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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202319882, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337137

RESUMO

Polar materials with spontaneous polarization (Ps ) have emerged as highly promising photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution owing to the Ps -enhanced photogenerated carrier separation. However, traditional inorganic polar materials often suffer from limitations such as wide band gaps and poor carrier transport, which hinders their photocatalytic H2 evolution efficiency. Here, we rationally synthesized a series of isostructural two-dimensional (2D) aromatic Dion-Jacobson (DJ) perovskites, namely (2-(2-Aminoethyl)pyridinium)PbI4 (2-APDPI), (3-(2-Aminoethyl)pyridinium)PbI4 (3-APDPI), and (4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyridinium)PbI4 (4-APDPI), where 2-APDPI and 4-APDPI crystalize in polar space groups with piezoelectric constants (d33 ) of approximately 40 pm V-1 and 3-APDPI adopts a centrosymmetric structure. Strikingly, owing to the Ps -facilitated separation of photogenerated carriers, polar 2-APDPI and 4-APDPI exhibit a 3.9- and 2.8-fold increase, respectively, in photocatalytic H2 evolution compared to the centrosymmetric 3-APDPI. As a pioneering study, this work provides an efficient approach for exploring new polar photocatalysts and highlights their potential in promoting photocatalytic H2 evolution.

2.
Nanoscale ; 16(8): 4004-4013, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328885

RESUMO

Raman scattering provides essential insights into phonons, electronic structures and electron-phonon coupling within solids through the intensity of Raman peaks, which cannot be easily quantified using the classical bond polarizability model. The interlayer bond polarizability model (IBPM) had been developed to understand the Raman intensity of layer-breathing modes (LBMs) in two-dimensional materials. However, the quantitative understanding of the LBM intensity of a van der Waals heterostructure (vdWH) remains challenging. Here, in polynary vdWHs comprising twisted multilayer graphene (tMLG), MoS2 and hBN, we observed a series of LBMs, whose intensity is markedly dependent on the excitation energy and twist angle of the tMLG constituent. An improved IBPM is proposed to quantitatively understand the Raman intensity of LBMs in the tMLG-based vdWHs, including the emergence or absence of a specific LBM when the excitation energy is resonant with the electronic states of tMLG or MoS2 constituents. This work underscores the significant potential of the improved IBPM in accurately understanding and predicting the intensity profile of LBM in polynary vdWHs, even for the case of Raman scattering with excitation energies selectively resonant with the electronic states of the corresponding specific constituents.

3.
J Thorac Dis ; 16(1): 760-767, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38410567

RESUMO

Background: Cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (S-HITHOC) may be effective in treating thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) with pleural spread or recurrence. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of S-HITHOC in the treatment of TETs with pleural spread or recurrence. Methods: This study is an open, single-arm, prospective trial. Approximately 37 patients diagnosed with TETs with pleural spread or recurrence at the Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University will be recruited and treated with S-HITHOC. The co-primary outcomes of the study are the length of postoperative hospital stay, complications, and overall quality of life (QoL). The secondary outcomes include drainage duration, volume, and cumulative pain scores. Discussion: This trial was approved by the Zhongshan Hospital Research Ethics Committee. The study findings will be actively disseminated through manuscript publications and conference presentations. Information sheets will be provided to each participant, and informed written consent will be obtained for each evaluation. This prospective study will evaluate the effectiveness of a surgical resection combined with the HITHOC procedure in treating TETs with pleural spread or recurrence in China and will support the standardization of the procedure. Registration: This trial was registered on Clinialtrial.gov (No. NCT05446935).

