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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7244, 2024 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538745

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate whether white and gray matter microstructure changes observed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to reflect the progression of chronic brain trauma. The MRI-DTI parameters, neuropathologic changes, and behavioral performance of adult male Wistar rats that underwent moderate (2.1 atm on day "0") or repeated mild (1.5 atm on days "0" and "2") traumatic brain injury (TBI or rmTBI) or sham operation were evaluated at 7 days, 14 days, and 1-9 months after surgery. Neurobehavioral tests showed that TBI causes long-term motor, cognitive and neurological deficits, whereas rmTBI results in more significant deficits in these paradigms. Both histology and MRI show that rmTBI causes more significant changes in brain lesion volumes than TBI. In vivo DTI further reveals that TBI and rmTBI cause persistent microstructural changes in white matter tracts (such as the body of the corpus callosum, splenium of corpus callus, internal capsule and/or angular bundle) of both two hemispheres. Luxol fast blue measurements reveal similar myelin loss (as well as reduction in white matter thickness) in ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres as observed by DTI analysis in injured rats. These data indicate that the disintegration of microstructural changes in white and gray matter parameters analyzed by MRI-DTI can serve as noninvasive and reliable markers of structural and functional level alterations in chronic TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Substância Branca , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia
2.
Sci Prog ; 107(1): 368504241231154, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425276

RESUMO

The underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effects exerted by bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in treating repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI)-induced long-term sensorimotor/cognitive impairments are not fully elucidated. Herein, we aimed to explore whether BM-MSCs therapy protects against rTBI-induced long-term neurobehavioral disorders in rats via normalizing white matter integrity and gray matter microglial response. Rats were subjected to repeated mild lateral fluid percussion on day 0 and day 3. On the fourth day post-surgery, MSCs groups received MSCs (4 × 106 cells/ml/kg, intravenously) and were assessed by the radial maze, Y maze, passive avoidance tests, and modified neurological severity scores. Hematoxylin & eosin, and Luxol fast blue stainings were used to examine the histopathology and white matter thickness. At the same time, immunofluorescence staining was used to investigate the numbers of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-containing microglia in gray matter. Three to nine months after neurotrauma, rats displayed sensorimotor and cognitive impairments, reduced thickness in white matter, and over-accumulation of TNF-α-containing microglia and cellular damage in gray matter. Therapy with BM-MSCs significantly attenuated the rTBI-induced sensorimotor and cognitive impairments and all their complications. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy might accelerate the recovery of sensorimotor and cognitive impairments in rats with rTBI via normalizing myelin integrity and microglia response.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Disfunção Cognitiva , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Ratos , Animais , Bainha de Mielina , Microglia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Cognição
3.
Life Sci ; 323: 121640, 2023 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37004732

RESUMO

AIM: Relatively little information is available about the effect of an acute exertional heat stroke (EHS) on myocardium structure and function. Herein, we used a survival male rat model of EHS to answer the question. MAIN METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats underwent forced treadmill running at a 36 °C room temperature and 50 % relative humidity until EHS onset, characterized by hyperthermia and collapse. All rats that were followed for 14 days survived. Injury severity scores of both gastrocnemius and myocardium were determined histologically. Following an EHS event, pathological echocardiography, skeletal muscle and myocardial damage scores and indicators, myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and autophagy were elucidated. KEY FINDINGS: Rats with EHS onset displayed skeletal muscle damage, elevated serum levels of skeletal muscle damage indicators (e.g., creatinine kinase, myoglobin, and potassium), and myocardial injury indicators (e.g., cardiac troponin I, creatinine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) returning to homeostasis within 3 days post-EHS. However, EHS-induced myocardial damage, pathological echocardiography, myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and deposited misfolded proteins lasted up to 14 days post-EHS at least. SIGNIFICANCE: First, we provide evidence to confirm that despite the apparent return to homeostasis, underlying processes may still be ongoing after EHS onset. Second, we provide several key findings emphasizing the pathophysiology and risk factors of EHS, highlighting gaps in knowledge with the aim of stimulating future studies.


