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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 69: 102486, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370536

RESUMO

Background: Limited data exists on how early-life weight changes relate to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in midlife. This study examines the association between long-term trajectories of body mass index (BMI), its variability, and MetS risk in Chinese individuals. Methods: In the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension study (March 10, 1987-June 3, 2017), 1824 participants with at least five BMI measurements from 1987 to 2017 were included. Using group-based trajectory modeling, different BMI trajectories were identified. BMI variability was assessed through standard deviation (SD), variability independent of the mean (VIM), and average real variability (ARV). Logistic regression analyzed the relationship between BMI trajectory, BMI variability, and MetS occurrence in midlife (URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02734472). Findings: BMI trajectories were categorized as low-increasing (34.4%), moderate-increasing (51.8%), and high-increasing (13.8%). Compared to the low-increasing group, the odds ratios (ORs) [95% CIs] for MetS were significantly higher in moderate (4.27 [2.63-6.91]) and high-increasing groups (13.11 [6.30-27.31]) in fully adjusted models. Additionally, higher BMI variabilities were associated with increased MetS odds (ORs for SDBMI, VIMBMI, and ARVBMI: 2.30 [2.02-2.62], 1.22 [1.19-1.26], and 4.29 [3.38-5.45]). Furthermore, BMI trajectories from childhood to adolescence were predictive of midlife MetS, with ORs in moderate (1.49 [1.00-2.23]) and high-increasing groups (2.45 [1.22-4.91]). Lastly, elevated BMI variability in this period was also linked to higher MetS odds (ORs for SDBMI, VIMBMI, and ARVBMI: 1.24 [1.08-1.42], 1.00 [1.00-1.01], and 1.21 [1.05-1.38]). Interpretation: Our study suggests that both early-life BMI trajectories and BMI variability could be predictive of incident MetS in midlife. Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 82070437 (J.-J.M.), the Clinical Research Award of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University of China (No. XJTU1AF-CRF-2022-002, XJTU1AF2021CRF-021, and XJTU1AF-CRF-2023-004), the Key R&D Projects in Shaanxi Province (Grant No. 2023-ZDLSF-50), the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College (2017-CXGC03-2), and the International Joint Research Centre for Cardiovascular Precision Medicine of Shaanxi Province (2020GHJD-14).

2.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 26(1): 36-46, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010846

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported the role of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R), a member of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, encoded by the CHRM3 gene, in cardiac function and the regulation of blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of CHRM3 genetic variants with salt sensitivity, longitudinal BP changes, and the development of hypertension in a Chinese population. We conducted a chronic dietary salt intervention experiment in a previously established Chinese cohort to analyze salt sensitivity of BP. Additionally, a 14-year follow-up was conducted on all participants in the cohort to evaluate the associations of CHRM3 polymorphisms with longitudinal BP changes, as well as the incidence of hypertension. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10802811 within the CHRM3 gene displayed significant associations with low salt-induced changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), while rs373288072, rs114677844, and rs663148 exhibited significant associations with SBP and MAP responses to a high-salt diet. Furthermore, the SNP rs58359377 was associated with changes in SBP and pulse pressure (PP) over the course of 14 years. Additionally, the 14-year follow-up revealed a significant association between the rs619288 polymorphism and an increased risk of hypertension (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.06-2.87, p = .029). This study provides evidence that CHRM3 may have a role in salt sensitivity, BP progression, and the development of hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , China/epidemiologia , Receptor Muscarínico M3/genética
3.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 25(12): 1096-1104, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966821

