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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6667201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937409

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing is gaining popularity in clinical diagnoses, but more and more novel gene variants with unknown clinical significance are being found, giving difficulties to interpretations of people's genetic data, precise disease diagnoses, and the making of therapeutic strategies and decisions. In order to solve these issues, it is of critical importance to figure out ways to analyze and interpret such variants. In this work, BRCA1 gene variants with unknown clinical significance were identified from clinical sequencing data, and then, we developed machine learning models so as to predict the pathogenicity for variants with unknown clinical significance. Through performance benchmarking, we found that the optimized random forest model scored 0.85 in area under receiver operating characteristic curve, which outperformed other models. Finally, we applied the best random forest model to predict the pathogenicity of 6321 BRCA1 variants from both sequencing data and ClinVar database. As a result, we obtained the predictive pathogenic risks of BRCA1 variants of unknown significance.

2.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940178

RESUMO

The completion-of-tumor hypothesis involved in the dynamic interplay between the initiating oncogenic event and progression is essential to better recognize the foundational framework of tumors. Here we review and extend the gametogenesis-related hypothesis of tumors, because high embryonic/germ cell traits are common in tumors. The century-old gametogenesis-related hypothesis of tumors postulated that tumors arise from displaced/activated trophoblasts, displaced (lost) germ cells, and the reprogramming/reactivation of gametogenic program in somatic cells. Early primordial germ cells (PGCs), embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic germ cells (EGCs), and pre-implantation embryos at the stage from two-cell stage to blastocysts originating from fertilization or parthenogenesis have the potential to develop teratomas/teratocarcinomas. In addition, the teratomas/teratocarcinomas/germ cells occur in gonads and extra-gonads. Undoubtedly, the findings provide strong support for the hypothesis. However, it was thought that these tumor types were an exception rather than verification. In fact, there are extensive similarities between somatic tumor types and embryonic/germ cell development, such as antigens, migration, invasion, and immune escape. It was documented that embryonic/germ cell genes play crucial roles in tumor behaviors, e.g. tumor initiation and metastasis. Of note, embryonic/germ cell-like tumor cells at different developmental stages including PGC and oocyte to the early embryo-like stage were identified in diverse tumor types by our group. These embryonic/germ cell-like cancer cells resemble the natural embryonic/germ cells in morphology, gene expression, the capability of teratoma formation, and the ability to undergo the process of oocyte maturation and parthenogenesis. These embryonic/germ cell-like cancer cells are derived from somatic cells and contribute to tumor formation, metastasis, and drug resistance, establishing asexual meiotic embryonic life cycle. p53 inhibits the reactivation of embryonic/germ cell state in somatic cells and oocyte-like cell maturation. Based on earlier and our recent studies, we propose a novel model to complete the gametogenesis-related hypothesis of tumors, which can be applied to certain somatic tumors. That is, tumors tend to establish a somatic asexual meiotic embryonic cycle through the activation of somatic female gametogenesis and parthenogenesis in somatic tumor cells during the tumor progression, thus passing on corresponding embryonic/germ cell traits leading to the malignant behaviors and enhancing the cells' independence. This concept may be instrumental to better understand the nature and evolution of tumors. We rationalize that targeting the key events of somatic pregnancy is likely a better therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment than directly targeting cell mitotic proliferation, especially for those tumors with p53 inactivation.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145643, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940744

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microplastics in the environment are of great public concern due to their potential risk to human health. Microplastics can form distinct bacterial communities and absorb pollutants from the surrounding environment, which provide potential hosts and exert possible selection pressure of ARGs. We provide a practical evaluation of the scientific literature regarding this issue. The occurrence and transport of ARGs on microplastics in wastewater treatment plants, aquatic, terrestrial, and air environments were summarized. Selective enrichment of ARGs and antibiotic resistance bacteria on microplastics have been confirmed in different environments. Aggregates may be crucial to understand the behavior and transport of ARGs on microplastics, especially in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Microplastics could be a carrier of ARGs between the environment and animals. Accumulation of pollutants and dense bacterial communities on microplastics provide favorable conditions for higher transfer rate and evolution of ARGs. More studies are still needed to understand the enrichment, transport, and transfer of ARGs on microplastics and provide a fundamental basis for evaluating their exposure health risk to humans.

