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1.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570184

RESUMO

AIMS: Isoniazid (INH) has been used as a first-line drug to treat tuberculosis (TB) for more than 50 years. However, large interindividual variability was found in its pharmacokinetics, and effects of nonadherence to INH treatment and corresponding remedy regime remain unclear. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model of INH in Chinese patients with TB to provide model-informed precision dosing and explore appropriate remedial dosing regimens for nonadherent patients. METHODS: In total, 1012 INH observations from 736 TB patients were included. A nonlinear mixed-effects modelling was used to analyse the PPK of INH. Using Monte Carlo simulations to determine optimal dosage regimens and design remedial dosing regimens. RESULTS: A 2-compartmental model, including first-order absorption and elimination with allometric scaling, was found to best describe the PK characteristics of INH. A mixture model was used to characterize dual rates of INH elimination. Estimates of apparent clearance in fast and slow eliminators were 28.0 and 11.2 L/h, respectively. The proportion of fast eliminators in the population was estimated to be 40.5%. Monte Carlo simulations determined optimal dosage regimens for slow and fast eliminators with different body weight. For remedial dosing regimens, the missed dose should be taken as soon as possible when the delay does not exceed 12 h, and an additional dose is not needed. delay for an INH dose exceeds 12 h, the patient only needs to take the next single dose normally. CONCLUSION: PPK modelling and simulation provide valid evidence on the precision dosing and remedial dosing regimen of INH.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563793

RESUMO

Introduction: During mechanical ventilation (MV), inspired gases require heat and humidification. However, such conditions may be associated with reduced aerosol delivery efficiency. The practice of turning off heated humidification before nebulization and the impact of nebulization on humidity in a dry ventilator circuit remain topics of debate. This study aimed to assess the effect of turning off heated humidification on inhaled dose and humidity with nebulizer use during adult MV. Methods: A bronchodilator (albuterol) and two antibiotics (Colistimethate sodium and Amikacin sulfate) were nebulized with a vibrating mesh nebulizer placed at the humidifier inlet and in the inspiratory limb at the Y-piece. Additionally, albuterol was nebulized using a jet nebulizer in both placements. Aerosol particle size distribution was determined through a cascade impactor. Absolute humidity (AH) and temperature of inspired gases were determined with anemometer/hygrometers before, during, and after nebulization, before, during, and up to 60 minutes after interrupting active humidification. Aerosol collected on a filter distal to the endotracheal tube and on impactor stages were eluted and assayed by spectrophotometry. Results: The inhaled dose was greater when both nebulizers were placed at the humidifier inlet than the inspiratory limb at the Y-piece. Irrespective of the nebulizer types and placements, the inhaled dose either decreased or showed no significant change after the humidifier was turned off. The aerosol particle size ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 µm. With interruption of active humidification, humidity of inspired gas quickly dropped below recommended levels, and nebulization in dry ventilator circuit produced an AH between 10 and 20 mgH2O/L, lower than the recommended minimum of 30 mgH2O/L. Conclusion: Interrupting active humidification during MV before nebulization did not improve aerosol delivery efficiency for bronchodilator or antibiotics, but did reduce humidity below recommended levels.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563958

RESUMO

Background: Some experts recommend specific ventilator settings during nebulization for mechanically ventilated patients, such as inspiratory pause, high inspiratory to expiratory ratio, and so on. However, it is unclear whether those settings improve aerosol delivery. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the impact of ventilator settings on aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods: Salbutamol (5.0 mg/2.5 mL) was nebulized by a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) in an adult MV model. VMN was placed at the inlet of humidifier and 15 cm away from the Y-piece of the inspiratory limb. Eight scenarios with different ventilator settings were compared with endotracheal tube (ETT) connecting 15 cm from the Y-piece, including tidal volumes of 6-8 mL/kg, respiratory rates of 12-20 breaths/min, inspiratory time of 1.0-2.5 seconds, inspiratory pause of 0-0.3 seconds, and bias flow of 3.5 L/min. In-line suction catheter was utilized in two scenarios. Delivered drug distal to the ETT was collected by a filter, and drug was assayed by an ultraviolet spectrophotometry (276 nm). Results: Compared to the use of inspiratory pause, the inhaled dose without inspiratory pause was either higher or similar across all ventilation settings. Inhaled dose was negatively correlated with inspiratory flow with VMN placed at 15 cm away from the Y-piece (rs = -0.68, p < 0.001) and at the inlet of humidifier (rs = -0.83, p < 0.001). The utilization of in-line suction catheter reduced inhaled dose, regardless of the ventilator settings and nebulizer placements. Conclusions: When VMN was placed at the inlet of humidifier, directly connecting the Y-piece to ETT without a suction catheter improved aerosol delivery. In this configuration, the inhaled dose increased as the inspiratory flow decreased, inspiratory pause had either no or a negative impact on aerosol delivery. The inhaled dose was greater with VMN placed at the inlet of humidifier than 15 cm away the Y-piece.

