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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 59(99): 14653-14656, 2023 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991800

RESUMO

A new class of fluorinated cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (CPDT)-based small molecules, namely YC-oF, YC-mF, and YC-H, are demonstrated as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) for high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). PSCs employing YC-oF as the HTM delivered an excellent efficiency of 22.41% with encouraging long-term stability.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(52): 6444-6447, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096942

RESUMO

A new cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT)-based organic small molecule serves as an efficient dopant-free hole transport material (HTM) for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Upon incorporation of two carbazole groups, the resulting CPDT-based HTM (C-CPDT) shows an impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.68% with better stability compared with those of spiro-OMeTAD.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(45): 50495-50504, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112130

RESUMO

Two polycyclic heteroarene derivatives, namely, V-1 and V-2, with a diphenanthro[9,10-b:9',10'-d]thiophene (DPT) core tethered with two diphenylaminophenyl or diphenylamino groups were first synthesized and used as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) in perovskite solar cell (PSC) fabrication. The novel HTMs exhibit appropriate energy-level alignment with the perovskite so as to ensure efficient hole transfer from the perovskite to HTMs. V-2 with the diphenylamino substituent on DPT exhibited impressive photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency of 19.32%, which was higher than that of V-1 (18.60%) and the benchmark 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) (17.99%), presumably because of a better hole extraction, higher hole mobility, and excellent film-forming ability, which were supported by steady-state photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, the hole mobility experiment, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy measurements. Meanwhile, V-2-based PSCs exhibited better long-term durability than that with V-1 and the state-of-the-art spiro-OMeTAD, which is ascribable to the excellent surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the film. This systematic study suggests that DPT-based molecules are good potential candidates as HTMs for achieving high-performance PSCs.

4.
ChemSusChem ; 9(3): 274-9, 2016 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26773842

RESUMO

A new class of hole-transport materials (HTMs) based on the bimesitylene core designed for mesoporous perovskite solar cells is introduced. Devices fabricated using two of these derivatives yield higher open-circuit voltage values than the commonly used spiro-OMeTAD. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of up to 12.11% are obtained in perovskite-based devices using these new HTMs. The stability of the device made using the highest performing HTM (P1) is improved compared with spiro-OMeTAD as evidenced through long-term stability tests over 1000 h.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Óxidos/química , Energia Solar , Titânio/química , Eletroquímica , Transporte de Elétrons
5.
Chem Asian J ; 7(12): 2864-71, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23008232

RESUMO

A stilbene-based compound (1) has been prepared and was highly selective for the detection of cyanide anion in aqueous media even in the presence of other anions, such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), ClO(4)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), HSO(4)(-), NO(3)(-), and CH(3)CO(2)(-). A noticeable change in the color of the solution, along with a prominent fluorescence enhancement, was observed upon the addition of cyanide. The color change was observed upon the nucleophilic addition of the cyanide anion to the electron-deficient cyanoacrylate group of 1. The spectral changes induced by the reaction were analyzed by comparison with two model compounds, such as compound 2 with dimethyl substituents and compound 3 without a cyanoacrylate group. An intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) mechanism played a key role in the sensing properties, and the mechanism was supported by DFT/TDDFT calculations.


Assuntos
Ânions/análise , Colorimetria/métodos , Cianetos/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Estilbenos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Água/análise
6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 129(43): 13183-92, 2007 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17918840

RESUMO

The photochemical behavior of a series of trans-3-(N-arylamino)stilbenes (m1, aryl = 4-substituted phenyl with a substituent of cyano (CN), hydrogen (H), methyl (Me), or methoxy (OM)) in both nonpolar and polar solvents is reported and compared to that of the corresponding para isomers (p1CN, p1H, p1Me, and p1OM). The distinct propensity of torsional motion toward a low-lying twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) state from the planar ICT (PICT) precursor between the meta and para isomers of 1CN and 1Me reveals the intriguing meta conjugation effect and the importance of the reaction kinetics. Whereas the poor charge-redistribution (delocalization) ability through the meta-phenylene bridge accounts for the unfavorable TICT-forming process for m1CN, it is such a property that slows down the decay processes of fluorescence and photoisomerization for m1Me, facilitating the competition of the single-bond torsional reaction. In contrast, the quinoidal character for p1Me in the PICT state kinetically favors both fluorescence and photoisomerization but disfavors the single-bond torsion. The resulting concept of thermodynamically allowed but kinetically inhibited TICT formation could also apply to understanding the other D-A systems, including trans-4-cyano-4'-(N,N-dimethylamino)stilbene (DCS) and 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzonitrile (3DMABN).