Assuntos
Golpe de Calor , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Creatinina , Ratos Wistar , Golpe de Calor/etiologia , Miocárdio , Fibrose
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22028, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539544

RESUMO

The interrelationships between neuronal viability, synaptic integrity, and microglial responses remain in infancy. In dealing with the question, we induced a stretch injury to evaluate the mechanical effects of trauma on rat primary cortical neurons and BV2 microglial cells in a transwell culture system. The viability of primary neurons and BV2 cells was determined by MTT. Synaptic integrity was evaluated by determining the expression of beta-secretase 1 (BACE1), amyloid-beta (Aß), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and synaptophysin (vehicle protein). Both CD16/32-positive (CD16/32+) and CD206-positive (CD206+) microglia cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The phagocytic ability of the BV2 cells was determined using pHrodo E. coli BioParticles conjugates and flow cytometry. We found that stretch injury BV2 cells caused reduced viability and synaptic abnormalities characterized by Aß accumulation and reductions of BACE1, MAP2, and synaptophysin in primary neurons. Intact BV2 cells exhibited normal phagocytic ability and were predominantly CD206+ microglia cells, whereas the injured BV2 cells exhibited reduced phagocytic ability and were predominantly CD16/32+ microglial cells. Like a stretch injury, the injured BV2 cells can cause both reduced viability and synaptic abnormalities in primary neurons; intact BV2 cells, when cocultured with primary neurons, can protect against the stretch-injured-induced reduced viability and synaptic abnormalities in primary neurons. We conclude that CD206+ and CD16/32+ BV-2 cells can produce neuroprotective and cytotoxic effects on primary cortical neurons.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide , Microglia , Ratos , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo
6.
Mol Neurobiol ; 59(5): 3091-3109, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262870

RESUMO

We aim to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise rehabilitation (ER) and/or astragaloside (AST) in counteracting amyloid-beta (Aß) pathology. Aß oligomers were microinjected into the bilateral ventricles to induce Aß neuropathology in rats. Neurobehavioral functions were evaluated. Cortical and hippocampal expressions of both BDNF/TrkB and cathepsin D were determined by the western blotting method. The rat primary cultured cortical neurons were incubated with BDNF and/or AST and ANA12 followed by exposure to aggregated Aß for 24 h. In vivo results showed that ER and/or AST reversed neurobehavioral disorders, downregulation of cortical and hippocampal expression of both BDNF/TrkB and cathepsin D, neural pathology, Aß accumulation, and altered microglial polarization caused by Aß. In vitro studies also confirmed that topical application of BDNF and/or AST reversed the Aß-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, mitochondrial distress, and synaptotoxicity and decreased expression of p-TrkB, p-Akt, p-GSK3ß, and ß-catenin in rat cortical neurons. The beneficial effects of combined ER (or BDNF) and AST therapy in vivo and in vitro were superior to ER (or BDNF) or AST alone. Furthermore, we observed that any gains from ER (or BDNF) and/or AST could be significantly eliminated by ANA-12, a potent BDNF/TrkB antagonist. These results indicate that whereas ER (or BDNF) and/or AST attenuate Aß pathology by reversing BDNF/TrkB signaling deficits and mitochondrial dysfunction, combining these two potentiates each other's therapeutic effects. In particular, AST can be an alternative therapy to replace ER.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Catepsina D , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Catepsina D/metabolismo , Catepsina D/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(13): 2920-2929, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220319

RESUMO

Background: Although whole-body cooling has been reported to improve the ischemic/reperfusion injury in hemorrhagic shock (HS) resuscitation, it is limited by its adverse reactions following therapeutic hypothermia. HS affects the experimental and clinical bowel disorders via activation of the brain-gut axis. It is unknown whether selective brain cooling achieves beneficial effects in HS resuscitation via preserving the integrity of the brain-gut axis. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were bled to hypovolemic HS and resuscitated with blood transfusion followed by retrograde jugular vein flush (RJVF) with 4 °C or 36 °C normal saline. The mean arterial blood pressure, cerebral blood flow, and brain and core temperature were measured. The integrity of intestinal tight junction proteins and permeability, blood pro-inflammatory cytokines, and multiple organs damage score were determined. Results: Following blood transfusion resuscitation, HS rats displayed gut barrier disruption, increased blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and peripheral vital organ injuries. Intrajugular-based infusion cooled the brain robustly with a minimal effect on body temperature. This brain cooling significantly reduced the HS resuscitation-induced gut disruption, systemic inflammation, and peripheral vital organ injuries in rats. Conclusion: Resuscitation with selective brain cooling achieves peripheral vital organs protection in hemorrhagic shock resuscitation via preserving the integrity of the brain-gut axis.


