesicular liposomal complex drug formulation is used to illustrate the impact of different cryogenic sample preparation conditions. In addition to drug formulations, this approach can also be applied to biological samples (e.g., cells, bacteria) and soft-matter samples (e.g., hydrogels). © Published 2022. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Basic Protocol 1: Cryo-fixation to preserve the native structure of samples using planchettes Alternate Protocol: Cryo-fixation to preserve the native structure of biological samples on sapphire disks Basic Protocol 2: Sample preparation for cross-sectional cryo-SEM imaging Basic Protocol 3: Cryo-SEM imaging and microanalysis.


Assuntos
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Estudos Transversais , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos , Congelamento
13.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389600

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative effects of isoalantolactone against liver cancer cells (Hep-G2) and also monitor its mechanism of action. The MTT assay was involved in proliferation assessments and phase contrast microscopy was used to check cellular morphology. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining along with western blotting was used to evaluate proapoptotic effects of isoalantolactone. DCFH-DA staining was used in ROS measurements. Transwell migration and invasion assay were executed to check the effects of isoalantolactone on migration and invasion of Hep-G2 cells. Western blotting was used to check the expressions of Ras/Raf/MEK signalling pathway in Hep-G2 cells. Results demonstrated that isoalantolactone significantly (*p<0.05 and **p<0.01) inhibited the proliferation of Hep-G2 cells in a concentration and time-reliant fashion. The IC50 value of the tested isoalantolactone molecule was found to be 71.2 µM and 53.4 µM at 12 h and 24 h time intervals respectively. Moreover, the antiproliferative effects of isoalantolactone were mediated through induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis and oxidative stress (ROS mediated). The proapoptotic effects of isoalantolactone were evident from morphological assessments and improved expressions of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and Bax while antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was reduced significantly. Additionally, antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of isoalantolactone were found to be a consequence of blocking of Ras/Raf/MEK signalling in Hep-G2 cells. Furthermore, isoalantolactone significantly (*p<0.05) targeted the migration and invasion of Hep-G2 cells. In conclusion, these results validated that isoalantolactone shows strong antiproliferative activity against Hep-G2 liver cancer cells. Therefore, it could prove as a leading candidate in liver cancer research, drug discovery and design.

14.
Hepatol Int ; 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on safety and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with compensated (C-cirrhosis) and decompensated cirrhosis (D-cirrhosis) are limited. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter study, adult participants with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis were enrolled and received two doses of inactivated whole-virion COVID-19 vaccines. Adverse events were recorded within 14 days after any dose of vaccination, and serum samples of enrolled patients were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies at least 14 days after the second dose. Risk factors for negative neutralizing antibody were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 553 patients were enrolled from 15 centers in China, including 388 and 165 patients with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis. The vaccines were well tolerated, most adverse reactions were mild and transient, and injection site pain (23/388 [5.9%] vs 9/165 [5.5%]) and fatigue (5/388 [1.3%] vs 3/165 [1.8%]) were the most frequently local and systemic adverse events in both the C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Overall, 4.4% (16/363) and 0.3% (1/363) of patients were reported Grades 2 and 3 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations (defined as ALT > 2 upper limit of normal [ULN] but ≤ 5 ULN, and ALT > 5 ULN, respectively). The positive rates of COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies were 71.6% (278/388) and 66.1% (109/165) in C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Notably, Child-Pugh score of B and C levels was an independent risk factor of negative neutralizing antibody. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations are safe with acceptable immunogenicity in cirrhotic patients, and Child-Pugh score of B and C levels is associated with hyporesponsive to COVID-19 vaccination.

15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1762, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365665

RESUMO

Outbreaks of zoonotic diseases are accelerating at an unprecedented rate in the current era of globalization, with substantial impacts on the global economy, public health, and sustainability. Alien species invasions have been hypothesized to be important to zoonotic diseases by introducing both existing and novel pathogens to invaded ranges. However, few studies have evaluated the generality of alien species facilitating zoonoses across multiple host and parasite taxa worldwide. Here, we simultaneously quantify the role of 795 established alien hosts on the 10,473 zoonosis events across the globe since the 14th century. We observe an average of ~5.9 zoonoses per alien zoonotic host. After accounting for species-, disease-, and geographic-level sampling biases, spatial autocorrelation, and the lack of independence of zoonosis events, we find that the number of zoonosis events increase with the richness of alien zoonotic hosts, both across space and through time. We also detect positive associations between the number of zoonosis events per unit space and climate change, land-use change, biodiversity loss, human population density, and PubMed citations. These findings suggest that alien host introductions have likely contributed to zoonosis emergences throughout recent history and that minimizing future zoonotic host species introductions could have global health benefits.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Zoonoses , Animais , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
16.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(4): e22273, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452550

RESUMO

Studies of humans, mammalian animals, and chicks reveal that embryonic opioid exposure (EOE) changes the response to pharmacological rewards in postnatal individuals, which may be an outcome of permanent alterations to neural systems. However, the mechanism behind this alteration remains unclear. GABA transmitter has a trophic effect on early GABAergic neuronal development, and EOE decreases GABA concentration in developing brains. Here, we determined whether the development of inhibitory transmission was affected by EOE and whether altered GABA release was the underlying mechanism. We revealed that morphine administration in the early but not the late embryonic period decreased inhibitory transmission in the striatum of chicks. Meanwhile, day-old chicks with early embryonic morphine exposure showed increased psychomotor activity after acute morphine injection compared with saline-exposed chicks. Furthermore, GABA injection in the chick embryo following morphine administration mitigated damage to GABA transmission and recovered the behavioral response to acute morphine injection in chicks. Collectively, our findings suggest that abnormal GABA release in the early embryonic period induced by opioid exposure is attributable to functional and structural developments of the GABA synapse, and that the dysfunction of striatal GABA transmission may be linked to enhanced psychomotor response during initial drug exposure in postnatal life.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Morfina , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Corpo Estriado , Mamíferos , Morfina/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
17.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111059, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400437