4.
Neuroimage ; 288: 120524, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial pulsation has been suggested as a key driver of paravascular cerebrospinal fluid flow, which is the foundation of glymphatic clearance. However, whether intracranial arterial pulsatility is associated with glymphatic markers in humans has not yet been studied. METHODS: Seventy-three community participants were enrolled in the study. 4D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify the hemodynamic parameters including flow pulsatility index (PIflow) and area pulsatility index (PIarea) from 13 major intracerebral arterial segments. Three presumed neuroimaging markers of the glymphatic system were measured: including dilation of perivascular space (PVS), diffusivity along the perivascular space (ALPS), and volume fraction of free water (FW) in white matter. We explored the relationships between PIarea, PIflow, and the presumed glymphatic markers, controlling for related covariates. RESULTS: PIflow in the internal carotid artery (ICA) C2 segment (OR, 1.05; 95 % CI, 1.01-1.10, per 0.01 increase in PI) and C4 segment (OR, 1.05; 95 % CI, 1.01-1.09) was positively associated with the dilation of basal ganglia PVS, and PIflow in the ICA C4 segment (OR, 1.06, 95 % CI, 1.02-1.10) was correlated with the dilation of PVS in the white matter. ALPS was associated with PIflow in the basilar artery (ß, -0.273, p, 0.046) and PIarea in the ICA C2 (ß, -0.239, p, 0.041) and C7 segments (ß, -0.238, p, 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial arterial pulsatility was associated with presumed neuroimaging markers of the glymphatic system, but the results were not consistent across different markers. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Sistema Glinfático , Substância Branca , Humanos , Sistema Glinfático/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia , Hemodinâmica
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 207: 108360, 2024 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266559

RESUMO

Brassinazole-resistant (BZR) transcription factor plays an important role in plant growth and stress resistance through brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction. However, systematic analysis of the BZR family in dicots remains limited. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide study of four typical dicots: Arabidopsis thaliana, Carica papaya, Vitis vinifera and Populus trichocarpa. Thirty-four BZR gene family members were identified and classified them into three subfamilies. Analysis of promoter and expression patterns revealed crucial role of a pair of homologous BZR genes, PtBZR9 and PtBZR12, in poplar may play a critical role under abiotic stress. PtBZR9 and PtBZR12 were localised in the nucleus and exhibited mutual interactions. Moreover, transient overexpression (OE) of PtBZR9 and PtBZR12 in poplar enhanced tolerance to drought stress. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics of PtBZR9 and PtBZR12 OE in Arabidopsis mirrored those of transient OE in the poplar. Additionally, PtBZR9 and PtBZR12 can bind to the E-box element. Under exogenous BR treatment, transgenic lines displayed a greater decrease in root length than the wild type. Thus, these findings provide a solid foundation for future research on the complex regulatory mechanisms of BZR genes.

6.
Acad Radiol ; 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38182442

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Traditional Ki-67 evaluation in breast cancer (BC) via core needle biopsy is limited by repeatability and heterogeneity. The automated breast ultrasound system (ABUS) offers reproducibility but is constrained to morphological and echoic assessments. Radiomics and machine learning (ML) offer solutions, but their integration for improving Ki-67 predictive accuracy in BC remains unexplored. This study aims to enhance ABUS by integrating ML-assisted radiomics for Ki-67 prediction in BC, with a focus on both intratumoral and peritumoral regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 936 BC patients, split into training (n = 655) and testing (n = 281) cohorts. Radiomics features were extracted from intra- and peritumoral regions via ABUS. Feature selection involved Z-score normalization, intraclass correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression. ML classifiers were trained and optimized for enhanced predictive accuracy. The interpretability of the optimized model was further augmented by employing Shapley additive explanations (SHAP). RESULTS: Of the 2632 radiomics features in each patient, 15 were significantly associated with Ki-67 levels. The support vector machine (SVM) was identified as the optimal classifier, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 0.868 (training) and 0.822 (testing). SHAP analysis indicated that five peritumoral and two intratumoral features, along with age and lymph node status, were key determinants in the predictive model. CONCLUSION: Integrating ML with ABUS-based radiomics effectively enhances Ki-67 prediction in BC, demonstrating the SVM model's strong performance with both radiomics and clinical factors.

7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 240: 115933, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154368

