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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150015, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509843

RESUMO

Our previous studies showed hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in the sediments of drinking water reservoirs caused DNA damage in human cells (Caco-2) after chlorination. However, the main mechanisms remained unclear. This study compared oxidative damage and EROD activity in Caco-2 cells upon exposure to chlorinated HOCs, and the role of antioxidants (catalase, vitamin C and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)) in reducing the toxicities was examined. The result showed that chlorinated HOCs induced a 4-fold increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with HOCs. Antioxidants supplement significantly reduced ROS yields and DNA peroxidation. HOCs with relatively higher TEQbio were greatly reduced (about 98%) after chlorination, indicating dioxin-like toxicity is not the main factor inducing oxidative damage by chlorinated HOCs. Yet, ROS and the associated oxidative damage seem to be more responsible for causing DNA damage in the cells. Antioxidants including catalase, Vitamin C and EGCG showed protective effect against chlorination.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Antioxidantes , Células CACO-2 , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1 , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
2.
iScience ; 24(12): 103426, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786539

RESUMO

Glycosylation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein mediates viral entry and immune escape. While glycan site is determined by viral genetic code, glycosylation is completely dependent on host cell post-translational modification. Here, by producing SARS-CoV-2 virions from various host cell lines, viruses of different origins with diverse spike protein glycan patterns were revealed. Binding affinities to C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) DC&L-SIGN differed in the different glycan pattern virions. Although none of the CLRs supported viral productive infection, viral trans&cis-infection mediated by the CLRs were substantially changed among the different virions. Specifically, trans&cis-infection of virions with a high-mannose structure (Man5GlcNAc2) at the N1098 glycan site of the spike postfusion trimer were markedly enhanced. Considering L-SIGN co-expression with ACE2 on respiratory tract cells, our work underlines viral epigenetic glycosylation in authentic viral infection and highlights the attachment co-receptor role of DC&L-SIGN in SARS-CoV-2 infection and prevention.

3.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(12): 3378-3380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778558

RESUMO

Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Prain is an ethnomedicinal plant with high nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genome of F. macrophylla. The chloroplast genome has a typical quadripartite structure with a genome size of 152,988 bp, including a large single-copy (LSC) of 83,634 bp, a small single-copy (SSC) of 17,774 bp and two inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,790 bp. The genome contains 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding, 37 tRNA and 8 rRNA genes. The overall GC content is 35.1%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that F. macrophylla grouped with a clade containing the genera of Fagelia, Dolichos, Eriosema, Dunbaria and Cajanus in Fabaceae. This study provides essential data and insight for understanding the phylogenetic placement of Flemingia.

4.
Am J Transplant ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726836

RESUMO

Intragraft events thought to be relevant to the development of tolerance are here subjected to a comprehensive mechanistic study during long term spontaneous tolerance that occurs in C57BL/6 mice that receive life sustaining DBA/2 kidneys. These allografts rapidly develop periarterial Treg-rich organized lymphoid structures (TOLS) that form in response to class II but not to class I MHC disparity and form independently of lymphotoxin α and lymphotoxin ß receptor pathways. TOLS form in situ in the absence of lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. Distinctive transcript patterns are maintained over time in TOLS including transcripts associated with Treg differentiation, T cell checkpoint signaling, and Th2 differentiation. Pathway transcripts related to inflammation are expressed in early stages of accepted grafts but diminish with time, while B cell transcripts increase. Intragraft transcript patterns at one week post-transplant distinguish those from kidneys destined to be rejected, i.e. C57BL/6 allografts into DBA/2 recipients, from those that will be accepted. In contrast to inflammatory tertiary lymphoid organs (iTLOs) that form in response to chronic viral infection and transgenic Lta expression, TOLS lack high endothelial venules and germinal centers. TOLS represent a novel, pathogenetically important type of TLO that are in situ markers of regulatory tolerance.