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 128(43): 14109-19, 2006 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17061894

RESUMO

The synthesis, crystal structure, and fluorescence behavior of acetylene-bridged pentiptycene dimer (2), trimer (3), and tetramer (4) are reported. For comparison, a phenylene-pentiptycene-phenylene three-ring system (5) is also investigated. As a result of the unique intrachain pentiptycene-pentiptycene interactions in 3 and 4, their twisted conformers are populated in polar solvents and at low temperatures, and the phenomenon of nonequilibration of excited rotational conformers is observed. Twisting of the pi-conjugated backbones leads to blue-shifted absorption and fluorescence spectra and increased fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes. The fluorescence spectra of 2-4 undergo small red shifts but large intensity variations in the 0-1 vs 0-0 bands on going from solutions to thin solid films, which can be accounted for by the reabsorption effect. However, the reduction in fluorescence quantum yields for 2-4 in films vs solutions is mainly attributed to efficient interchain exciton migration to nonfluorescent energy traps. In contrast, the behavior of nonequilibration of excited rotamers is not observed for 5 in solutions. Compound 5 forms J-type aggregates through terminal phenylene pi-stackings in the solid state, resulting in a new absorption band at 377 nm and large red shifts of the structured fluorescence spectra.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 110(26): 8003-10, 2006 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16805484

RESUMO

The electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra, quantum yields for fluorescence (Phi(f)) and trans --> cis photoisomerization (Phi(tc)), and fluorescence lifetimes of trans-4-(N-arylamino)-4'-cyanostilbenes (2H, 2Me, 2OM, 2CN, and 2Xy with aryl = phenyl, 4-methylphenyl, 4-methoxyphenyl, 4-cyanophenyl, and 2,5-dimethylphenyl, respectively), trans-4-(N-methyl-N-phenylamino)-4'-cyanostilbene (2MP), trans-4-(N,N-diphenylamino)-4'-cyanostilbene (2PP), trans-4-(N-methyl-N-phenylamino)-4'-nitrostilbene (3MP), and three ring-bridged analogues 2OMB, 2MPB, and 3MPB are reported. Whereas fluorescence and torsion of the central double bond account for the excited decay of the majority of these donor-acceptor substituted stilbenes in both nonpolar and polar solvents (i.e., Phi(f) + 2Phi(tc) approximately 1), exceptions are observed for 2OM, 3MP, and 3MPB in solvents more polar than THF and for 2Me and 2MP in acetonitrile as a result of the formation of a weakly fluorescent and isomerization-free twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state (i.e., Phi(f) + 2Phi(tc) << 1). The TICT state for 2OM, 2Me, and 2MP results from the torsion of the stilbenyl-anilino C-N single bond, but the torsion of the styryl-anilino C-C bond is more likely to be responsible for the TICT state formation of 3MP and 3MPB. In conjunction with the behavior of aminostilbenes 1, a guideline based on the values of Phi(f) and Phi(tc) for judging the importance of a TICT state for trans-stilbenes is provided. Accordingly, the TICT state formation is unimportant for the excited decay of trans-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-cyanostilbene (DCS). In contrast, our results support the previously proposed TICT state for trans-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-nitrostilbene (DNS).

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 109(29): 6450-6, 2005 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16833989