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia is a global metabolic disorder characterized by dysregulation of lipid metabolism. This dysregulation is closely associated with the altered homeostasis of cholesterol-cholesteryl ester (CE) metabolism in systemic circulation, and some organs. Additionally, the relationship between oxidized cholesteryl ester (oxCE) and the disease has also gained attention. Currently, there is a lack of comprehensive research on the alterations in cholesterol-CE metabolism in the context of hyperlipidemia, as well as the characteristics of lipid-lowering agents in regulating this metabolic state. Therefore, 40 oxCEs were identified in the hamster liver sample, and novel ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) methods were established for simultaneous analysis of cholesterol, 57 CEs, and 40 oxCEs in the serum, liver, adipose tissue, and intestine of hyperlipidemic hamsters. This study investigated the metabolic alterations between cholesterol-CE/oxCE in hyperlipidemic hamsters and those treated with lipid-lowering agents, including the Niemann-Pick-C1 like-1 protein (NPC1L1) inhibitor ezetimibe and the acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor avasimibe. The study findings demonstrate metabolic disorders in cholesterol-CE/oxCE homeostasis in hyperlipidemic hamsters. Lipid-lowering agent therapy can improve the metabolic dysregulation caused by hyperlipidemia, with distinct characteristics: ezetimibe is more effective in reducing cholesterol, while avasimibe is more effective in reducing CEs/oxCEs. Eight potential biomarkers indicating the dysregulation of cholesterol-CE metabolism caused by hyperlipidemia and its improvement by lipid-lowering agents have been identified in the serum. This study offers new insights into the hyperlipidemia pathophysiology and the mechanisms of lipid-lowering agents from a novel perspective on cholesterol-CE/oxCE metabolic homeostasis.


Assuntos
Acetamidas , Anticolesterolemiantes , Hiperlipidemias , Sulfonamidas , Cricetinae , Animais , Humanos , Ésteres do Colesterol/análise , Ésteres do Colesterol/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colesterol , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ezetimiba , Homeostase
8.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 25(1): 78-84, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37722821

RESUMO

Objective: The division of responsibility in vehicle-two-wheelers accidents reflects the extent to which different fault parties contributed to the occurrence of the accident, with significant differences in the injuries sustained by the riders in accidents where diverse parties were primarily responsible. We want to explore the difference in the severity of injury of riders in different fault parties of accidents so that we can make targeted protection improvements.Methods: In this study, three generalized ordered logit models were established for the total sample (n = 1204), the sample with drivers as the primary fault party (n = 607), and the sample with riders as the primary fault party (n = 597), respectively, to explore the differential impact factors on rider injury severity in vehicle-two-wheelers accidents involving different fault parties. Inter-group difference tests were conducted on the mean rider injury severity caused by differential factors in different accidents. Combining the impact effect trends and mean differences in the model, the differences in rider injury severity in accidents involving different fault parties were analyzed from the standpoints of human, vehicle, and road factors.Results: It was found that the effects of curve on injury severity was sheerly opposite in accidents with different fault parties and that factors, such as visual obstruction, road surface condition, gender, and helmet wearing differed in their effects on rider injury severity under different fault parties accidents. This reveals the driving tendencies and states of both parties in different environments.Conclusion: Based on the differential impact factor analysis and rider injury characteristics in accidents involving different fault parties, suggestions for improvement were made from the perspectives of road facilities, and safety awareness of drivers and riders, which are beneficial for improving rider safety and providing a theoretical reference for future regulations on liability allocation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Modelos Logísticos , Comportamento Social , Motocicletas , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
9.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 25(1): 8-13, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37722829

RESUMO

Objective: Autonomous driving technology eliminates human errors, and thus it is a promising solution for reducing road traffic fatalities and injuries. While future autonomous driving technology may be able to reduce the number of collision accidents, it will not be able to avoid all collision accidents. This study is aimed to demonstrate why some accidents will still be unavoidable even with advanced perceiving and controlling capabilities.Methods: Because fully autonomous vehicles are currently in the laboratory stage, we used the prospective method to study the unavoidable accident of autonomous vehicles. Suitable traffic accident cases were screened from the China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS). Videos of the accidents were analyzed and the accidents were reconstructed using PC-Crash software. We assumed that target vehicle possesses near-perfect autonomous driving capabilities. Unavoidable accidents were determined based on vehicle dynamics and traffic constraints. The time from perceiving hazard to collision was calculated for each accident.Results: Among the 112 accidents screened, 15 cases of unavoidable accidents were identified. Three typical cases are presented in detail in this study. Based on the reasons why the target vehicles cannot avoid the collisions, we classified the unavoidable accidents into time-limit type and space-limit type. Time-limit means that vehicle cannot stop or steer out of danger in time, and space-limit means that the traffic environment does not have sufficient space for vehicle to avoid collision.Conclusions: Collision accidents will still occur even with perfect autonomous driving technology. We used the prospective method to investigate scenarios and characteristics of unavoidable accidents of autonomous vehicles. The time-limit type and the space-limit type were identified as two categories of unavoidable accidents. For the time-limit unavoidable accidents, the time from perceiving hazard to collision is typically not longer than 1.5s. The characteristics of unavoidable accidents and the estimated pre-crash warning time can provide some reference for establishing future occupant protection strategies. This study also showed the limitations of active safety and the necessity of passive safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Veículos Autônomos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Tecnologia , Software
10.
Cancer Innov ; 2(1): 79-90, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38090374