4.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593276

RESUMO

Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (NTRK3) has pleiotropic functions: it acts not only as an oncogene in breast and gastric cancers but also as a dependence receptor in tumor suppressor genes in colon cancer and neuroblastomas. However, the role of NTRK3 in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is not well documented. This study investigated the association between NTRK3 expression and outcomes in UTUC patients and validated the results in tests on UTUC cell lines. A total of 118 UTUC cancer tissue samples were examined to evaluate the expression of NTRK3. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Cox regression models were used for investigating survival outcomes. Higher NTRK3 expression was correlated with worse progression-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. Moreover, the results of an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis suggested that NTRK3 may interact with the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway to promote cancer. NTRK3 downregulation in BFTC909 cells through shRNA reduced cellular migration, invasion, and activity in the AKT-mTOR pathway. Furthermore, the overexpression of NTRK3 in UM-UC-14 cells promoted AKT-mTOR pathway activity, cellular migration, and cell invasion. From these observations, we concluded that NTRK3 may contribute to aggressive behaviors in UTUC by facilitating cell migration and invasion through its interaction with the AKT-mTOR pathway and the expression of NTRK3 is a potential predictor of clinical outcomes in cases of UTUC.

5.
Nanoscale ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597919

RESUMO

Prussian blue nanoparticles exhibit the potential to be employed in bioanalytical applications due to their robust stability, peroxidase-like catalytic functionality, straightforward synthesis, and biocompatibility. An efficient approach is presented for the synthesis of nucleic acid-modified Prussian blue nanoparticles (DNA-PBNPs), utilizing nanoparticle porosity to adsorb nucleic acids (polyT). This strategic adsorption leads to the exposure of nucleic acid sequences on the particle surface while retaining catalytic activity. DNA-PBNPs further couple with functional nucleic acid sequences and aptamers through complementary base pairing to act as transducers in biosensors and amplify signal acquisition. Subsequently, we integrated a copper ion-dependent DNAzyme (Cu2+-DNAzyme) and a vascular endothelial growth factor aptamer (VEGF aptamer) onto screen-printed electrodes to serve as recognition elements for analytes. Significantly, our approach leverages DNA-PBNPs as a superior alternative to traditional enzyme-linked antibodies in electrochemical biosensors, thereby enhancing both the efficiency and adaptability of these devices. Our study conclusively demonstrates the application of DNA-PBNPs in two different biosensing paradigms: the sensitive detection of copper ions and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These results indicate the promising potential of DNA-modified Prussian blue nanoparticles in advancing bioanalytical sensing technologies.

6.
Biofactors ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599595

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is an age-related disease and is responsible for low back pain. Oxidative stress-induced cell death plays a fundamental role in IDD pathogenesis. Cuproptosis is a recently discovered form of programmed cell death dependent on copper availability. Whether cuproptosis is involved in IDD progression remains unknown. Herein, we established in vitro and in vivo models to investigate cuproptosis in IDD and the mechanisms by which oxidative stress interacts with copper sensitivity in nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). We found that ferredoxin-1 (FDX1) content increased in both rat and human degenerated discs. Sublethal oxidative stress on NPCs led to increased FDX1 expression, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related proteins lipoylation and aggregation, and cell death in the presence of Cu2+ at physiological concentrations, while FDX1 knockdown inhibited cell death. Since copper homeostasis is involved in copper-induced cytotoxicity, we investigated the role of copper transport-related proteins, including importer (CTR1) and efflux pumps (ATPase transporter, ATP7A, and ATP7B). CTR1 and ATP7A content increased under oxidative stress, and blocking CTR1 reduced oxidative stress/copper-induced TCA-related protein aggregation and cell death. Moreover, oxidative stress promoted the expression of specific protein 1 (SP1) and SP1-mediated CTR1 transcription. SP1 inhibition decreased cell death rates, preserved disc hydration, and alleviated tissue degeneration. This suggests that oxidative stress upregulates FDX1 expression and copper flux through promoting SP1-mediated CTR1 transcription, leading to increased TCA cycle-related protein aggregation and cuproptosis. This study highlights the importance of cuproptosis in IDD progression and provides a promising therapeutic target for IDD treatment.