5.
Gland Surg ; 10(10): 2978-2996, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804885

RESUMO

Background: Breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is recommended in most women with early-stage unilateral breast cancer. However, its role in contralateral breast cancer (CBC) patients remains unclear. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) outcomes after breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in women with early-stage (T1-2N0-1M0) CBC. Methods: Data were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. BCSS was analyzed using the log-rank method, competing risks regression model, and propensity score matching method. Results: A total of 9,336 early-stage CBC patients were included. After multivariable adjustment, no significant difference in BCSS was found between early-stage CBC patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy and those undergoing mastectomy [hazard ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.37, P=0.329]. BCSS was similar in both treatment groups and in the subgroups stratified by age at first primary breast cancer or CBC diagnosis (≤50, 51-60, and >60 years), time interval between cancers (<0.25, 0.25-4, 5-9, and ≤10 years), stage of first primary breast cancer, T classification of CBC, histology and hormone receptors status of both cancers (all P>0.05). Among patients with N1 disease at CBC diagnosis, breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy was associated with a boundary significantly improved BCSS (HR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.00-2.12, P=0.050). Among patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery for first primary cancer, bilateral mastectomy for contralateral cancer did not improve BCSS compared with breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in BCSS between breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy and mastectomy plus radiotherapy (P>0.05). Stable results were obtained after propensity score matching. Conclusions: Breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy did not significantly influence BCSS outcomes of patients with early-stage CBC. Bilateral mastectomy and mastectomy plus radiotherapy did not confer a survival advantage over breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy in these patients. Future prospective studies are necessary to expand on these results.

6.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810213

RESUMO

The Ras/Erk and NF-κB pathways play critical roles in cell proliferation and are known to drive oncogenesis when over-activated. Herein we report a gatekeeper function of the two pathways by working in synergy to suppress liver tumorigenesis. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of both Shp2/Ptpn11 and Ikkß in mice, which promote Ras/Erk and NF-κB signaling, respectively, exacerbated chemical carcinogenesis and even triggered spontaneous development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We show that the unanticipated severe tumor phenotype was contributed collectively by severe cholestasis, metabolic changes, upregulated cell cycle progression and disruption of circadian rhythm in mutant hepatocytes. Remarkably, human HCCs with dysregulated circadian gene expression displayed downregulation of Ras/Erk and NF-κB signaling and poor prognosis. Together, these data indicate that at the ground state, the two central pathways, previously known as oncogenic, cooperate to sustain tumor-suppressive physiological homeostasis and to prevent hepatic damage. Disruption of this intricate signaling network is carcinogenic in the liver. Implications: We demonstrate here that basal levels of the Ras/MAPK and NF-κB pathways, while promoting tumorigenesis if overactivated, are required to maintain physiological homeostasis and regulate circadian rhythm in the liver, which are anti-tumorigenic.

7.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105206, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to synthesize qualitative evidence on nursing students' experiences with service learning (SL). DESIGN: A systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Comprehensive searches were performed using databases including PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CINHAL (EBSCO), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Web of Science, Wangfang (Chinese), CNKI (Chinese), Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar (Chinese). REVIEW METHODS: The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. We conducted a meta-aggregation to synthesize the findings of the included studies. The Confidence in the Output of Qualitative Research Synthesis (ConQual) approach was used to assess confidence in the synthesized findings. RESULTS: Forty-two studies were identified, and 39 studies were included in the meta-aggregation. One hundred and sixty-seven findings, 16 categories, and 6 synthesized findings were identified. The six synthesized findings identified from the 39 studies concerned the following topics: adaption and emotion shifting, knowledge translation and skills development, leadership and collaboration in multidisciplinary teams, cultural sensitivity, discovery of nursing roles and professional growth, and overall appraisal and suggestions. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend empowering nursing students by developing their self-confidence in their leadership abilities and their identities before they participate in SL programs. During SL, educators should provide sufficient space for students and should not become involved in students' teams to avoid decreasing their self-confidence in their leadership abilities. After SL programs, maintaining long-term relationships between the university and the community is a prerequisite for students working smoothly in the community and is a key factor for program sustainability.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(45): e27711, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766574