RESUMO

The number of clinical trials conducted in mainland China, including investigator-initiated trials (IITs), has increased rapidly in recent years. However, there are few data on the characteristics of cancer-related IITs. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the landscape of cancer-related IITs in mainland China in the past decade. All cancer-related IITs registered on two clinical trial registries in the United States (www.clinicaltrials.gov, CT.gov) and mainland China (www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR) from 2010 to 2019 were identified. IITs were reviewed manually to validate classification, subcategorized by cancer type, and stratified by design characteristics to facilitate comparison across cancer types and with other specialties. A total of 8199 cancer-related IITs were identified. The number of trials registered annually increased over time, especially in the last 5 years. Although interventional studies were predominant, randomized double-blind studies accounted for only 8% of IITs. In the past decade, the trend for interventional studies conducted with different drugs increased year on year, although the increase in hormonal therapy IITs was not significant. Additionally, cancer-related IITs were unevenly geographically distributed, with half concentrated in the economically developed cities Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangdong. We also found an increase in registration before participant enrollment (64.9% for trials in conducted in 2015-2019 vs. 40.2% in 2010-2014, p < 0.001) and data monitoring committee use (44.5% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.001) and a decrease in randomization (51.5% vs. 62.7%, p < 0.001) and funding (36.4% vs. 56.3%, p < 0.001) between these periods. We also observed changes in intervention type (decrease in cytotoxic drug therapy [34.8% vs. 48.9%, p < 0.001]; increase in targeted therapy [17.8% vs. 14.2%, p = 0.004], immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy [6.6% vs. 0.0%, p < 0.001], and immune cell therapy [9.6% vs. 4.5%, p < 0.001]). Details of cancer-related IITs conducted during the past decade illustrate the merits of oncology research in mainland China. Although the increased quantity of IITs is encouraging, limitations remain regarding the quality of clinical trials, regional imbalances, and funding allocation.

11.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 17: 2797-2804, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37942122

RESUMO

Objective: This study was conducted to understand the influencing factors for home peritoneal dialysis patients choosing APD and to provide a scientific basis for improving the completion rate of APD treatment and the follow-up of peritoneal dialysis patients. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A total of 588 patients on peritoneal dialysis were randomly selected from 6 regions in Fujian Province in southern China using a stratified cluster sampling method. Results: The mean age of the patients were 56.5 ± 14.73 years. In the univariate analysis, knowledge, user experience and family support were the factors that affected patients' choice of APD (all P < 0.05) and were positively correlated with the treatment utilization rate. In the multivariate analysis, 3 factors (treatment with APD, knowledge of APD, and family support) remained significantly associated not choosing APD. The selection rate for APD was 2.594 times higher among patients who had received APD than among patients who had never received APD. The selection rate for patients with "a lot of knowledge" about APD was 10.75 times that of patients with "no knowledge". Conclusion: Patients' knowledge of APD, experience in application and family support were the main factors affecting the choice of APD as a treatment mode (P < 0.05) and were positively correlated with the treatment utilization rate. Further studies are needed to improve the APD treatment completion rates by modulation the above-mentioned factors. Relevance to Clinical Practice: This study provides scientific evidence for improving APD treatment completion rates and improving patient quality of life.