RESUMO

Normoalbuminuria has recently been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and vascular aging is proposed as the early manifestation of cardiovascular disease. Here, the authors aimed to examine the association of high-normal albuminuria and vascular aging in a Chinese cohort. From our previously established cohort, 1942 participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) <30 mg/g were enrolled. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400 cm/s and/or carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥0.9 mm were used as indicators of vascular aging. Multivariate regression and receiving operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to examine the relationship between continuous and categorical UACR with vascular aging. We found an average UACR value of 8.08 (5.45-12.52) mg/g in this study. BaPWV and CIMT demonstrated positive correlations with lg-UACR (p < .05). High-normal albuminuria (10-29 mg/g) was significantly associated with the presence of vascular aging after adjusting for multiple cardiovascular confounders (OR = 1.540, 95% CI = 1.203-1.972, p = .001). In addition, a lg-UACR cutoff point of 0.918 lg(mg/g) (equal to UACR of 8.285 mg/g) was significantly associated with the presence of vascular aging and its components for all participants and those without hypertension or diabetes and without medication (p < .05). Briefly, high-normal albuminuria was significantly associated with vascular aging in this sample of Chinese adults. These findings implied the warning of elevated UACR even within normal range in clinical practice and the importance of UACR screening in normoalbuminuria for early detection and prevention of cardiovascular disease in otherwise healthy participants.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Albuminúria/complicações , Creatinina , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Envelhecimento
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1164592, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37795361

RESUMO

Background and aims: Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. Here, we aimed to examine and compare the predictive values of three novel obesity indices, lipid accumulation product (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI), and triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, for cardiovascular subclinical organ damage. Methods: A total of 1,773 healthy individuals from the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study cohort were enrolled. Anthropometric, biochemical, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and Cornell voltage-duration product data were collected. Furthermore, the potential risk factors for subclinical organ damage were investigated, with particular emphasis on examining the predictive value of the LAP, VAI, and TyG index for detecting subclinical organ damage. Results: LAP, VAI, and TyG index exhibited a significant positive association with baPWV and uACR. However, only LAP and VAI were found to have a positive correlation with Cornell product. While the three indices did not show an association with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, higher values of LAP and TyG index were significantly associated with an increased risk of arterial stiffness and albuminuria. Furthermore, after dividing the population into quartiles, the fourth quartiles of LAP and TyG index showed a significant association with arterial stiffness and albuminuria when compared with the first quartiles, in both unadjusted and fully adjusted models. Additionally, the concordance index (C-index) values for LAP, VAI, and TyG index were reasonably high for arterial stiffness (0.856, 0.856, and 0.857, respectively) and albuminuria (0.739, 0.737, and 0.746, respectively). Lastly, the analyses of continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) demonstrated that the TyG index exhibited significantly higher predictive values for arterial stiffness and albuminuria compared with LAP and VAI. Conclusion: LAP, VAI, and, especially, TyG index demonstrated utility in screening cardiovascular subclinical organ damage among Chinese adults in this community-based sample. These indices have the potential to function as markers for early detection of cardiovascular disease in otherwise healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Produto da Acumulação Lipídica , Adulto , Humanos , Adiposidade , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , População do Leste Asiático , Glucose , Obesidade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Triglicerídeos
5.
Hypertens Res ; 46(7): 1795-1803, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37160967