7.
Invest New Drugs ; 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602625

RESUMO

Sutetinib is an irreversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and showed favorable efficacy and safety in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harbouring nondrug-resistant rare EGFR mutations. To evaluate the potential food effect, eighteen healthy Chinese subjects were enrolled in a single-centre, randomized, open-label, two-sequence, two-period crossover study. Sutetinib was administered as a single oral 100 mg under fasting or fed conditions, and pharmacokinetic sampling was performed following each dose and analysed by a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. Safety and tolerability were also evaluated. Food intake slightly decreased maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0 - inf) of sutetinib (geometric least-squares mean [GLSM] ratio, 80.94% and 86.11%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 68.43-95.72 and 75.88-97.73) and its active metabolite sutetinib N-Oxide (GLSM ratio, 75.58% and 84.00%; 90% CI, 65.69-86.95 and 75.42-93.56), respectively. In addition, the time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) of both sutetinib and its metabolite has been prolonged by 2 h under fed conditions. A total of 31 adverse events (AEs) occurred during the study, with no serious adverse events (SAE) reported, and no obvious difference was observed between the fasting and fed groups. Our results demonstrated that a high-fat and high-calorie diet caused a significant delay in drug absorption and a marginal reduction in drug exposure. Sutetinib was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects. (This trial was registered at http://www.chinadrugtrials.org.cn . The registration No. is CTR20201933, and the date of registration is 2020-10-16).

8.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28539, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596055

RESUMO

Left atrial (LA) fibrosis plays a vital role as a mediator in the progression of atrial fibrillation. 3D late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) MRI has been proven effective in identifying LA fibrosis. Image analysis of 3D LA LGE involves manual segmentation of the LA wall, which is both lengthy and challenging. Automated segmentation poses challenges owing to the diverse intensities in data from various vendors, the limited contrast between LA and surrounding tissues, and the intricate anatomical structures of the LA. Current approaches relying on 3D networks are computationally intensive since 3D LGE MRIs and the networks are large. Regarding this issue, most researchers came up with two-stage methods: initially identifying the LA center using a scaled-down version of the MRIs and subsequently cropping the full-resolution MRIs around the LA center for final segmentation. We propose a lightweight transformer-based 3D architecture, Usformer, designed to precisely segment LA volume in a single stage, eliminating error propagation associated with suboptimal two-stage training. The transposed attention facilitates capturing the global context in large 3D volumes without significant computation requirements. Usformer outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised learning methods in terms of accuracy and speed. First, with the smallest Hausdorff Distance (HD) and Average Symmetric Surface Distance (ASSD), it achieved a dice score of 93.1% and 92.0% in the 2018 Atrial Segmentation Challenge and our local institutional dataset, respectively. Second, the number of parameters and computation complexity are largely reduced by 2.8x and 3.8x, respectively. Moreover, Usformer does not require a large dataset. When only 16 labeled MRI scans are used for training, Usformer achieves a 92.1% dice score in the challenge dataset. The proposed Usformer delineates the boundaries of the LA wall relatively accurately, which may assist in the clinical translation of LA LGE for planning catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.

9.
Small ; : e2312116, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446107

RESUMO

Flexible zinc-ion batteries have garnered significant attention in the realm of wearable technology. However, the instability of hydrogel electrolytes in a wide-temperature range and uncontrollable side reactions of the Zn electrode have become the main problems for practical applications. Herein, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) to design a binary solvent (H2 O-DMF) is introduced and combined it with polyacrylamide (PAM) and ZnSO4 to synthesize a hydrogel electrolyte (denoted as PZD). The synergistic effect of DMF and PAM not only guides Zn2+ deposition on Zn(002) crystal plane and isolates H2 O from the Zn anode, but also breaks the hydrogen bonding network between water to improve the wide-temperature range stability of hydrogel electrolytes. Consequently, the symmetric cell utilizing PZD can stably cycle over 5600 h at 0.5 mA cm- 2 @0.5 mAh cm-2 . Furthermore, the Zn//PZD//MnO2 full cell exhibits favorable wide-temperature range adaptability (for 16000 cycles at 3 A g-1 under 25 °C, 750 cycles with 98 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 under -20 °C) and outstanding mechanical properties (for lighting up the LEDs under conditions of pressure, bending, cutting, and puncture). This work proposes a useful modification for designing a high-performance hydrogel electrolyte, which provides a reference for investigating the practical flexible aqueous batteries.