12.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 43(6): 1057-1067, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37946467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Weichang'an pill (, WCA) combined with Western Medicine (WM) for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. METHODS: Eight databases, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wanfang Data, China Science and Technology Journal Database, SinoMed, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase, were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of WCA from inception to 30 September 2021. We independently screened the literature, extracted data, and then evaluated the bias risk, effectiveness, safety, and other indicators of the included articles. RESULTS: A total of 33 RCTs were included in this study with 3368 patients. After analysis, it was found that WCA combined with WM could effectively prevent and treat antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal reaction, functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome, rotavirus diarrhea (RVD), and ulcerative colitis (UC); no serious adverse reactions occurred. Moreover, compared with the control group, the experimental group showed significantly improved symptoms and some biochemical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: WCA combined with WM for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases had better clinical efficacy than the control group, without serious adverse reactions. Notably, in the treatment of FD, RVD, and UC, WCA improved clinical symptoms and biochemical indicator expression. Nevertheless, owing to the restricted quality and quantity of the literature, the results need to be further studied using high-quality RCTs.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Dispepsia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Dispepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Traffic Inj Prev ; : 1-8, 2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38019553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As one of the vulnerable road users in accidents, how to improve the two-wheeled motorcyclist's driving safety and reduce accident injury is a public health issue. Accurate identification of the factors influencing the severity of accidents is an important prerequisite for mitigating injury from crashes. METHODS: Based on a vehicle and a two-wheeled motorcycle crash accident data from the China in-depth accident study database (CIDAS), this study uses the performance evaluation indicators of accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, AUC, and the ROC curve. The classification and prediction performances of the six machine learning methods on the dataset are compared, and the LightGBM algorithm with the best performance is selected to model the accident injury severity of the motorcyclists. The SHAP method is used to extend the interpretability of the LightGBM model results. Based on the SHAP method, the importance, main effect, and the interaction effect of factors under each accident injury severity are quantitatively analyzed. RESULTS: The model prediction accuracy is 92.6%, the F1-Score is 92.8%, and the AUC value is 0.986. The importance of factors varies with the accident injury severity of motorcyclists. The kilometers traveled per year by the driver, the throwing distance of the motorcyclist, and the road speed limit are the three most important factors. The motorcyclist is more likely to suffer fatal injuries when the throwing distance is >1,000 cm. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction model of driver injury severity based on LightGBM algorithm has a good prediction performance. It can be used to analyze the influence factors of injury severity in two-wheeled motorcyclist accident by combining the model with SHAP method. These results could help the traffic management department to take measures to reduce accident injury of motorcyclists.

14.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2023 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38036291

RESUMO

In adult mammals, wound healing predominantly follows a fibrotic pathway, culminating in scar formation. However, cutaneous micro-wounds generated via fractional photothermolysis, a modality that produces a constellation of microthermal zones (MTZs), exhibit a markedly different healing trajectory. Our study delineates the cellular attributes of these MTZs, underscoring a temporally limited, subclinical inflammatory milieu concomitant with rapid re-epithelialization within 24 hours. This wound closure is facilitated by the activation of genes associated with keratinocyte migration and differentiation. In contrast to macrothermal wounds, which predominantly heal through a robust myofibroblast-mediated collagen deposition, MTZs are characterized by absence of wound contraction and feature delayed collagen remodeling, initiating 5-6 weeks post-injury. This distinct wound-healing is characterized by a rapid re-epithelialization process and a muted inflammatory response, which collectively serve to mitigate excessive myofibroblast activation. Furthermore, we identify an initial reparative phase characterized by a heterogeneous extracellular matrix protein composition, which precedes the delayed collagen remodeling. These findings extend our understanding of cutaneous wound healing and may have significant implications for the optimization of therapeutic strategies aimed at mitigating scar formation.

15.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 14(5): 1982-1992, 2023 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37969831