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lowers blood pressure (BP) and exert a salutary effect on the salt sensitivity of BP. This study aimed to examine the associations of SGLT2 genetic variants with salt sensitivity, longitudinal BP changes and the risk of incident hypertension in Baoji Salt-Sensitive Study. A total of 514 participants were recruited when the cohort was established in 2004, and 333 participants received a dietary intervention that consisted of a 3-day usual diet followed sequentially by a 7-day low-salt diet and a 7-day high-salt diet. The cohort was then followed up for 14 years to evaluate the longitudinal BP changes and development of hypertension. We found that SGLT2 SNP rs3813007 was significantly associated with the systolic BP (SBP) responses to the low-salt diet. Over the 14 years of follow-up, SNPs rs3116149 and rs3813008 were significantly associated with the longitudinal SBP changes, and SNPs rs3116149, rs3813008, rs3813007 in SGLT2 were significantly associated with incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, gene-based analyses revealed that SGLT2 was significantly associated with hypertension incidence. Our study suggests that SGLT2 genetic polymorphisms may be involved in salt sensitivity and development of hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , População do Leste Asiático , Hipertensão , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/genética
6.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 666, 2023 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37041564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Albuminuria is recognized as being a predictor of cardiovascular and renal disease. We aimed to identify the impact of the long-term burden and trends of systolic blood pressure on albuminuria in midlife, as well as to explore sex differences concerning this relationship. METHODS: This longitudinal study consisted of 1,683 adults who had been examined 4 or more times for blood pressure starting in childhood, with a follow-up time period of 30 years. The cumulative effect and longitudinal trend of blood pressure were identified by using the area under the curve (AUC) of individual systolic blood pressure measurement with a growth curve random effects model. RESULTS: Over 30 years of follow-up, 190 people developed albuminuria, including 53.2% males and 46.8% females (aged 43.39 ± 3.13 years in the latest follow-up). The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) values increased as the total and incremental AUC values increased. Additionally, women had a higher albuminuria incidence in the higher SBP AUC groups than men do (13.3% for men vs. 33.7% for women). Logistic regression showed that the ORs of albuminuria for males and females in the high total AUC group were 1.34 (0.70-2.60) and 2.94 (1.50-5.74), respectively. Similar associations were found in the incremental AUC groups. CONCLUSIONS: Higher cumulative SBP was correlated with higher uACR levels and a risk of albuminuria in middle age, especially in women. The identification and control of cumulative SBP levels from an early age may assist in reducing the incidences of renal and cardiovascular disease for individuals in later life.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Prospectivos , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Creatinina
7.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 23(1): 78, 2023 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37029402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The new visceral adiposity index (NVAI) was superior to previous obesity indices in predicting cardiovascular diseases among Asians. Nevertheless, the utility of the NVAI for predicting chronic kidney disease is still unclear. The objective of this research was to explore the relationship between the NVAI and subclinical renal damage (SRD) and to investigate whether the NVAI outperforms other common obesity indices in predicting SRD in the Chinese population. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study were from the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Cohort. The NVAI and seven other common obesity indices were calculated, including body mass index, waist circumference, lipid accumulation product, visceral adiposity index, Chinese visceral adiposity index, a body shape index and metabolic score for visceral fat. Logistic regression models revealed the association between NVAI and SRD. The odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to show the association between the two variables. The predictive power of eight obesity indices for SRD was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were also applied to compare the incremental predictive value for SRD of different obesity indices. RESULTS: The median age of the 2358 subjects was 42.00 years. Across NVAI tertiles, the prevalence of SRD was 7.25%, 11.21%, and 21.60%, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, a high level of NVAI remained a risk factor for SRD. The ORs of the middle and top NVAI tertiles for SRD were 1.920 (95% CI: 1.322, 2.787) and 4.129 (95% CI: 2.750, 6.202), respectively. The AUC of the NVAI was 0.666 (95% CI: 0.647, 0.685), which was significantly larger than the AUC of any of the other obesity indicators. Moreover, the NRI and IDI were significantly improved when NVAI was added to the basic model for predicting SRD. Among eight obesity indices, NVAI had the highest NRI (0.392; 95% CI: 0.280, 0.503), and its IDI (0.021; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.027) was second only to that of the body mass index (0.023; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: NVAI is independently and positively associated with SRD. Among the eight obesity indices, the NVAI shows the strongest predictive power for SRD in the Chinese population. The NVAI may be useful as an effective warning indicator of chronic kidney disease in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade Abdominal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Humanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , População do Leste Asiático , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Hypertension ; 80(5): 1057-1066, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36880389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular aging, as assessed by structural and functional arterial properties, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to explore the associations of individual cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to midlife and their accumulation over a 30-year span with vascular aging in midlife. METHODS: Using data from the ongoing cohort of Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension study, 2180 participants aged 6 to 18 years at baseline were followed for over 30 years. Distinct trajectories of systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index (BMI), and heart rate from childhood to midlife were identified by group-based trajectory modeling. Vascular aging was assessed by carotid intima media thickness or brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. RESULTS: We identified 4 distinct SBP trajectories, 3 distinct BMI trajectories, and 2 distinct heart rate trajectories from childhood to midlife. Persistently increasing SBP, high-increasing BMI, and high-stable heart rate were all shown to have a positive association with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in midlife. For carotid intima-media thickness, similar associations were observed for persistently increasing SBP and high-increasing body mass index. After further adjustment for SBP, body mass index and heart rate at the time of vascular assessment in 2017, associations were also observed for cardiovascular risk factor trajectories accumulation with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ß, 0.656 [95% CI, 0.265-1.047]) and with carotid intima media thickness (ß, 0.045 [95% CI, 0.011-0.079]) in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal exposure to individual cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to midlife and cardiovascular risk factor accumulation were associated with an increased risk of vascular aging in midlife. Our study lends support for early targeting of risk factors in order to prevent cardiovascular disease later in life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
9.
J Nutr Biochem ; 115: 109281, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36758838