Assuntos
Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino/fisiologia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Transfusão de Sangue , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Veias Jugulares , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solução Salina/administração & dosagem , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia
8.
Aging Cell ; 20(5): e13340, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783931

RESUMO

Amyloid-beta (Aß) oligomer is known to contribute to the pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the in vivo and in vitro effects of Aß1-42 application on retinal morphology in rats. Our in vivo studies revealed that intracerebroventricular administration of Aß1-42 oligomer caused dysmorphological changes in both retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelium. In addition, in vitro studies revealed that ARPE-19 cells following Aß1-42 oligomer application had decreased viability along with apoptosis and decreased expression of the tight junction proteins, increased expression of both phosphor-AKT and phosphor-GSK3ß and decreased expression of both SIRT1 and ß-catenin. Application of conditioned medium (CM) obtained from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) protected against Aß1-42 oligomer-induced retinal pathology in both rats and ARPE-19 cells. In order to explore the potential role of peptides secreted from the MSCs, we applied mass spectrometry to compare the peptidomics profiles of the MSC-CM. Gene ontology enrichment analysis and String analysis were performed to explore the differentially expressed peptides by predicting the functions of their precursor proteins. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 3-8 out of 155-163 proteins in the MSC-CM maybe associated with SIRT1/pAKT/pGSK3ß/ß-catenin, tight junction proteins, and apoptosis pathway. In particular, the secretomes information on the MSC-CM may be helpful for the prevention and treatment of retinal pathology in age-related macular degeneration.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Animais , Apoptose , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Ratos , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Memória Espacial , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e019274, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749310

RESUMO

Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a major contributor for heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation. Despite the advancement of MR surgeries, an effective medical therapy to mitigate MR progression is lacking. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, a new class of antidiabetic drugs, has shown measurable benefits in reduction of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that dapagliflozin (DAPA), a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, can improve cardiac hemodynamics in MR-induced HF. Methods and Results Using a novel, mini-invasive technique, we established a MR model in rats, in which MR induced left heart dilatation and functional decline. Half of the rats were randomized to be administered with DAPA at 10 mg/kg per day for 6 weeks. After evaluation of electrocardiography and echocardiography, hemodynamic studies were performed, followed by postmortem tissue analyses. Results showed that DAPA partially rescued MR-induced impairment including partial restoration of left ventricular ejection fraction and end-systolic pressure volume relationship. Despite no significant changes in electrocardiography at rest, rats treated with DAPA exhibited lower inducibility and decreased duration of pacing-induced atrial fibrillation. DAPA also significantly attenuated cardiac fibrosis, cardiac expression of apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins. Conclusions DAPA was able to suppress cardiac fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress and improve hemodynamics in an MR-induced HF rat model. The demonstrated DAPA effect on the heart and its association with key molecular contributors in eliciting its cardio-protective function, provides a plausible point of DAPA as a potential strategy for MR-induced HF.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
10.
J Neurotrauma ; 38(8): 1185-1192, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20578826