4.
Tomography ; 7(2): 107-119, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801685

RESUMO

The presence of a swallow-tail sign in the nigrosome-1 with hyperintense signal shown on the susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has been shown to be sensitive in detecting the abnormal iron deposits in this area. A systematic evaluation in healthy subjects is required before this tool can be recommended in a widespread application. We evaluated a simple and practical SWI approach using a multiecho gradient-echo sequence with an improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We also evaluated the association of the neuromelanin imaging contrast behavior with the susceptibility and relaxation measurements. Twenty-five older and 23 young healthy adults were evaluated. The CNRs of the nigrosome-1 were compared along with method and group. Correlations of the nigrosome-1 neuromelanin signal in the neuromelanin-sensitive imaging with CNRs in the susceptibility, T1 and T2 mappings were examined. Two different coils were used to confirm the reproducibility. Compared with the single-echo, multiecho SWI can improve the CNR of the swallow-tail sign. We found significant correlations between neuromelanin signal and CNRs in the susceptibility and T2 mappings, and T1 value. The older subjects exhibited increased CNRs compared with the young adults. No significant difference was observed in the measurements between 20 and 64 channels. The multiecho technique allows the high-quality nigrosome-1 images in SWI and allows for a joint analysis of T2* and quantitative-susceptibility mapping at high spatial resolution. The correlations of neuromelanin-sensitive imaging with susceptibility and T2 imply that the iron content in the nigrosome-1 may have significant influences on the hyperintensity of neuromelanin in the magnetization transfer-related contrast.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic is reaching its final phase in China. The complete epidemic data are available for a complete assessment of epidemiological parameters in all regions and time periods. METHODS: This study aims to present a spatiotemporal epidemic model based on spatially stratified heterogeneity (SSH) to simulate the epidemic spread. A susceptible-exposed/latent-infected-removed (SEIR) model was constructed for each SSH-identified stratum (each administrative city) to estimate the spatiotemporal epidemiological parameters of the outbreak. RESULTS: We estimated that the mean latent and removed periods were 5.40 and 2.13 days, respectively. There was an average of 1.72 latent or infected persons per 10,000 Wuhan travelers to elsewhere until January 20th, 2020. The space-time basic reproduction number (R0) estimates indicate an initial value between 2 and 3.5 in most cities on this date. The mean period for R0 estimates to decrease to 80% and 50% of initial values in cities were an average of 14.73 and 19.62 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our model estimates the complete spatiotemporal epidemiological characteristics of the outbreak in a space-time domain, and the findings will help enhance a comprehensive understanding of the outbreak and inform the strategies of prevention and control in other countries worldwide.

6.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862221

RESUMO

The intrinsic mechanisms sensing the imbalance of energy in cells are pivotal for cell survival under various environmental insults. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) serves as a central guardian maintaining energy homeostasis by orchestrating diverse cellular processes, such as lipogenesis, glycolysis, TCA cycle, cell cycle progression and mitochondrial dynamics. Given that AMPK plays an essential role in the maintenance of energy balance and metabolism, managing AMPK activation is considered as a promising strategy for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Since AMPK has been attributed to aberrant activation of metabolic pathways, mitochondrial dynamics and functions, and epigenetic regulation, which are hallmarks of cancer, targeting AMPK may open up a new avenue for cancer therapies. Although AMPK is previously thought to be involved in tumor suppression, several recent studies have unraveled its tumor promoting activity. The double-edged sword characteristics for AMPK as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene are determined by distinct cellular contexts. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in dissecting the upstream regulators and downstream effectors for AMPK, discuss the distinct roles of AMPK in cancer regulation and finally offer potential strategies with AMPK targeting in cancer therapy.