RESUMO

Transient high salt intake causes a sustained increase in blood pressure (BP) even after returning to a normal-salt diet, a phenomenon known as "salt memory." However, the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) or high-salt diet and treated with drugs for 8 to 16 weeks and then returned to a normal-salt diet for 3 months. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of salt memory and its mediation of SS hypertension and renal damage. We show that transient high salt intake caused persistent elevation of BP and exacerbation of kidney damage in Dahl SS rats even after returning to a normal-salt diet. Both epigenetic changes and inflammatory activation also persisted after resumption of a normal diet. Arterial BP, renal injury and the inflammatory response returned to normal levels in rats administered mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) during the 8-week period of high salt intake, resulting in the disappearance of salt memory. However, the vasodilator hydralazine did not ameliorate kidney damage or inflammatory activation, although it decreased BP to control levels. Transient high salt intake increased histone 3 lysine 4 monomethylation (H3K4me1) levels at the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) subunit p65 promoter in SS rats, promoting p65 gene transcription and NF-κB activation and further leading to a series of inflammatory responses. Our findings demonstrate that transient high salt-induced epigenetic changes and persistent inflammatory activation play important roles in salt memory and its mediation of SS hypertension and renal damage.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Nefropatias , Ratos , Animais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , NF-kappa B , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl , Rim , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Sanguínea
10.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 10(2)2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36829751

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a noninvasive, economical and effective subclinical renal damage (SRD) risk assessment tool to identify high-risk asymptomatic people from a large-scale population and improve current clinical SRD screening strategies. Based on the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Cohort, SRD-associated variables were identified and the SRD risk assessment score model was established and further validated with machine learning algorithms. Longitudinal follow-up data were used to identify child-to-adult SRD risk score trajectories and to investigate the relationship between different trajectory groups and the incidence of SRD in middle age. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index were identified as SRD-associated variables. Based on these three variables, an SRD risk assessment score was developed, with excellent classification ability (AUC value of ROC curve: 0.778 for SRD estimation, 0.729 for 4-year SRD risk prediction), calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test p = 0.62 for SRD estimation, p = 0.34 for 4-year SRD risk prediction) and more potential clinical benefits. In addition, three child-to-adult SRD risk assessment score trajectories were identified: increasing, increasing-stable and stable. Further difference analysis and logistic regression analysis showed that these SRD risk assessment score trajectories were highly associated with the incidence of SRD in middle age. In brief, we constructed a novel and noninvasive SRD risk assessment tool with excellent performance to help identify high-risk asymptomatic people from a large-scale population and assist in SRD screening.