RESUMO

Background: Deep learning methods have demonstrated great potential for processing high-resolution images. The U-Net model, in particular, has shown proficiency in the segmentation of biomedical images. However, limited research has examined the application of deep learning to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) segmentation. Therefore, this study aimed to develop deep learning segmentation systems specifically for ESCC. Methods: A Visual Geometry Group (VGG)-based U-Net neural network architecture was utilized to develop the segmentation models. A pathological image cohort of surgical specimens was used for model training and internal validation, with two additional endoscopic biopsy section cohort for external validation. Model efficacy was evaluated across several metrics including Intersection over Union (IOU), accuracy, positive predict value (PPV), true positive rate (TPR), specificity, dice similarity coefficient (DSC), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and F1-Score. Results: Surgical samples from ten patients were analyzed retrospectively, with each biopsy section cohort encompassing five patients. Transfer learning models based on U-Net weights yielded optimal results. For mucosa segmentation, the in internal validation achieved 93.81% IOU, with other parameters exceeding 96% (96.96% accuracy, 96.45% PPV, 96.65% TPR, 98.41% specificity, 96.81% DSC, 96.11% AUC, and 96.55% F1-Score). The tumor segmentation model attained an IOU of 91.95%, along with other parameters surpassing 95% (95.90% accuracy, 95.62% PPV, 95.71% TPR, 97.88% specificity, 95.81% DSC, 94.92% AUC, and 95.67% F1-Score). In the external validation for tumor segmentation model, IOU was 59.86% for validation database 1 (72.74% for accuracy, 76.03% for PPV, 77.17% for TPR, 83.80% for specificity, 74.89% for DSC, 71.83% for AUC, and 76.60% for F1-Score), and 50.88% for validation cohort 2 (68.03% for accuracy, 59.02% for PPV, 66.87% for TPR, 78.48% for specificity, 67.44% for DSC, 64.68% for AUC, and 62.70% for F1-Score). Conclusions: The models exhibited satisfactory results, paving the way for their potential deployment on standard computers and integration with other artificial intelligence models in clinical practice in the future. However, limited to the size of study, the generalizability of models is impaired in the external validation, larger pathological section cohort would be needed in future development to ensure robustness and generalization.

16.
J Proteome Res ; 22(12): 3730-3741, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37976471

RESUMO

Cornea transplantation is one of the most commonly performed allotransplantations worldwide. Prolonged storage of donor corneas leads to decreased endothelial cell viability, severe stromal edema, and opacification, significantly compromising the success rate of corneal transplantation. Corneal stroma, which constitutes the majority of the cornea, plays a crucial role in maintaining its shape and transparency. In this study, we conducted proteomic analysis of corneal stroma preserved in Optisol-GS medium at 4 °C for 7 or 14 days to investigate molecular changes during storage. Among 1923 identified proteins, 1634 were quantifiable and 387 were significantly regulated with longer preservation. Compared to stroma preserved for 7 days, proteins involved in ocular surface immunomodulation were largely downregulated while proteins associated with extracellular matrix reorganization and fibrosis were upregulated in those preserved for 14 days. The increase in extracellular matrix structural proteins together with upregulation of growth factor signaling implies the occurrence of stromal fibrosis, which may compromise tissue clarity and cause vision impairments. This study is the first to provide insights into how storage duration affects corneal stroma from a proteomic perspective. Our findings may contribute to future research efforts aimed at developing long-term preservation techniques and improving the quality of preserved corneas, thus maximizing their clinical application.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Proteômica , Humanos , Criopreservação/métodos , Córnea , Substância Própria/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular , Gentamicinas/metabolismo , Misturas Complexas/metabolismo
17.
Small ; : e2307277, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37972264

RESUMO

Organic scintillators with efficient X-ray excited luminescence are essential for medical diagnostics and security screening. However, achieving excellent organic scintillation materials is challenging due to low X-ray absorption coefficients and inferior radioluminescence (RL) intensity. Herein, supramolecular interactions are incorporated, particularly halogen bonding, into organic scintillators to enhance their radioluminescence properties. By introducing heavy atoms (X = Cl, Br, I) into 9,10-bis(4-pyridyl)anthracene (BPA), the formation of halogen bonding (BPA-X) enhances their X-ray absorption coefficient and restricts the molecular vibration and rotation, which boosts their RL intensity. The RL intensity of BPA-Cl and BPA-Br fluorochromes increased by over 2 and 6.3 times compared to BPA, respectively. Especially, BPA-Br exhibits an ultrafast decay time of 8.25 ns and low detection limits of 25.95 ± 2.49 nGy s-1 . The flexible film constructed with BPA-Br exhibited excellent X-ray imaging capabilities. Furthermore, this approach is also applicable to organic phosphors. The formation of halogen bonding in bromophenyl-methylpyridinium iodide (PYI) led to a fourfold increase in RL intensity compared to bromophenyl-methyl-pyridinium (PY). It suggests that halogen bonding serves as a promising and effective molecular design strategy for the development of high-performance organic scintillator materials, presenting new opportunities for their applications in radiology and security screening.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(22)2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38001648