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The effect on degenerative thoracolumbar kyphosis (DTLK) after short-segment instrument for lumbar spinal stenosis syndrome (LSS) remains controversial. Based on the biomechanics and compensatory of the global spino-pelvic alignment, it was assumed that the interference on the lumbar spine, instead of the thoracolumbar segment, could still make a difference on the proximal spine.To explore whether DTLK could improve with only surgery for LSS and identify influencing factors on postoperative TLK.The study was performed from January 2016 to December 2018. Sixty-nine participants (25 male) diagnosed LSS with DTLK were enrolled and surgery was only for LSS. Radiological parameters included TLK, lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and osteoporosis. Clinical outcomes were visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index. According to lower instrumented vertebrae (LIV) on L5 or S1, inter-group comparisons were performed between LIV on L5 (L5 group) and S1 (S1 group).Demographics were well-matched between L5 and S1 group with a mean follow-up of 24.3 ±â€Š12.1 (m). TLK improved with a mean of 16.2 ±â€Š7.6 (°) (P < .001). There was no significance on radiological and clinical parameters between L5 and S1 groups except for a larger pelvic tilt in S1 group (P = .046). Visual analogue scale (P = .787) and Oswestry disability index (P = .530) were both indifferent between normal TLK and DTLK at last (P > .05). Postoperative TLK was affected by osteoporosis and sacral slope, the latter was dominated by pelvic incidence and pelvic rotation. Osteoporosis was the risk factor for TLK correction (P = .001, odd risk = 9.58).DTLK decreased if instrument only performed for LSS, where TLK and clinical outcomes are comparably affected whether L5 or S1 is selected as LIV. This study supplements the compensatory mechanism of spino-pelvic alignment, especially for cases with severe osteoporosis.

9.
Chemistry ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812569

RESUMO

Surface plasmon can trigger or accelerate many photochemical reactions, especially useful in energy and environmental industries. Recently, molecular adsorption has been proved effective in modulating the plasmon-mediated photochemistry, however the realized chemical reactions are limited and the mechanism behind is still unclear. Herein, by using in situ dark-field optical microscopy, the plasmon-mediated oxidative etching of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), a typical hot-hole-driven reaction, is monitored continuously and quantitatively. The presence of thiol or thiophenol molecules is found essential in the silver oxidation. In addition, the rate of silver oxidation is modulated by the choice of different thiol or thiophenol molecules. Compared with the molecules having electron donating groups, the ones having electron accepting groups accelerate the silver oxidation dramatically. The thiol/thiophenol modulation is attributed to the modulation of the charge separation between the Ag NPs and the adsorbed thiol or thiophenol molecules. This work demonstrates the great potential of molecular adsorption in modulating the plasmon-mediated photochemistry, which will pave a new way for developing highly efficient plasmonic photocatalysts.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259798, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780519

RESUMO

Protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) regulate the biological processes of human diseases by genetic code expansion and cellular pathophysiology regulation; however, system-wide changes in PTM levels in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) brain remain poorly understood. Succinylation refers to a major PTM during the regulation of multiple biological processes. In this study, according to the methods of quantitative succinyllysine proteomics based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, we investigated ICH-associated brain protein succinyllysine modifications and obtained 3,680 succinylated sites and quantified around 3,530 sites. Among them, 25 succinyllysine sites on 23 proteins were upregulated (hypersuccinylated), whereas 13 succinyllysine sites on 12 proteins were downregulated (hyposuccinylated) following ICH. The cell component enrichment analysis of these succinylproteins with significant changes showed that 58.3% of the hyposuccinylated proteins were observed in the mitochondria, while the hyper-succinylproteins located in mitochondria decreased in the percentage to about 35% in ICH brains with a concomitant increase in the percentage of cytoplasm to 30.4%. Further bioinformatic analysis showed that the succinylproteins were mostly mitochondria and synapse-related subcellular located and involved in many pathophysiological processes, like metabolism, synapse working, and ferroptosis. Moreover, the integrative analysis of our succinylproteomics data and previously published transcriptome data showed that the mRNAs matched by most differentially succinylated proteins were especially highly expressed in neurons, endothelial cells, and astrocytes. Our study uncovers some succinylation-affected processes and pathways in response to ICH brains and gives us novel insights into understanding pathophysiological processes of brain injury caused by ICH.