11.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 24(10): 1381-1389, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36039789

RESUMO

Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 4-like (NEDD4L), a member of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, encoded by NEDD4L gene, was found to be involved in in salt sensitivity by regulating sodium reabsorption in salt-sensitive rats. The authors aimed to explore the associations of NEDD4L genetic variants with salt sensitivity, blood pressure (BP) changes and hypertension incidence in Chinese adults. Participants from 124 families in Northern China in the Baoji Salt-Sensitive Study Cohort in 2004, who received the chronic salt intake intervention, including a 7-day low-salt diet (3.0 g/day) and a 7-day high-salt diet (18 g/day), were analyzed. Besides, the development of hypertension over 14 years was evaluated. NEDD4L single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs74408486 was shown to be significantly associated with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to low-salt diet, while SNPs rs292449 and rs2288775 were significantly associated with pulse pressure (PP) response to high-salt diet. In addition, SNP rs4149605, rs73450471, and rs482805 were significantly associated with the longitudinal changes in SBP, DBP, MAP, or PP at 14 years of follow-up. SNP rs292449 was significantly associated with hypertension incidence over the 14-year follow-up. Finally, this gene-based analysis found that NEDD4L was significantly associated with longitudinal BP changes and the incidence of hypertension over the 14-year follow-up. This study indicated that gene polymorphism in NEDD4L serve an important function in salt sensitivity, longitudinal BP change and development of hypertension in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4 , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , China/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/genética
12.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 894426, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35845038

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to identify the subgroups of individuals sharing similar blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to youth and explore the associations of these trajectories with arterial stiffness in adulthood. Methods: A group-based trajectory model was used to identify BP trajectories among 2,082 individuals in the Hanzhong adolescent hypertension cohort by using BP values repeatedly measured at four visits from childhood (6-15 years) to youth (14-23 years). The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was examined 30 years after the baseline survey. Mixed linear regression models were used to examine the associations of these trajectories with adult baPWV. Results: Among the 2,082 individuals, three trajectory groups of systolic BP were identified as follows: the low-level group (n = 889), medium-level group (n = 1,021), and high-level group (n = 172). The baPWV in adulthood was higher in medium-level and high-level groups compared with the low-level group (1271.4 ± 224.7 cm/s, 1366.1 ± 249.8 cm/s vs. 1190.1 ± 220.3 cm/s, all p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the association between baPWV and systolic BP trajectories was statistically significant (adjusted ß = 49.4 cm/s; p < 0.001 for the medium-level group and ß = 107.6 cm/s; p < 0.001 for the high-level group compared with the low-level group). Similar results were obtained for the association of baPWV with the trajectories of diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP), except for pulse pressure. Conclusion: Our investigation demonstrates different BP trajectories from childhood to youth and shows the trajectories of systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP are significant predictors of arterial stiffness in adulthood.

13.
J Hypertens ; 40(8): 1556-1563, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the association of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in childhood with adult cardiovascular risk are scarce. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of IDH in adolescents and to explore the impact of IDH in childhood on adult subclinical target organ damage (STOD). METHODS: This longitudinal study consisted of 1738 school children (55.4% boys) aged 6-15 years from rural areas of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, who were followed for 30 years. Their blood pressure was recorded to define the hypertension subtypes: normotension, IDH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and mixed hypertension. Tracked STOD included arterial stiffness ( n  = 1738), albuminuria ( n  = 1652) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) ( n  = 1429). RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of IDH, ISH and mixed hypertension was 5.4, 2.2 and 3%, respectively, and there was no gender difference. Over 30 years, 366 (21.1%) of participants developed arterial stiffness, 170 (10.3%) developed albuminuria and 68 (4.8%) developed LVH. Compared with normotensive participants, IDH in childhood had higher risk ratio (RR) of experiencing arterial stiffness (RR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.76) and albuminuria (RR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.35-4.16) in adults after being fully adjusted but not LVH. However, if the elevated blood pressure in children was used as the reference standard, IDH in childhood was associated with adult LVH (RR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.28-4.84). CONCLUSION: IDH accounts for a higher proportion of adolescent hypertension subtypes and can increase the risk of adult STOD. These results highlight the necessity of improving the prevention, detection and treatment of IDH in adolescents.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Hipertensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Albuminúria/complicações , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 48: 101420, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35516445