7.
Food Funct ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881120

RESUMO

The oxidative effects of hydroxyl radicals derived from a FeCl3/ascorbic acid/H2O2 system on the stability of muscle proteins in peeled shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were investigated. Physicochemical analysis indicated negative effects on the color (a* value), springiness, and pH of shrimp muscle, which appeared to be significantly exacerbated by higher concentrations of generated hydroxyl radicals when compared with the control. The microstructural results confirmed that a radical attack induced the incompact structure and disintegrated myofibers, thereby leading to weakened connective tissues and decreased stability of muscle proteins. Furthermore, label-free proteomic analysis revealed several differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) (i.e., ribosomal protein subunits, putative cytoskeleton proteins, and ion-binding proteins), which were detected and identified in oxidation-treated shrimp when compared with the control. The gene ontology (GO) and eukaryotic clusters of orthologous group (KOG) analyses further confirmed that the active hydroxyl radicals attacked vulnerable amino acids, modified peptide chains, and/or protein structures and/or conformations, which were responsible for a significant decrease in the muscle texture and stability of proteins in oxidation-treated shrimp. This study provides novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of muscle protein changes during oxidation development.

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8810698, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815661

RESUMO

Programmed necrosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells caused by excessive compression is a crucial factor in the etiopathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are crucial regulators of the cell death signaling pathway, and their involvement in IVDD has been reported. However, the specific role of ER stress (ERS) and ER-mitochondria interaction in compression-induced programmed necrosis of NP cells remains unknown. Our studies revealed that compression enhanced ERS and the association between ER and mitochondria in NP cells. Suppression of ERS via 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ crosstalk by inhibiting the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, glucose-regulated protein 75, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1 complex (IP3R-GRP75-VDAC1 complex) protected NP cells against programmed necrosis related to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) pathway. Moreover, excessive reactive oxygen species are critical activators of ERS, leading to mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation and consequent programmed necrosis. These data indicate that ERS and ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ crosstalk may be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of IVDD-associated disorders. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying IVDD and may provide novel therapeutic targets.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808290

RESUMO

Exploring spatio-temporal patterns of disease incidence can help to identify areas of significantly elevated or decreased risk, providing potential etiologic clues. The study uses the retrospective analysis of space-time scan statistic to detect the clusters of COVID-19 in mainland China with a different maximum clustering radius at the family-level based on case dates of onset. The results show that the detected clusters vary with the clustering radius. Forty-three space-time clusters were detected with a maximum clustering radius of 100 km and 88 clusters with a maximum clustering radius of 10 km from 2 December 2019 to 20 June 2020. Using a smaller clustering radius may identify finer clusters. Hubei has the most clusters regardless of scale. In addition, most of the clusters were generated in February. That indicates China's COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control strategy is effective, and they have successfully prevented the virus from spreading from Hubei to other provinces over time. Well-developed provinces or cities, which have larger populations and developed transportation networks, are more likely to generate space-time clusters. The analysis based on the data of cases from onset may detect the start times of clusters seven days earlier than similar research based on diagnosis dates. Our analysis of space-time clustering based on the data of cases on the family-level can be reproduced in other countries that are still seriously affected by the epidemic such as the USA, India, and Brazil, thus providing them with more precise signals of clustering.


Assuntos
Brasil , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Índia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
10.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846077

RESUMO

Reducing body myopathy (RBM) is a rare myopathy characterized by reducing bodies (RBs) in morphological presentation. The clinical manifestations of RBM present a wide clinical spectrum, varying from infantile lethal form through childhood and adult benign forms. FHL1 gene is the causative gene of RBM. To date, only 6 Chinese RBM patients have been reported. Here, we reported the clinical presentations and genetic findings of 3 Chinese RBM patients from two families. Two novel pathogenic variants, c.395G>A and c.401_402insGAC, were identified by whole exome sequencing. Furthermore, by reviewing previous studies, we revealed that most RBM patients manifested with an early onset, symmetric, progressive limb-girdle and axial muscle weakness with joint contractures, rigid spine or scoliosis except familial female patients who exhibited asymmetric benign muscle involvements. Our results provide insightful information to help better diagnose and understand the disease.