10.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1322670, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426092

RESUMO

Introduction: Somatostatin (SST) is a peptide hormone primarily synthesized in the digestive and nervous systems. While its impact on the endocrine system is well-established, accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for SST and its analogues in modulating immune responses. Despite this, the precise mechanism through which SST regulates T cells has remained largely unknown. Methods: To elucidate the impact of SST on human T cells, we conducted a series of experiments involving cell culture assays, molecular analyses, and metabolic profiling. Human T cells were treated with SST, and various parameters including proliferation, cytokine production, and metabolic activities were assessed. Additionally, we employed pharmacological inhibitors and genetic manipulations to dissect the signaling pathways mediating SST's effects on T cells. Results: We showed that SST diminishes T-cell proliferation by influencing IL-2 production and T-cell mitochondrial respiration, while having no discernible impact on TCR-induced glycolysis. Our findings also identified that the regulatory influence of SST on T-cell responses and metabolism is contingent on its receptor, SSTR3. Moreover, we demonstrated that SST governs T-cell responses and metabolism by acting through the T-cell metabolic checkpoint GSK3. Discussion: Our study provides novel insights into the immunoregulatory function of SST in human T cells, highlighting the complex interplay between hormonal signaling and immune regulation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying SST's effects on T cells may offer therapeutic opportunities for manipulating immune responses in various pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Somatostatina , Transdução de Sinais , Proliferação de Células
12.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526204

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This trial was to shorten the duration of both vasoconstrictors and prophylactic antibiotics to only 2 days in the therapy of acute gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage. METHODS: After successful endoscopic hemostasis of gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage, eligible patients were randomized to receive terlipressin infusion 1 mg per 6 hours and ceftriaxone 1 gm daily for 5 days (Group A) or similar regimen for 2 days (Group B). Primary end points were very early rebleeding at 5 days and secondary end points included 48 hours hemostasis, 42-day rebleeding and hospitalization days. RESULTS: Group A was comprised of 48 patients, and Group B was comprised of 52 patients. Both groups were comparable in the severity of liver disease. 48 hours initial hemostasis was 95.8% in Group A and 100% in Group B (p=0.13). Very early rebleeding between 3-5 days occurred in 1 patient (2.1%) in Group A and 2 patients (3.8%) in Group B (p=0.60). The difference was 1.8% and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was -1.31% to 2.08%, which demonstrated noninferiority. 42-day rebleeding occurred in 5 patients (10.4%) in Group A and 4 patients (7.7%) in Group B (p=0.63). The median hospitalization days were 8.5 ± 3.8 days in Group A versus 5.6 ± 2.6 days in Group B (p<0.001)). DISCUSSION: After successful endoscopic hemostasis of acute variceal bleeding, combination of 2-day terlipressin infusion and ceftriaxone therapy was not inferior to 5-day regimen in terms of very early rebleeding, with the advantage of shortening hospitalization stay.

13.
Environ Int ; 185: 108576, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490070

RESUMO

Global-scale crop contamination with environmental estrogens has posed a huge risk to agri-food safety and human health. Laccase is regarded as an unexceptionable biocatalyst for regulating pollution and expediting humification, but the knowledge of estrogen bioremediation and C storage strengthened by laccase-driven rhizosphere humification (LDRH) remains largely unknown. Herein, a greenhouse microcosm was performed to explore the migration and fate of 17ß-estradiol (E2) in water-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) matrices by LDRH. Compared to the non-added laccase, the pseudo-first-order decay rate constants of E2 in the rhizosphere solution after 10 and 50 µM exposures by LDRH increased from 0.03 and 0.02 h-1 to 0.36 and 0.09 h-1, respectively. Furthermore, LDRH conferred higher yield, polymerizability, O-containing groups, and functional-C signals in the humified precipitates, because it accelerated the formation of highly complex precipitates by radical-controlled continuous polymerization. In particular, not only did LDRH mitigate the phytotoxicity of E2, but it also diminished the metabolic load of E2 in wheat tissues. This was attributed to the rapid attenuation of E2 in the rhizosphere solution during LDRH, which limited E2 uptake and accumulation in each subcellular fraction of the wheat roots and shoots. Although several typical intermediate products such as estrone, estriol, and E2 oligomers were detected in roots, only small-molecule species were found in shoots, evidencing that the polymeric products of E2 were unable to be translocated acropetally due to the vast hydrophobicity and biounavailability. For the first time, our study highlights a novel, eco-friendly, and sustainable candidate for increasing the low-C treatment of organics in rhizosphere microenvironments and alleviating the potential risks of estrogenic contaminants in agroenvironments.