11.
Cell Rep ; 37(7): 110025, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788616

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a Ca2+-permeable cation channel, is gated by intracellular adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR), Ca2+, warm temperature, and oxidative stress. It is critically involved in physiological and pathological processes ranging from inflammation to stroke to neurodegeneration. At present, the channel's gating and ion permeation mechanisms, such as the location and identity of the selectivity filter, remain ambiguous. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of human TRPM2 in nanodisc in the ligand-free state. Cryo-EM map-guided computational modeling and patch-clamp recording further identify a quadruple-residue motif as the ion selectivity filter, which adopts a restrictive conformation in the closed state and acts as a gate, profoundly contrasting with its widely open conformation in the Nematostella vectensis TRPM2. Our study reveals the gating of human TRPM2 by the filter and demonstrates the feasibility of using cryo-EM in conjunction with computational modeling and functional studies to garner structural information for intrinsically dynamic but functionally important domains.

12.
Biophys Rev ; 13(5): 697-706, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765046

RESUMO

Desmosomes are critical adhesion structures in cardiomyocytes, with mutation/loss linked to the heritable cardiac disease, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Early studies revealed the ability of desmosomal protein loss to trigger ARVC disease features including structural remodeling, arrhythmias, and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms contributing to diverse disease presentations are not fully understood. Recent mechanistic studies demonstrated the protein degradation component CSN6 is a resident cardiac desmosomal protein which selectively restricts cardiomyocyte desmosomal degradation and disease. This suggests defects in protein degradation can trigger the structural remodeling underlying ARVC. Additionally, a subset of ARVC-related mutations show enhanced vulnerability to calpain-mediated degradation, further supporting the relevance of these mechanisms in disease. Desmosomal gene mutations/loss has been shown to impact arrhythmogenic pathways in the absence of structural disease within ARVC patients and model systems. Studies have shown the involvement of connexins, calcium handling machinery, and sodium channels as early drivers of arrhythmias, suggesting these may be distinct pathways regulating electrical function from the desmosome. Emerging evidence has suggested inflammation may be an early mechanism in disease pathogenesis, as clinical reports have shown an overlap between myocarditis and ARVC. Recent studies focus on the association between desmosomal mutations/loss and inflammatory processes including autoantibodies and signaling pathways as a way to understand the involvement of inflammation in ARVC pathogenesis. A specific focus will be to dissect ongoing fields of investigation to highlight diverse pathogenic pathways associated with desmosomal mutations/loss.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741378

RESUMO

The rapid synthesis of crystalline covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) and exploration of the polymerization mechanism are highly desired for the research of crystalline porous polymers, but have not yet been reported. Herein, we demonstrate a scalable microwave-assisted synthetic strategy to successfully prepare a series of highly crystalline and semiconducting CTFs within 20 minutes for the first time. By in-situ imaging and time-dependent characterization, we proposed an ordered two-dimensional (2D) polymerization mechanism for crystalline CTFs, in which the monomers rapidly polymerize into periodic 2D molecular sheets within 10 s and then grow into more ordered framework structures. Photocatalytic study of CTF with different crystallinity revealed that large crystalline domain could significantly improve the photocatalytic performance. Moreover, single-layer and few-layer crystalline 2D triazine polymer nanosheets could be obtained through simple ball-milling exfoliation of the bulk layered CTFs and exhibit nearly fivefold improved photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate up to 7971 µmol g-1 h-1, which is superior to most reported polymeric photocatalysts.