RESUMO

Background: Albuminuria is a marker of vascular dysfunction and is associated with chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases. Data on the association between the longitudinal patterns of weight change early in life and albuminuria later in life are limited. We aimed to identify the body mass index (BMI) trajectory across a 30-year span and evaluate its association with middle-age albuminuria. Methods: Of the 4623 participants aged 6-18-year-old recruited by Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study cohort in northern China from March 10, 1987 to June 3, 2017, a total of 1,825 participants followed up with 6 visits over 30 years were enrolled. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify distinct BMI trajectories in longitudinal analyses. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) ≥ 30 mg/g. Findings: Three distinct BMI trajectories were identified: low-increasing (n = 671, 36.8%), moderate-increasing (n = 940, 51.5%), and high-increasing (n = 214, 11.7%); male participants exhibited a steeper increase in BMI than females. The uACR was increased linearly from the low- to high-increasing group. A total of 201 individuals developed albuminuria, with an incidence of 11.0%. Compared with the low-increasing group, the odds ratio (OR) of albuminuria in middle age was 2.13(95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26 to 3.61) for the high-increasing group after full adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, marital status, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. The unadjusted ORs of the high-increasing BMI group were 5.08 (2.76-9.37) for males and 3.45 (1.78-6.69) for females, and the association remained significant in males in the fully adjusted models. Interpretation: Higher BMI trajectories are associated with higher uACR and an increased risk of albuminuria in middle age, especially in males. Identifying long-term BMI trajectories from an early age may assist in predicting the risk of renal diseases and cardiovascular disease later in life. Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81600327, 82070437, 81870319, 82070549, and 82170437), Natural Science Basic Research Program of Shaanxi Province (2021JM-257 and 2021JM-588), Institutional Foundation of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (2019QN-06 and 2021ZXY-14), the Clinical Research Award of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University of China (XJTU1AF-CRF-2019-004, XJTU1AF2021CRF-021, and XJTU1AFCRF-2017-021), Research Incubation Fund of Xi'an People's Hospital (FZ-61), Grants from the Major Chronic Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Control Research Key Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2017YFC1307604 and 2016YFC1300104).

15.
Front Nutr ; 9: 857562, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35571911

RESUMO

Background: High salt diet is one of the important risk factors of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Increasingly strong evidence supports epigenetic mechanisms' significant role in hypertension. We aimed to explore associations of epigenetics with high salt diet, salt sensitivity (SS), and SS hypertension. Methods: We conducted a dietary intervention study of chronic salt loading in 339 subjects from northern China in 2004 and divided the subjects into different salt sensitivity phenotypes. A total of 152 participants were randomly selected from the same cohort for follow-up in 2018 to explore the effect of a high-salt diet on serum monomethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me1), histone methyltransferase Set7, and lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD-1). Results: Among SS individuals, the blood pressure (SBP: 140.8 vs. 132.9 mmHg; MAP: 104.2 vs. 98.7 mmHg) and prevalence of hypertension (58.8 vs. 32.8%) were significantly higher in high salt (HS) diet group than in normal salt (NS) diet group, but not in the salt-resistant (SR) individuals (P > 0.05). Serum H3K4me1 level (287.3 vs. 179.7 pg/ml, P < 0.05) significantly increased in HS group of SS individuals, but not in SR individuals. We found daily salt intake in SS individuals was positively correlated with serum H3K4me1 (r = 0.322, P = 0.005) and Set7 (r = 0.340, P = 0.005) levels after adjusting for age and gender, but not with LSD-1 (r = -0.137, P = 0.251). In addition, positive correlation between the serum H3K4me1 level and Set7 level (r = 0.326, P = 0.007) was also found in SS individuals. These correlations were not evident in SR individuals. Conclusion: Our study indicates that high salt diet increases the serum H3K4me1 and Set7 levels in SS individuals.