RESUMO

The electronic spectroscopy and photochemistry of the trans isomers of 3-(N-phenylamino)stilbene (m1c), 3-(N-methyl-N-phenylamino)stilbene (m1d), 3-(N,N-diphenylamino)stilbene (m1e), and 3-(N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino)stilbene (m1f) and their double-bond constrained analogues m2a-m2c and m2e are reported. When compared with trans-3-aminostilbene (m1a), m1c-m1e display a red shift of the S0 --> S1 absorption and fluorescence spectra, lower oscillator strength and fluorescence rate constants, and more efficient S1 --> T1 intersystem crossing. Consequently, the N-phenyl derivatives m1c-m1e have lower fluorescence quantum yields and higher photoisomerization quantum yields. The corresponding N-phenyl substituent effect in m2a-m2e is similar in cyclohexane but smaller in acetonitrile. This is attributed to the weaker intramolecular charge transfer character for the S1 state of m2 so that the rates for intersystem crossing are less sensitive to solvent polarity. It is also concluded that N-phenyl substitutions do not change the triplet mechanism of photoisomerization for m1 in both nonpolar and polar solvents. Therefore, the "m-amino conjugation effect" reinforces the "m-amino effect" on fluorescence by further reducing its rate constants and highlights the N-phenyl-enhanced intersystem crossing from the "amino-conjugation effect" by making S1 --> T1 the predominant nonradiative decay pathway.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 126(39): 12325-35, 2004 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15453766

RESUMO

The photochemical behavior of trans-4-(N-arylamino)stilbene (1, aryl = 4-substituted phenyl) in solvents more polar than THF is strongly dependent on the substituent in the N-aryl group. This is attributed to the formation of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state for those with a methoxy (1OM), methoxycarbonyl (1CO), or cyano (1CN) substituent but not for those with a methyl (1Me), hydrogen (1H), chloro (1Cl), or trifluoromethyl (1CF) substituent. On the basis of the ring-bridged model compounds 3-6, the TICT states for 1CN and 1CO result from the twisting of the anilino-benzonitrilo C-N bond, but for 1OM it is from the twisting of the stilbenyl-anilino C-N bond, both of which are distinct from the TICT states previously proposed for N,N-dimethylaminostilbenes.

11.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 2(11): 1225-31, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14690239

RESUMO

The origin of the N-substituent effect on the room temperature fluorescence vibronic structures of trans-4-aminostilbene (1), its disubstituted derivatives (2 and 3), and the fused-ring analogs (4) in hexane has been investigated. The fluorescence spectra of aminostilbenes 1-4 in hexane are structured and the intensity ratio of the 0,1 vs. the 0,0 band decreases upon N-methyl or N-phenyl substitution, indicating that the N-substituents reduce the displacement in the equilibrium configuration (deltaQe) between the ground and the excited states. Our data are consistent with a planar fluorescing state for 1-4 in hexane. The N-substituents affect the planarity of the ground state structures as well as the conjugation length allowed for exciton resonance, both of which are in accord with the observed progression in fluorescence vibronic structures. According to our analysis, the conformation effect that is associated with the geometry of the amino group appears to play a major role. The corresponding studies on the solvent effect suggest that the fluorescing state of 1-4 in more polar solvents is also a planar charge-transfer state.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 124(11): 2518-27, 2002 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11890801

RESUMO

The synthesis, structure, and photochemical behavior of the trans isomers of 4-(N-phenylamino)stilbene (1c), 4-(N-methyl-N-phenylamino)stilbene (1d), 4-(N,N-diphenylamino)stilbene (1e), and 4-(N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino)stilbene (1f) are reported and compared to that of 4-aminostilbene (1a) and 4-N,N-dimethylaminostilbene (1b). Results for the corresponding 3-styrylpyridine (2) and 2-styrylnaphthalene analogues (3) are also included. The introduction of N-phenyl substituents to 4-aminostilbenes leads to a more planar ground-state geometry about the nitrogen atom, a red shift of the absorption and fluorescence spectra, and a less distorted structure with a larger charge-transfer character for the fluorescent excited state. Consequently, the N-phenyl derivatives 1c-e have low photoisomerization quantum yields and high fluorescence quantum yields at room temperature, in contrast to the behavior of 1a, 1b, and most unconstrained monosubstituted trans-stilbenes. The isomerization of 1c and 1d is a singlet-state process, whereas it is a triplet-state process for 1e, presumably due to a relatively higher singlet-state torsional barrier. The excited-state behavior of 1f resembles 1a and 1b instead of 1c-e as a consequence of the less planar amine geometry and weaker orbital interactions between the N-phenyl and the aminostilbene groups. Such an N-phenyl substituent effect is also found for 2 and 3 and thus appears to be general for stilbenoid systems. The nature of this effect can be described as an "amino conjugation effect".

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