RESUMO

The determination of resection extent traditionally relies on the microscopic invasiveness of frozen sections (FSs) and is crucial for surgery of early lung cancer with preoperatively unknown histology. While previous research has shown the value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for instant lung cancer diagnosis, tumor grading through OCT remains challenging. Therefore, this study proposes an interactive human-machine interface (HMI) that integrates a mobile OCT system, deep learning algorithms, and attention mechanisms. The system is designed to mark the lesion's location on the image smartly and perform tumor grading in real time, potentially facilitating clinical decision making. Twelve patients with a preoperatively unknown tumor but a final diagnosis of adenocarcinoma underwent thoracoscopic resection, and the artificial intelligence (AI)-designed system mentioned above was used to measure fresh specimens. Results were compared to FSs benchmarked on permanent pathologic reports. Current results show better differentiating power among minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), invasive adenocarcinoma (IA), and normal tissue, with an overall accuracy of 84.9%, compared to 20% for FSs. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity, the sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 82.7% for MIA and 94% and 80.6% for IA, respectively. The results suggest that this AI system can potentially produce rapid and efficient diagnoses and ultimately improve patient outcomes.

19.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(11)2023 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38001778

RESUMO

Currently, the treatment for sepsis-induced acute lung injury mainly involves mechanical ventilation with limited use of drugs, highlighting the urgent need for new therapeutic options. As a pivotal aspect of acute lung injury, the pathologic activation and apoptosis of endothelial cells related to oxidative stress play a crucial role in disease progression, with NOX4 and Nrf2 being important targets in regulating ROS production and clearance. Echinacoside, extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal plant Cistanche deserticola, possesses diverse biological activities. However, its role in sepsis-induced acute lung injury remains unexplored. Moreover, although some studies have demonstrated the regulation of NOX4 expression by SIRT1, the specific mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of echinacoside on sepsis-induced acute lung injury and oxidative stress in mice and to explore the intricate regulatory mechanism of SIRT1 on NOX4. We found that echinacoside inhibited sepsis-induced acute lung injury and oxidative stress while preserving endothelial function. In vitro experiments demonstrated that echinacoside activated SIRT1 and promoted its expression. The activated SIRT1 was competitively bound to p22 phox, inhibiting the activation of NOX4 and facilitating the ubiquitination and degradation of NOX4. Additionally, SIRT1 deacetylated Nrf2, promoting the downstream expression of antioxidant enzymes, thus enhancing the NOX4-Nrf2 axis and mitigating oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell pathologic activation and mitochondrial pathway apoptosis. The SIRT1-mediated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of echinacoside were validated in vivo. Consequently, the SIRT1-regulated NOX4-Nrf2 axis may represent a crucial target for echinacoside in the treatment of sepsis-induced acute lung injury.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37890660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This trial was to evaluate the efficacy of subxiphoid approach thoracoscopic thymectomy for postoperative pain control and length of hospital stay compared with a lateral intercostal approach thoracoscopic thymectomy. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical superiority trial enrolled 101 eligible participants clinically diagnosed with Masaoka-Koga I-II thymoma between August 15, 2021, and February 15, 2022. Each enrolled participant was randomized and underwent subxiphoid approach thoracoscopic thymectomy or lateral intercostal approach thoracoscopic thymectomy. A per-protocol analysis for each coprimary outcome was performed in addition to the main intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: In the analysis for the coprimary outcomes, the pain Visual Analog Scale score area under the curve at 0 to 7 days was lower in the subxiphoid approach thoracoscopic thymectomy group than in the lateral intercostal approach thoracoscopic thymectomy group (difference, -4.82; 98.3% CI, -8.84 to -0.80). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the length of hospital stay (difference, 0.318; 98.3% CI, -0.190 to 0.825) or cumulative opioid consumption after surgery (difference, -4.630; 98.3% CI, -9.530 to 0.272). All patients underwent complete resection, and there was no significant difference (7.84% vs 8.00%, P = 1.000) in the rate of complications between the 2 groups. No recurrence or death occurred in the postoperative 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study found improved pain and similar length of hospital stay associated with the subxiphoid approach compared with the lateral intercostal approach in patients with suspected Masaoka-Koga I-II thymoma.

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