14.
Curr Res Physiol ; 4: 24-28, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746823

RESUMO

Objective: The study aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Cardiac Troponin I(cTnI) and N-terminal pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) for identifying patients with cardiac syncope. Methods: This is a prospective, single-center cohort study of patients presenting with syncope hospitalized from June 21,2018 to May 30, 2019. The Evaluation of Guidelines in Syncope Study (EGSYS), a syncope-specific diagnostic score, was used for diagnostic comparator. Results: A total of 118 patients were enrolled (mean age: 69.1 â€‹± â€‹12.3 years, 40% female). Compared to patients with reflex, orthostatic, or unexplained syncope, patients adjudicated to have cardiac syncope showed significantly higher cTnI and NT-proBNP plasma concentrations (p â€‹< â€‹0.001 for each comparison). The area under the curve (AUC) of cTnI and NT-proBNP were moderate-to-good [0.77-0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-0.86], and was similar to that of EGSYS (0.71, 95%CI 0.60-0.80). Incorporation of cTnI and/or NT-proBNP into the existing EGSYS score significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy (EGSYS â€‹+ â€‹cTnI: AUC 0.83; 95%CI 0.74-0.90; EGSYS â€‹+ â€‹NT-proBNP: AUC 0.81; 95%CI 0.71-0.89; EGSYS â€‹+ â€‹cTnI â€‹+ â€‹NT-proBNP: AUC 0.83; 95%CI 0.73-0.90). Conclusions: The cTnI and NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in patients adjudicated to have cardiac syncope and the addition of both biomarkers to the EGSYS score significantly improved the diagnostic value for cardiac syncope.

15.
Cell Rep ; 37(6): 109974, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758313

RESUMO

The mechanisms of Myc-driven liver tumorigenesis are inadequately understood. Herein we show that Myc-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dramatically aggravated in mice with hepatocyte-specific Ptpn11/Shp2 deletion. However, Myc-induced tumors develop selectively from the rare Shp2-positive hepatocytes in Shp2-deficent liver, and Myc-driven oncogenesis depends on an intact Ras-Erk signaling promoted by Shp2 to sustain Myc stability. Despite a stringent requirement of Shp2 cell autonomously, Shp2 deletion induces an immunosuppressive environment, resulting in defective clearance of tumor-initiating cells and aggressive tumor progression. The basal Wnt/ß-catenin signaling is upregulated in Shp2-deficient liver, which is further augmented by Myc transfection. Ablating Ctnnb1 suppresses Myc-induced HCC in Shp2-deficient livers, revealing an essential role of ß-catenin. Consistently, Myc overexpression and CTNNB1 mutations are frequently co-detected in HCC patients with poor prognosis. These data elucidate complex mechanisms of liver tumorigenesis driven by cell-intrinsic oncogenic signaling in cooperation with a tumor-promoting microenvironment generated by disrupting the specific oncogenic pathway.

16.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585211028126, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) is a disease of inflammatory demyelination that affects central and peripheral nerves simultaneously or temporally separated. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical characteristics and the existence of antinodal/paranodal antibodies in patients with CCPD. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, electrophysiological examinations, neuroimaging findings, treatment, and prognosis of 31 patients with CCPD. Using a live cell-based assay, we tested antinodal/paranodal antibodies. RESULTS: The most common symptoms were motor weakness (83.3%), hyporeflexia (63.3%), and sphincter disturbance (58.1%). In total, 16.6% of patients had impaired vision symptoms, whereas 33.3% of patients had abnormal visual-evoked potentials (VEPs). A total of 21.1% (4/19) of patients were positive for anti-AQP4 (aquaporin 4) antibodies, 20.0% (2/10) of patients were positive for anti-NF155 (neurofascin-155) antibodies, and 10.0% (1/10) of patients were positive for anti-MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein) antibodies. The effective rates of intravenous corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and rituximab were 72.2%, 37.5%, and 100%, respectively. At the illness peak, 75% of patients with CCPD had an mRS (modified Rankin Scale) score of 4 or greater. In remission, 37.5% had an mRS score of 4 or greater. CONCLUSION: The clinical manifestations of patients with CCPD are highly heterogeneous. We recommend testing antinodal/paranodal antibodies for patients with CCPD.

17.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597149

RESUMO

Pantoea ananatis is a phytopathogen infecting many economically important crops, including rice worldwide. Here, we report the complete genome of P. ananatis strain TZ39 identified as causative agent of a new bacterial blight of rice emerged in China in 2020. The assembled genome is consisted of one circular chromosome of 4, 483,976 bp, and two plasmids of 135,135, and 276,579 bp. This complete genome of the first Chinese pathogenic P. ananatis strain will provide new insights into the traits of pathogenicity on genomic level from China and worldwide.