RESUMO

The present study was attempted to assess the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2; 100% O2 at 253 kpa) in treating experimental heatstroke. Anesthetized rats were divided into five major groups: normothermic control (NC) rats treated with normobaric air (NBA; 21% O2 at 101 kpa; NC + NBA); NC rats treated with HBO2 (NC + HBO2); heatstroke (HS) rats treated with NBA (HS + NBA); HS rats treated with hyperbaric air (HBA; 21% at 253 kpa; HS + HBA); and HS rats treated with HBO2 (HS + HBO2). HS groups were exposed to heat (43°C) for exactly 68 min and then allowed to recover at 26°C. HBA or HBO2 was adopted 68 or 78 min after the start of heat exposure. Survival time values for (HS + NBA) rats, (HS + HBA) rats at 68 min, (HS + HBA) rats at 78 min, (HS + HBO2) rats at 68 min, and (HS + HBO2) rats at 78 min were found to be 90 ± 3, 133 ± 12, 109 ± 9, 240 ± 18, and 170 ± 15 min, respectively. Resuscitation with HBA or HBO2 at 68 min was superior to those treated at 78 min in prolonging the survival time values. All (HS + NBA) animals displayed hyperthermia, hypotension, and increased cellular levels of ischemia, oxidative stress and damage markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and an indicator of polymorphonuclear cell accumulation in their hypothalamus as compared to those of NCs. Heat-induced hyperthermia was not affected by HBA or HBO2 treatment. However, heat-induced hypotension and hypothalamic ischemia, oxidative stress, neuronal damage, and inflammation were all significantly reduced by HBA or HBO2 therapy. Compared to those of HBA therapy, HBO2 therapy had a significantly higher beneficial effect in treating heatstroke. Our results suggested that HBO2 improved heatstroke outcomes, in part, by restoring normal hypothalamic function. Delaying the onset of HBO2 therapy reduced the therapeutic efficiency.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Golpe de Calor/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica/métodos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Golpe de Calor/complicações , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14409, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873851

RESUMO

To date, there is no good evidence that intestine epithelial cells (IEC) affected by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are able to cause cortical neuron injury directly. Additionally, it remains unclear whether the neuronal damage caused by I/R injured IEC can be affected by therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 32 °C). To address these questions, we performed an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) affected IEC-6-primary cortical neuron coculture system under normothermia (37 °C) or TH (32 °C) conditions. It was found that OGD caused hyperpermeability in IEC-6 cell monolayers. OGD-preconditioned IEC-6 cells caused cortical neuronal death (e.g., decreased cell viability), synaptotoxicity, and neuronal apoptosis (evidenced by increased caspase-3 expression and the number of TUNEL-positive cells), necroptosis (evidenced by increased receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase-1 [RIPK1], RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase [MLKL] expression), and pyroptosis (evidenced by an increase in caspase-1, gasdermin D [GSDMD], IL-1ß, IL-18, the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain [ASC], and nucleotide oligomerization domain [NOD]-like receptor [NLRP]-1 expression). TH did not affect the intestinal epithelial hyperpermeability but did attenuate OGD-induced neuronal death and synaptotoxicity. We also performed quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the genes encoding 84 exosomal microRNAs in the medium of the control-IEC-6, the control-neuron, the OGD-IEC-6 at 37 °C, the OGD-IEC-6 at 32 °C, the neuron cocultured with OGD-IEC-6 at 37 °C, and the neurons cocultured with OGD-IEC-6 at 32 °C. We found that the control IEC-6 cell s or cortical neurons are able to secrete a basal level of exosomal miRNAs in their medium. OGD significantly up-regulated the basal level of each parameter for IEC-6 cells. As compared to those of the OGD-IEC-6 cells or the control neurons, the OGD-IEC-6 cocultured neurons had significantly higher levels of 19 exosomal miRNAs related to apoptosis, necroptosis, and/or pyroptosis events. Our results identify that I/R injured intestinal epithelium cells can induce cortical neuron death via releasing paracrine mediators such as exosomal miRNAs associated with apoptosis, necroptosis, and/or pyroptosis, which can be counteracted by TH.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Necroptose , Neurônios/metabolismo , Piroptose , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Hipotermia/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 24: 8096-8104, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Several clinical conditions can cause hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study aimed to determine the mechanism of the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO2P) on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a rat model, and to investigate the effects on HBO2P and I/R injury of blocking HSP70 using antibody (Ab) pretreatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent HBO2P for 60 min at 2.0 atmosphere absolute (ATA) pressure for five consecutive days before surgical hepatic I/R injury, performed by clamping the portal vein and hepatic lobe. Four groups studied included: the non-HBO2P+ non-I/R group, which underwent sham surgery (N=10); the non-HBO2P + I/R group (N=10); the HBO2P + I/R group (N=10); and the HBO2P + HSP70-Ab + I/R group (N=10) received one dose of HSP70 antibody one day before hepatic I/R injury. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured biochemically. Rat liver tissues were examined histologically. RESULTS In rats with hepatic I/R injury without HSP70 antibody pre-treatment, HBO2P significantly reduced hepatic injury and levels of LDH, AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-6, MDA, and MPO levels; in comparison, the group pre-treated with an antibody to inhibit HSP70 (the HBO2P + HSP70-Ab + I/R group) showed significant reversal of the beneficial effects of HBO2P on hepatic I/R injury (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In a rat model of hepatic I/R injury with HBO2P, HSP70 reduced hepatic inflammatory and oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica/métodos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-6/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/patologia , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
13.
Mol Neurobiol ; 55(11): 8602-8611, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574629