RESUMO

Red sour soup (RSS) is a traditional fermented seasoning used by people in Guizhou Province, China. The volatile compounds were detected by gas chromatography ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), while the bacterial community compositions were revealed by 16S sequencing. A total of 70 volatile substances were assessed, and esters, terpenes, and alcohols played a dominant role in RSS. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were dominant in the microbial community. During fermentation, multiple volatile flavour substances and various LAB were mainly derived from the secondary fermentation stage. The core bacteria with an important influence on volatile flavour substances were analysed by the Mantel test, identifying Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Pantoea, Clostridium, Enterobacter, unclassified genera, Caproiciproducens, Nitriliruptoraceae, Halomonas, Bradyrhizobium, Pediococcus, Caulobacteraceae, Weissella, Ligilactobacillus, and Levilactobacillus and et al.. This study provides us with useful information about flavour-generating bacteria among RSS fermentation periods. The abundances of these bacteria may be controlled to enrich the desired flavour metabolites while eliminating unwanted metabolites.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Bactérias , Condimentos/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
18.
JMIR Serious Games ; 10(2): e34756, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visual-perceptual defects in children can negatively affect their ability to perform activities of daily living. Conventional rehabilitation training for correcting visual-perceptual defects has limited training patterns and limited interactivity, which makes motivation difficult to sustain. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and evaluate an interactive digital game system for correcting visual-perceptual defects and evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: Participants were children aged 5 to 10 years with a diagnosis of visual-perceptual defect associated with a developmental disability. The children were randomized into a digital game group who received the traditional course of rehabilitation combined with an interactive digital game intervention (n=12) and a standard rehabilitation group (n=11) who only received the traditional course of rehabilitation. Each group underwent rehabilitation once a week for 4 weeks. Overall improvement in Test of Visual Perceptual Skills 3rd edition (TVPS-3) score and overall improvement in performance in the interactive digital game were evaluated. Parents and therapists were asked to complete a satisfaction questionnaire. RESULTS: After 4 weeks, the TVPS-3 score had significantly increased (P=.002) in the digital game group (pre: mean 41.67, SD 13.88; post: 61.50, SD 21.64). In the standard rehabilitation group, the TVPS-3 score also increased, but the increase was not statistically significant (P=.58). Additionally, TVPS-3 score increases were significantly larger for the digital game group compared with those for the standard rehabilitation group (P=.005). Moreover, both parents and therapists were highly satisfied with the system. All 5 themes of satisfaction had mean scores higher than 4 in a 5-point scale questionnaire (mean 4.30, SD 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: The system has potential applications for improving visual-perceptual function in children undergoing medical rehabilitation for developmental disability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05016492; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05016492.

19.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 274: 121057, 2022 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248851

RESUMO

In order to classify imported frozen fish, effectively a spectral data compression method was presented based on two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. In the experiment, the near-infrared spectral data of Oncorhynchus keta, Oncorhynchus nerka and Oncorhynchus gorbuscha of Salmonidae were collected. And two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy among the three fish samples was constructed. The study found that the auto-correlation peaks intensities at 650 nm, 1724 nm and 1908 nm were almost zero, which were taken as the separation point of the spectra. Therefore, each spectral data is divided into 4 segments and the integral of each segment is obtained. The original spectra of 201 points in each group were compressed into 4 points. Then, the compressed spectral data were input into the support vector machine to establish the discriminant model of three kinds of frozen fish. At the same time, the Competitive Adaptive Reweighted Sampling and the Successive Projections Algorithm were used to screen the original spectra. The classification results were compared with the result of the spectral data compression method of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. The result shows: the compression rate of the proposed method is 98.01%; the accuracy rate of support vector machine training set is 100%; the accuracy rate of validation set is up to 100%. The results shows that the proposed spectral data compression method based on two-dimensional correlation spectral technology has high compression rate and accurate classification.


Assuntos
Compressão de Dados , Algoritmos , Animais , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Fenômenos Físicos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328106

RESUMO

Impairing reconsolidation may disrupt drug memories to prevent relapse, meanwhile long-term transcription regulations in the brain regions contribute to the occurrence of emotional memories. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is involved in the drug-cue association, while the nucleus accumbens (NAc) responds to the drug reward. Here, we assessed whether DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) in these two brain regions function identically in the reconsolidation of morphine reward memory. We show that Dnmts inhibition in the BLA but not in the NAc after memory retrieval impaired reconsolidation of a morphine reward memory. Moreover, the mRNA levels of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, rather than Dnmt1, in the BLA were continuously upregulated after retrieval. We further identified the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in genes in the BLA after retrieval, and focused on the DMRs located in gene promoter regions. Among them were three genes (Gnas, Sox10, and Pik3r1) involved in memory modulation. Furthermore, Gnas promoter hypermethylation was confirmed to be inversely correlated with the downregulation of Gnas mRNA levels. The findings indicate that the specific transcription regulation mechanism in the BLA and NAc on reconsolidation of opiate-associated memories can be dissociable, and DNA hypermethylation of Gnas in the BLA is necessary for the reconsolidation of morphine reward memories.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala , Morfina , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Animais , DNA , Morfina/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa
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