16.
Hypertension ; 79(6): 1247-1256, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence indicates that long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) may be associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. We, therefore, aimed to determine the potential associations of long-term BPV from childhood to middle age with subclinical kidney damage (SKD) and albuminuria in adulthood. METHODS: Using data from the ongoing cohort of Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension study, which recruited children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years at baseline, we assessed BPV by SD and average real variability (ARV) for 30 years (6 visits). Presence of SKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate between 30 and 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or elevated urinary albumin-to creatinine ratio at least 30 mg/g. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. RESULTS: During 30 years of follow-up, of the 1771 participants, 204 SKD events occurred. After adjustment for demographic, clinical characteristics, and mean BP during 30 years, higher SDSBP , ARVSBP , SDDBP , ARVDBP , SDMAP , ARVMAP , and ARVPP were significantly associated with higher risk of SKD. When we used cumulative exposure to BP from childhood to adulthood instead of mean BP as adjustment factors, results were similar. In addition, greater long-term BPV was also associated with the risk of albuminuria. Long-term BPV from childhood to middle age was associated with higher risk of SKD and albuminuria in adulthood, independent of mean BP or cumulative exposure to BP during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying long-term BPV from early age may assist in predicting kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in later life.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão , Nefropatias , Adolescente , Adulto , Albuminas , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Albuminúria/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Criança , Creatinina , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Rim , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 800427, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282385

RESUMO

Objective: Renalase, a novel secretory flavoprotein with amine oxidase activity, is secreted into the blood by the kidneys and is hypothesized to participate in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We investigated the associations of renalase with BP and the risk of hypertension by examining renalase single nucleopeptide polymorphism (SNPs), serum renalase levels, and renal expression of renalase in humans. Methods: ① Subjects (n = 514) from the original Baoji Salt-Sensitive Study cohort were genotyped to investigate the association of renalase SNPs with longitudinal BP changes and the risk of hypertension during 14 years of follow-up. ② Two thousand three hundred and ninety two participants from the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study cohort were used to examine the association of serum renalase levels with hypertension. Renalase expression in renal biopsy specimens from 193 patients were measured by immunohistochemistry. ③ Renalase expression was compared in hypertensive vs. normotensive patients. Results: ① SNP rs7922058 was associated with 14-year change in systolic BP, and rs10887800, rs796945, rs1935582, rs2296545, and rs2576178 were significantly associated with 14-year change in diastolic BP while rs1935582 and rs2576178 were associated with mean arterial pressure change over 14 years. In addition, SNPs rs796945, rs1935582, and rs2576178 were significantly associated with hypertension incidence. Gene-based analysis found that renalase gene was significantly associated with hypertension incidence over 14-year follow-up after adjustment for multiple measurements. ② Hypertensive subjects had higher serum renalase levels than normotensive subjects (27.2 ± 0.4 vs. 25.1 ± 0.2 µg/mL). Serum renalase levels and BPs showed a linear correlation. In addition, serum renalase was significantly associated with the risk of hypertension [OR = 1.018 (1.006-1.030)]. ③ The expression of renalase in human renal biopsy specimens significantly decreased in hypertensive patients compared to non-hypertensive patients (0.030 ± 0.001 vs. 0.038 ± 0.004). Conclusions: These findings indicate that renalase may play an important role in BP progression and development of hypertension.