Assuntos
Lacase , Triticum , Humanos , Triticum/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Estrona , Biodegradação Ambiental
14.
Arch Toxicol ; 98(5): 1415-1436, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436694

RESUMO

In vitro and in vivo models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary injury, quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) has been previously revealed the lung-protective potential via downregulation of inflammation, pyroptotic, and apoptotic cell death. However, the upstream signals mediating anti-pulmonary injury of Q3G have not yet been clarified. It has been reported that concerted dual activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and autophagy may prove to be a better treatment strategy in pulmonary injury. In this study, the effect of Q3G on antioxidant and autophagy were further investigated. Noncytotoxic doses of Q3G abolished the LPS-caused cell injury, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with inductions in Nrf2-antioxidant signaling. Moreover, Q3G treatment repressed Nrf2 ubiquitination, and enhanced the association of Keap1 and p62 in the LPS-treated cells. Q3G also showed potential in inducing autophagy, as demonstrated by formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and upregulation of autophagy factors. Next, the autolysosomes formation and cell survival were decreased by Q3G under pre-treatment with a lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ). Furthermore, mechanistic assays indicated that anti-pulmonary injury effects of Q3G might be mediated via Nrf2 signaling, as confirmed by the transfection of Nrf2 siRNA. Finally, Q3G significantly alleviated the development of pulmonary injury in vivo, which may result from inhibiting the LPS-induced lung dysfunction and edema. These findings emphasize a toxicological perspective, providing new insights into the mechanisms of Q3G's protective effects on LPS-induced pulmonary injury and highlighting its role in dual activating Nrf2 and autophagy pathways.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Lipopolissacarídeos , Quercetina , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Autofagia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados
15.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 159, 2024 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439078

RESUMO

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a pathological process in which ectopic bone develops in soft tissues within the skeletal system. Endochondral ossification can be divided into the following types of acquired and inherited ossification: traumatic HO (tHO) and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). Nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling is essential during HO. NF-κB signalling can drive initial inflammation through interactions with the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In the chondrogenesis stage, NF-κB signalling can promote chondrogenesis through interactions with mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT (protein kinase B, PKB) and other molecules, including R-spondin 2 (Rspo2) and SRY-box 9 (Sox9). NF-κB expression can modulate osteoblast differentiation by upregulating secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and interacting with mTOR signalling, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling or integrin-mediated signalling under stretch stimulation in the final osteogenic stage. In FOP, mutated ACVR1-induced NF-κB signalling exacerbates inflammation in macrophages and can promote chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through interactions with smad signalling and mTOR signalling. This review summarizes the molecular mechanism of NF-κB signalling during HO and highlights potential therapeutics for treating HO.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Ossificação Heterotópica , Humanos , Osteonectina , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Inflamação
16.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 154(4): 225-235, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485340

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms underlying the effects of LPS tolerance on the inflammatory homeostasis of immune cells. LPS priming-induced immune tolerance downregulated cyclooxygenase-2, and lowered the production of prostaglandin-E2 in microglial cells. In addition, LPS tolerance downregulated the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide; suppressed the LPS-mediated induction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1; and reduced reactive oxygen species production in microglial cells. LPS stimulation increased the levels of the adaptive response-related proteins heme oxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutase 2, and the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enhanced after LPS priming. Systemic administration of low-dose LPS (0.5 mg/kg) to mice for 4 consecutive days attenuated high-dose LPS (5 mg/kg)-induced inflammatory response, microglial activation, and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Moreover, repeated exposure to low-dose LPS suppressed the recruitment of peripheral monocytes or macrophages to brain regions and downregulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Notably, LPS-induced social avoidance behaviors in mice were mitigated by immune tolerance. In conclusion, immune tolerance may reduce proinflammatory cytokine expression and reactive oxygen species production. Our findings provide insights into the effects of endotoxin tolerance on innate immune cells and social behaviors.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1 , Microglia , Animais , Camundongos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Tolerância Imunológica , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1340625, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532900