11.
Pathol Int ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848380

RESUMO

Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare tumor with an incidence that varies greatly between Eastern and Western countries. Transaldolase 1 (TALDO1) is a rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. In humans, aberrant TALDO1 activity has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases and malignancies; however, the function of TALDO1 in UTUC has not been previously investigated. Here we evaluated the clinical significance of TALDO1 expression in 115 paraffin-embedded tumor samples from patients with UTUC using immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that there was an association between high TALDO1 expression and advanced stage (P = 0.011), tumor size (P = 0.005), tumor location (P = 0.047), distant metastases (P = 0.023), local recurrence (P = 0.002), and cancer death (P = 0.003). Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we found that chemotherapy was an independent factor for bladder recurrence-free survival. Late stage (III/IV) and high TALDO1 expression were independent prognostic factors for progression-free and cancer-specific survival. In summary, increased TALDO1 expression in UTUC was significantly correlated with late stage, tumor size, tumor location, distant metastases, local recurrence, and cancer death. Therefore, high TALDO1 expression could be a predictor of poor survival in patients with UTUC. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of TALDO1 in UTUC development.

13.
Nat Genet ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927398

RESUMO

Phosphate (Pi) is essential to plant growth and crop yield. However, it remains unknown how Pi homeostasis is maintained during cereal grain filling. Here, we identified a rice grain-filling-controlling PHO1-type Pi transporter, OsPHO1;2, through map-based cloning. Pi efflux activity and its localization to the plasma membrane of seed tissues implicated a specific role for OsPHO1;2 in Pi reallocation during grain filling. Indeed, Pi over-accumulated in developing seeds of the Ospho1;2 mutant, which inhibited the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), important for starch synthesis, and the grain-filling defect was alleviated by overexpression of AGPase in Ospho1;2-mutant plants. A conserved function was recognized for the maize transporter ZmPHO1;2. Importantly, ectopic overexpression of OsPHO1;2 enhanced grain yield, especially under low-Pi conditions. Collectively, we discovered a mechanism underlying Pi transport, grain filling and P-use efficiency, providing an efficient strategy for improving grain yield with minimal P-fertilizer input in cereals.

14.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 152, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disease that affects 20-30% of individuals worldwide. Liver puncture remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of liver diseases despite limitations regarding invasive nature and sample variability. It is of great clinical significance to find noninvasive biomarkers to detect and predict NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to identify potential serum markers in individuals with early-stage NAFLD and to advance the mechanistic understanding of this disease using a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach. METHODS: One hundred and twelve patients with early-stage NAFLD aged 18-55 were recruited according to the guidelines. The control group included 112 healthy participants. The demographic, anthropometric, clinical and laboratory data of all participants were systematically collected. Serum samples were obtained after an overnight fast. The comprehensive serum metabolomic analysis was performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The resultant data was processed by Compound Discover and SIMCA-P software to validate the potential biomarkers. Significantly altered metabolites were evaluated by variable importance in projection value (VIP > 1) and ANOVA (p < 0.01). Pathway analysis was performed using MetaboAnalyst 4.0. RESULTS: The liver function test of early NAFLD patients showed no statistical differences to control group (p > 0.05). However, obvious differences in blood lipids were observed between subjects with NAFLD and controls (p < 0.001). In total, 55 metabolites showed significant changes in experimental group were identified. The area under curve (AUC) values deduced by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis indicated that these newly identified biomarkers have high predictability and reliability. Of these, 15 metabolites with AUC greater than 0.9 were of great diagnostic value in early NAFLD patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, a total of 15 serum metabolites were found to strongly associate with early NAFLD. These biomarkers may have great clinical significance in the early diagnosis of NAFLD, as well as to follow response to therapeutic interventions.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919990