RESUMO

Physical exercise (PE) is an effective method for improving cognitive function among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We previously demonstrated that PE with an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system provides strong neuroprotection in an experimental animal model of stroke. In this study, we used fluid percussion injury in rats to simulate mild TBI. For rats, we used both passive avoidance learning and the Y-maze tests to evaluate cognitive function. We investigated whether PE rehabilitation attenuated cognitive deficits in rats with TBI and determined the contribution of hippocampal and cortical expression of heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) to PE-mediated cognitive recovery. In addition to increasing hippocampal and cortical expression of HSP20, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) ratio, PE rehabilitation significantly attenuated brain contusion and improved cognitive deficits in the rat model. Furthermore, reducing hippocampal and cortical expression of HSP20 with an intracerebral injection of pSUPER hsp20 small interfering RNA significantly diminished the PE-induced overexpression of hippocampal and cortical BDNF and the TrkB ratio and also reversed the beneficial effect of PE in reducing neurotrauma and the cognitive deficits. A positive Pearson correlation was found between HSP20 and BDNF, as well as between HSP20 and TrkB, in the hippocampal and cortical tissues. We thus conclude that post-ischaemic ISRW exercise rehabilitation attenuates cognitive deficits, as well as brain contusions, in TBI rats by stimulating the cerebral HSP20/BDNF/TrkB signalling axis.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/reabilitação , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Animais , Contusão Encefálica/metabolismo , Contusão Encefálica/patologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Interferência de RNA , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
14.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 70(6): 760-767, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of melatonin on heat stroke (HS) induced acute myocardial infarction in rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Myocardial injury was induced by subjecting the anaesthetized rats to a high ambient temperature of 43°C for 70 min. Such a high ambient temperature caused hyperthermia, hypotension and myocardial injury in rats. Rats were treated with melatonin (3 mg/kg) intravenously one hour before and followed by an additional dose immediately after heat stress. KEY FINDINGS: At the onset of HS, animals displayed myocardial injury evidenced by increased levels of cardiac damage indicators (e.g. total lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB), increased cardiac damage scores and suppressed left ventricular performance. Animals with HS also had increased cardiac oxidative stress evidenced by increased levels of lipid peroxidation (e.g. increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and activated inflammation (e.g. increased levels of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α). Pretreatment with melatonin significantly reversed the HS-induced myocardial injury, cardiac oxidative stress and cardiac inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin may protect against HS-induced myocardial injury in male rats by mitigating oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Golpe de Calor/complicações , Melatonina/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Animais , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
15.
Oncotarget ; 9(2): 1992-2001, 2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29416747

RESUMO

CD34 is a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein used to selectively enrich bone marrow in hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Treating rats with CD34+ cells derived from human umbilical cord blood before or after heat stroke has been shown to promote survival. We investigated whether CD34- human placenta-derived stem cells (PDMSCs) could improve survival following heat stroke in rats. Rats were subjected to heat stress (42°C for 98 min) to induce heat stroke. Intravenous administration of PDMSCs 1 day before or immediately after the onset of heat stroke improved survival by 60% and 20%, respectively. Pre-treatment with CD34- PDMSCs protected against heat stroke injury more effectively than that treatment after injury. PDMSCs treatment attenuated cerebrovascular dysfunction, the inflammatory response, and lipid peroxidation. These data suggest human PDMSCs protect against heat stroke injury in rats. Moreover, these effects do not require the presence of CD34+ cells.