RESUMO

The intervertebral disc is not isolated from other tissues. Recently, abundant research has linked intervertebral disc homeostasis and degeneration to various systemic diseases, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Organokines are a group of diverse factors named for the tissue of origin, including adipokines, osteokines, myokines, cardiokines, gastrointestinal hormones, and hepatokines. Through endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine mechanisms, organokines modulate energy homeostasis, oxidative stress, and metabolic balance in various tissues to mediate cross-organ communication. These molecules are involved in the regulation of cellular behavior, inflammation, and matrix metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we aimed to summarize the impact of organokines on disc homeostasis and degeneration and the underlying signaling mechanism. We focused on the regulatory mechanisms of organokines to provide a basis for the development of early diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for disc degeneration.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Disco Intervertebral , Humanos , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Homeostase
18.
Epigenomics ; 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477016

RESUMO

Aim: Using the methylation level of miRNA genes to develop a prognostic model for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials & methods: least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to develop a prognostic model. One miRNA in the model was selected for verification. Results: A prognostic model was developed using eight miRNAs. The areas under the curve for predicting overall survival at 1, 3 and 5 years were 0.75, 0.81 and 0.81. miR-223 was found to be hypomethylated in 160 HCC tissues, and its methylation level was associated with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages and the prognosis of patients with HCC. Conclusion: The prognostic model based on miRNA methylation levels has the capability to partially forecast the prognosis of patients with HCC.

19.
J Burn Care Res ; 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477626

RESUMO

Hypertrophic scar development is a complication associated with wound healing, impacting local appearance and function. The type I/III collagen ratio affects the extent of hypertrophic scarring; a reduced ratio can ameliorate this. In this study, recombinant human collagen type III was developed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine its amino acid sequence and confirm its high level of homology with natural human type III collagen. Recombinant human collagen type III displayed no cytotoxicity and did not confer skin irritation and sensitization. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses of histidine following incubation with fibroblasts suggested cell entry of recombinant human collagen type III. Furthermore, recombinant human collagen type III promoted the synthesis of the natural type III collagen in fibroblasts, resulting in a more obvious increase of type III collagen content in fibroblasts than that of type I collagen, and then decreased the ratio of type I/III collagen. The results of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine staining assay suggested enhanced fibroblast proliferation. Following local injection of recombinant human collagen type III, rabbit ear scarring was significantly reduced after 60 days. Vancouver Scar Scale evaluation showed that all index scores were significantly reduced. Western blotting and Picro-Sirius red staining showed that the natural type III collagen increase in scar tissue was greater than that of type I collagen, decreasing the type I/III ratio. In summary, recombinant human collagen type III can be taken up by fibroblasts and promote natural collagen synthesis-especially that of type III-thereby reducing the type I/III ratio and improving hypertrophic scarring.

20.
Radiol Artif Intell ; : e230227, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477659

RESUMO

"Just Accepted" papers have undergone full peer review and have been accepted for publication in Radiology: Artificial Intelligence. This article will undergo copyediting, layout, and proof review before it is published in its final version. Please note that during production of the final copyedited article, errors may be discovered which could affect the content. The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) has held artificial intelligence competitions to tackle real-world medical imaging problems at least annually since 2017. This article examines the challenges and processes involved in organizing these competitions, with a specific emphasis on the creation and curation of high-quality datasets. The collection of diverse and representative medical imaging data involves dealing with issues of patient privacy and data security. Furthermore, ensuring quality and consistency in data, which includes expert labeling and accounting for various patient and imaging characteristics, necessitates substantial planning and resources. Overcoming these obstacles requires meticulous project management and adherence to strict timelines. The article also highlights the potential of crowdsourced annotation to progress medical imaging research. Through the RSNA competitions, an effective global engagement has been realized, resulting in innovative solutions to complex medical imaging problems, thus potentially transforming health care by enhancing diagnostic accuracy and patient outcomes. ©RSNA, 2024.

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