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to gradual central vision loss and is the third leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The underlying mechanisms for this progressive neurodegenerative disease remain unclear and there is currently no preventive treatment for dry AMD. Sodium iodate (NaIO3) has been reported to induce AMD-like retinal pathology in mice. We established a mouse model for AMD to evaluate the effects of quercetin on NaIO3-induced retinal apoptosis, and to investigate the pertinent underlying mechanisms. Our in vitro results indicated that quercetin protected human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cells from NaIO3-induced apoptosis by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry. We also evaluated the relative expression of proteins in the apoptosis pathway. Quercetin downregulated the protein expressions of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP and upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 through reduced PI3K and pAKT expressions. Furthermore, our in vivo results indicated that quercetin improved retinal deformation and increased the thickness of both the outer nuclear layer and inner nuclear layer, whereas the expression of caspase-3 was inhibited. Taken together, these results demonstrate that quercetin could protect retinal pigment epithelium and the retina from NaIO3-induced cell apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, involving the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This suggests that quercetin has the potential to prevent and delay AMD and other retinal diseases involving NaIO3-mediated apoptosis.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9264, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927218

RESUMO

Risk classification for prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness and underlying mechanisms remain inadequate. Interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may provide a solution to fill these gaps. To identify SNP-SNP interactions in the four pathways (the angiogenesis-, mitochondria-, miRNA-, and androgen metabolism-related pathways) associated with PCa aggressiveness, we tested 8587 SNPs for 20,729 cases from the PCa consortium. We identified 3 KLK3 SNPs, and 1083 (P < 3.5 × 10-9) and 3145 (P < 1 × 10-5) SNP-SNP interaction pairs significantly associated with PCa aggressiveness. These SNP pairs associated with PCa aggressiveness were more significant than each of their constituent SNP individual effects. The majority (98.6%) of the 3145 pairs involved KLK3. The 3 most common gene-gene interactions were KLK3-COL4A1:COL4A2, KLK3-CDH13, and KLK3-TGFBR3. Predictions from the SNP interaction-based polygenic risk score based on 24 SNP pairs are promising. The prevalence of PCa aggressiveness was 49.8%, 21.9%, and 7.0% for the PCa cases from our cohort with the top 1%, middle 50%, and bottom 1% risk profiles. Potential biological functions of the identified KLK3 SNP-SNP interactions were supported by gene expression and protein-protein interaction results. Our findings suggest KLK3 SNP interactions may play an important role in PCa aggressiveness.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912879

RESUMO

Photon-induced trap deactivation is commonly observed in organometal halide perovskites. Trap deactivation is characterized by an obvious photoluminescence (PL) enhancement. In this work, the properties of traps in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films were studied based on the PL enhancement excited by lasers of different wavelengths (633 nm and 405 nm). Two types of electron traps were identified; one can be deactivated by both 633 nm and 405 nm illuminations, whereas the other one can only be deactivated by 405 nm illumination. The energy levels of both types of traps were beneath the conduction band minimum. The expressions of the PL enhancement kinetics due to the trap deactivations by lasers of different wavelengths were derived. The ratio of the constants of the radiative recombination rate and the initial capture rates for both traps was determined from the PL enhancement. The trap deactivation was a photon-related process rather than a photocarrier-related process, and the deactivation time was inversely proportional to the photon flux density.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that trauma centre-related risk factors, such as distance to the nearest trauma hospital, are strong predictors of fatal injuries among motorists. Few studies have used a national dataset to study the effect of trauma centre-related risk factors on fatal injuries among motorists and motorcyclists in a country where traffic is dominated by motorcycles. This study investigated the effect of distance from the nearest trauma hospital on fatal injuries from two-vehicle crashes in Taiwan from 2017 to 2019. METHODS: A crash dataset and hospital location dataset were combined. The crash dataset was extracted from the National Taiwan Traffic Crash Dataset from 1 January 2017 through 31 December 2019. The primary exposure in this study was distance to the nearest trauma hospital. This study performed a multiple logistic regression to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for fatal injuries. RESULTS: The multivariate logistic regression models indicated that motorcyclists involved in crashes located ≥5 km from the nearest trauma hospital and in Eastern Taiwan were approximately five times more likely to sustain fatal injuries (AOR = 5.26; 95% CI: 3.69-7.49). CONCLUSIONS: Distance to, level of, and region of the nearest trauma centre are critical risk factors for fatal injuries among motorcyclists but not motorists. To reduce the mortality rate of trauma cases among motorcyclists, interventions should focus on improving access to trauma hospitals.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Centros de Traumatologia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Motocicletas , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672291