18.
Angiology ; 73(9): 869-876, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232270

RESUMO

Early vascular aging (EVA) increases cardiovascular mortality, but its long-term determinants are unknown. We included 2098 participants with ≥4 blood pressure (BP) measurements from childhood to adulthood (from the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Cohort study) to investigate the impact of child-to-adult cumulative BP exposure on EVA patterns in midlife. Participants with EVA had significantly higher long-term BP burden than those with normal vascular age in midlife despite being much younger. Child-to-adult cumulative burden and trends of systolic and diastolic BP were associated with vascular age (standardized regression coefficient [ß] = .31 to .53; P < .001 for all). Higher cumulative systolic and diastolic BP exposure significantly increased the risk of EVA in midlife (odds ratio, OR=1.67 to 2.75, P < .05 for all). All associations were independent of socio-demographics and cardiovascular risk factors. Excluding participants who were receiving anti-hypertensive, antidiabetic, or lipid-lowering treatments did not substantially change the above associations. This study, for the first time, reported that high cumulative child-to-adult BP exposure accelerated the vascular aging process. Stabilizing BP across life course could be beneficial to vascular health in the long run.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 33, 2022 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) has emerged as a reliable surrogate marker of insulin resistance associated with arterial stiffness. However, most studies were based on a cross-sectional design, and few studies have evaluated the longitudinal impact of the TyG index on arterial stiffness. This study aimed to investigate the associations of single time point measurement and the long-term trajectory of the TyG index with arterial stiffness in a Chinese cohort. METHODS: Data are derived from the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Cohort study. A total of 2480 individuals who participated in the 2017 survey was included in the cross-sectional analysis. A sample of 180 individuals from the sub-cohort with follow-up data in 2005, 2013, and 2017 was enrolled in the longitudinal analysis. The TyG index was calculated as ln (fasting triglyceride [mg/dL] × fasting glucose [mg/dL]/2), and arterial stiffness was determined using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). The latent class growth mixture modeling method was used to identify the TyG index trajectories from 2005 to 2017. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis, the median age of the study population was 42.8 (39.8, 44.9) years, and 1351 (54.5%) were males. Each one-unit increment in TyG index was associated with a 37.1 cm/s increase (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.7-50.6 cm/s; P < 0.001) in baPWV, and similar results were observed when the TyG index was in the form of quartiles. In the longitudinal analysis, we identified three distinct TyG index trajectories and found that the highest TyG index trajectory carried the greatest odds of increased arterial stiffness, with a fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.76 (95% CI 1.40, 7.54). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of baseline TyG index and higher long-term trajectory of TyG index were independently associated with increased arterial stiffness. Monitoring immediate levels and longitudinal trends of the TyG index may help with the prevention of arterial stiffness in the long run.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Resistência à Insulina , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Biomarcadores , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 710023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869624

RESUMO

Background: Uromodulin, also named Tamm Horsfall protein, has been associated with renal function and regulation of sodium homeostasis. We aimed to examine the associations of serum uromodulin levels and its genetic variants with longitudinal blood pressure (BP) changes and hypertension incidence/risk. Methods: A total of 514 participants from the original Baoji Salt-Sensitive Study cohort were genotyped to examine the associations of genetic variations in uromodulin gene with the longitudinal BP changes and the incidence of hypertension over 8 years of follow-up. In addition, 2,210 subjects from the cohort of Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study were used to investigate the relationships between serum uromodulin levels and the risk of hypertension. Results: SNPs rs12917707 and rs12708631 in the uromodulin gene were significantly associated with the longitudinal BP changes over 8 years of follow-up. SNP rs12708631 was significantly associated with the incidence of hypertension over 8 years. In addition, gene-based analyses supported the associations of uromodulin gene with the longitudinal BP changes and hypertension incidence in Baoji Salt-Sensitive Study cohort. Furthermore, serum uromodulin levels in the hypertensive subjects were lower than in the normotensive subjects (25.5 ± 1.1 vs. 34.7 ± 0.7 ng/mL). Serum uromodulin levels decreased gradually as BP levels increased (34.6, 33.2, 27.8, and 25.0 ng/mL for subjects with normotension, high-normal, grade 1 hypertension, and grade 2 hypertension, respectively). Serum uromodulin was significantly associated with the lower risk of hypertension [0.978 (0.972-0.984)] in Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study cohort. Conclusion: This study shows that uromodulin is associated with blood pressure progression and development of hypertension.

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