16.
Int J Med Sci ; 14(13): 1327-1334, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29200946

RESUMO

Background: Clinical assessment reveals that patients after surgery of cardiopulmonary bypass or coronary bypass experience postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate whether resuscitation after a hemorrhagic shock (HS) and/or mild cerebral ischemia caused by a unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO) can cause brain injury and concomitant neurological dysfunction, and explore the potential mechanisms. Methods: Blood withdrawal (6 mL/100 g body weight) for 60 min through the right jugular vein catheter-induced an HS. Immediately after the termination of HS, we reinfused the initially shed blood volumes to restore and maintain the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) to the original value during the 30-min resuscitation. A cooling water blanket used to induce whole body cooling for 30 min after the end of resuscitation. Results: An UCCAO caused a slight cerebral ischemia (cerebral blood flow [CBF] 70%) without hypotension (MABP 85 mmHg), systemic inflammation, multiple organs injuries, or neurological injury. An HS caused a moderate cerebral ischemia (52% of the original CBF levels), a moderate hypotension (MABP downed to 22 mmHg), systemic inflammation, and peripheral organs injuries. However, combined an UCCAO and an HS caused a severe cerebral ischemia (18% of the original CBF levels), a moderate hypotension (MABP downed to 17 mmHg), systemic inflammation, peripheral organs damage, and neurological injury, which can be attenuated by whole body cooling. Conclusions: When combined with an HS, an UCCAO is associated with ischemic neuronal injury in the ipsilateral hemisphere of adult rat brain, which can be attenuated by therapeutic hypothermia. A resuscitation from an HS regards as a reperfusion insult which may induce neurological injury in patients with an UCCAO disease.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/fisiopatologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/cirurgia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Ratos , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia
17.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 44(5): 1726-1740, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), activated microglia exhibit changes in their morphology from the resting ramified phenotype toward the activated hypertrophic or amoeboid phenotype. Here, we provide the first description of the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of γ-secretase inhibitors on TBI outcomes in rats. METHODS: The neuroprotective effects of γ-secretase inhibitors such as LY411575 or CHF5074 on TBI-induced neurotoxicity were analysed using a neurological motor function evaluation, cerebral contusion assay, immunohistochemical staining for microglia phenotypes, lung injury score and Evans Blue dye extravasation assay of brain and lung oedema. RESULTS: Hypertrophic or amoeboid microglia accumulated in the injured cortex, the blood-brain-barrier was disrupted and neurological deficits and acute lung injury were observed 4 days after TBI in adult rats. However, a subcutaneous injection of LY411575 (5 mg/kg) or CHF5074 (30 mg/kg) immediately after TBI and once daily for 3 consecutive days post-TBI significantly attenutaed the accumulation of hypertrophic microglia in the injured brain, neurological injury, and neurogenic acute lung injury. CONCLUSION: Gamma-secretase inhibitors attenuated neurotrauma and neurogenic acute lung injury in rats by reducing the accumulation of hypertrophic microglia in the vicinity of the lesion.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/prevenção & controle , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Azepinas/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flurbiprofeno/análogos & derivados , Flurbiprofeno/farmacologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Microglia/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
J Neuroinflammation ; 14(1): 90, 2017 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28438174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite previous evidence for a potent inflammatory response after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unknown whether exercise preconditioning (EP) improves outcomes after a TBI by modulating inflammatory responses. METHODS: We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to quantify the genes encoding 84 cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood and used ELISA to determine both the cerebral and blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also performed the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to evaluate the extent of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) binding to the DNA elements in the IL-6 promoter regions. Also, we adopted the Western blotting assay to measure the cerebral levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, synapsin I, and ß-actin. Finally, we performed both histoimmunological and behavioral assessment to measure brain injury and neurological deficits, respectively. RESULTS: We first demonstrated that TBI upregulated nine pro-inflammatory and/or neurodegenerative messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the peripheral blood such as CXCL10, IL-18, IL-16, Cd-70, Mif, Ppbp, Ltd, Tnfrsf 11b, and Faslg. In addition to causing neurological injuries, TBI also upregulated the following 14 anti-inflammatory and/or neuroregenerative mRNAs in the peripheral blood such as Ccl19, Ccl3, Cxcl19, IL-10, IL-22, IL-6, Bmp6, Ccl22, IL-7, Bmp7, Ccl2, Ccl17, IL-1rn, and Gpi. Second, we observed that EP inhibited both neurological injuries and six pro-inflammatory and/or neurodegenerative genes (Cxcl10, IL-18, IL-16, Cd70, Mif, and Faslg) but potentiated four anti-inflammatory and/or neuroregenerative genes (Bmp6, IL-10, IL-22, and IL-6). Prior depletion of cerebral HSP70 with gene silence significantly reversed the beneficial effects of EP in reducing neurological injuries and altered gene profiles after a TBI. A positive Pearson correlation exists between IL-6 and HSP70 in the peripheral blood or in the cerebral levels. In addition, gene silence of cerebral HSP70 significantly reduced the overexpression of NF-κB, IL-6, and synapsin I in the ipsilateral brain regions after an EP in rats. CONCLUSIONS: TBI causes neurological deficits associated with stimulating several pro-inflammatory gene profiles but inhibiting several anti-inflammatory gene profiles of cytokines and chemokines. Exercise protects against neurological injuries via stimulating an anti-inflammatory HSP70/NF-κB/IL-6/synapsin I axis in the injured brains.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Sinapsinas/metabolismo , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 265: 47-54, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28104348