RESUMO

Arterial accumulation of plasma-derived LDL and its subsequent oxidation contributes to atherosclerosis. Lymphatic vessel (LV)-mediated removal of arterial cholesterol has been shown to reduce atherosclerotic lesion formation. However, the precise mechanisms that regulate LV density and function in atherosclerotic vessels remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of native LDL (nLDL) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in modulating lymphangiogenesis and underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blotting and immunostaining experiments demonstrated increased oxLDL expression in human atherosclerotic arteries. Furthermore, elevated oxLDL levels were detected in the adventitial layer, where LV are primarily present. Treatment of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) with oxLDL inhibited in vitro tube formation, while nLDL stimulated it. Similar results were observed with Matrigel plug assay in vivo. CD36 deletion in mice and its siRNA-mediated knockdown in LEC prevented oxLDL-induced inhibition of lymphangiogenesis. In addition, oxLDL via CD36 receptor suppressed cell cycle, downregulated AKT and eNOS expression, and increased levels of p27 in LEC. Collectively, these results indicate that oxLDL inhibits lymphangiogenesis via CD36-mediated regulation of AKT/eNOS pathway and cell cycle. These findings suggest that therapeutic blockade of LEC CD36 may promote arterial lymphangiogenesis, leading to increased cholesterol removal from the arterial wall and reduced atherosclerosis.

20.
Cancer Biomark ; 30(2): 261-273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682697

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been revealed to involve in the chemoresistance of various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we further investigate the role of circRNA_100565 in NSCLC cisplatin (DDP) resistance. The expression of circRNA_100565 and microRNA (miR)-337-3p, and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 28 (ADAM28) mRNA was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blot was used to detect the level of ADAM28 and autophagy-related protein. The interaction between miR-337-3p and circRNA_100565 or ADAM28 was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay or pull-down assay. In vivo experiments were conducted via the murine xenograft model. We found CircRNA_100565 was up-regulated in NSCLC DDP-resistant tissues and cell lines, and its high expression was associated with shorter overall survival of NSCLC patients. CircRNA_100565 deletion mitigated DDP resistance, reflected by the suppression of proliferation and autophagy, the reduction of IC50 value, as well as enhancement of apoptosis in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells. MiR-377-3p was confirmed to directly bind to circRNA_100565 or ADAM28 3'-UTR. Moreover, circRNA_100565 indirectly regulated ADAM28 expression by sponging miR-377-3p in NSCLC cells. Additionally, circRNA_100565 deletion-induced sensitivity of NSCLC resistant cells to DDP could be remarkably attenuated by miR-377-3p inhibition or ADAM28 re-expression. Meanwhile, circRNA_100565 knockdown contributed to the anti-tumor effects of DDP on NSCLC in vivo.CONCLUSION: CircRNA_100565 was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patient survival, and enhanced the resistance of NSCLC cells to cisplatin by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy via miR-337-3p/ADAM28 axis, shedding light on the development of a novel therapeutic strategy to boost the effectiveness of NSCLC chemotherapy.

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