18.
J Chem Phys ; 155(13): 134117, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624977

RESUMO

Light-matter coupling strength and optical loss are two key physical quantities in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), and their interplay determines whether light-matter hybrid states can be formed or not in chemical systems. In this study, by using macroscopic quantum electrodynamics (MQED) combined with a pseudomode approach, we present a simple but accurate method, which allows us to quickly estimate the light-matter coupling strength and optical loss without free parameters. Moreover, for a molecular emitter coupled with photonic modes (including cavity modes and plasmon polariton modes), we analytically and numerically prove that the dynamics derived from the MQED-based wavefunction approach is mathematically equivalent to the dynamics governed by the CQED-based Lindblad master equation when the Purcell factor behaves like Lorentzian functions.

19.
Front Nutr ; 8: 740746, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604285

RESUMO

Background: The regulatory effect of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) categories on the association of malnutrition and all-cause mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) have not been adequately addressed. Methods: Forty-five thousand eight hundred and twenty-six patients consecutively enrolled in the Cardiorenal ImprovemeNt (CIN) study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04407936) from January 2008 to July 2018 who underwent coronary angiography (CAG). The Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score was applied to 45,826 CAG patients. The hazard ratios of mortality across combined LVEF and/or malnutrition categories were estimated by Cox regression models. Variables adjusted for in the Cox regression models included: age, gender, hypertension (HT), DM, PCI, coronary artery disease (CAD), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TRIG), chronic kidney disease (CKD), statins, atrial fibrillation (AF), anemia, and stroke. Population attributable risk (PAR) was estimated for eight groups stratified by nutritional status and LVEF categories. Results: In our study, 42,181(92%) of patients were LVEF ≥ 40%, of whom, 41.55 and 9.34% were in mild and moderate or severe malnutrition status, respectively, while 46.53 and 22.28% in mild and moderate or severe malnutritional status among patients with LVEF < 40%. During a median follow-up time of 4.5 years (percentile 2.8-7.1), 5,350 (11.7%) patients died. After fully adjustment, there is no difference of mortality on malnutrition in LVEF < 40% group (mild, moderate and severe vs. normal, HR (95%CI): [1.00 (0.83-0.98)], [1.20 (0.95-1.51)], [1.41 (0.87-2.29)], respectively, p for trend =0.068), but malnutrition was related to markedly increased risk of mortality in LVEF ≥ 40% group (mild, moderate, and severe vs. normal, HR (95%CI): [1.21 (1.12-1.31)], [1.56 (1.40-1.74)], and [2.20(1.67-2.90)], respectively, p for trend < 0.001, and p for interaction < 0.001). Patients with LVEF ≥ 40% had a higher malnutrition-associated risk of mortality and a higher PAR than those with LVEF < 40%. Conclusions: Malnutrition is common in CAG patients and it has a greater effect on all-cause mortality and a higher PAR in patients with LVEF ≥ 40% than LVEF < 40%.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681638

RESUMO

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most destructive diseases affecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivation and production worldwide. As defenses against TSWV, natural resistance genes have been identified in tomato, including Sw-1a, Sw-1b, sw-2, sw-3, sw-4, Sw-5, Sw-6, and Sw-7. However, only Sw-5 exhibits a high level of resistance to the TSWV. Thus, it has been cloned and widely used in the breeding of tomato with resistance to the disease. Due to the global spread of TSWV, resistance induced by Sw-5 decreases over time and can be overcome or broken by a high concentration of TSWV. How to utilize other resistance genes and identify novel resistance resources are key approaches for breeding tomato with resistance to TSWV. In this review, the characteristics of natural resistance genes, natural resistance resources, molecular markers for assisted selection, and methods for evaluating resistance to TSWV are summarized. The aim is to provide a theoretical basis for identifying, utilizing resistance genes, and developing tomato varieties that are resistant to TSWV.

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