RESUMO

Heat stroke is characterized by hyperthermia, systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure including arterial hypotension. This definition can be fulfilled by a rat model of heat stroke used in the present study. Anesthetized animals were exposed to heat exposure (43 °C for 70 min) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C) for recovery. One hour before heat exposure, an intraperitoneal dose of quercetin (30 mg/kg) or vehicle (normal saline 1 ml/kg) was administered to the experimental groups of rats. Additional injection was administered immediately after the onset of heat stroke. Immediately after the onset of heat stroke. Vehicle-treated rats displayed (i) hyperthermia; (ii) suppressed left ventricular function; (iii) decreased contents of cardiac total antioxiant capacity (e.g., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase); (iv) increased contents of cardiac oxidative capacity malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; (v) increased cardiac levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6; and (vi) decreased cardiac levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10. Histopathologic and survival observation provided supportive evidence for biochemical analyses. These heat stroke reactions all can be significantly attenuated by quercetin therapy. Our data suggest that quercetin therapy might improve outcomes of heat stroke in rats by attenuating excessive hyperthermia as well as myocardial injury. The protective effects of quercetin could be attributed to anti-lipid peroxidative, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/prevenção & controle , Golpe de Calor/complicações , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Cell Transplant ; 26(11): 1798-1810, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338384

RESUMO

Microglia are the first source of a neuroinflammatory cascade, which seems to be involved in every phase of stroke-related neuronal damage. Two weeks after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), vehicle-treated rats displayed higher numbers of total ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)-positive cells, greater cell body areas of Iba-1-positive cells, and higher numbers of hypertrophic Iba-1-positive cells (with a cell body area over 80 µm2) in the ipsilateral ischemic brain regions including the frontal cortex, striatum, and parietal cortex. In addition, MCAO decreased the number of migrating neuroblasts (or DCX- and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells) in the cortex, subventricular zone, and hippocampus of the ischemic brain, followed by neurological injury (including brain infarct and neurological deficits). Intravenous administration of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs; 1 × 106 or 4 × 106) at 24 h after MCAO reduced neurological injury, decreased the number of hypertrophic microglia/macrophages, and increased the number of newborn neurons in rat brains. Thus, the accumulation of hypertrophic microglia/macrophages seems to be detrimental to neurogenesis after stroke. Treatment with hUC-MSCs preserved adult newborn neurons and reduced functional impairment after transient cerebral ischemia by reducing the number of hypertrophic microglia/macrophages.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína Duplacortina , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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