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Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester) ; 29(1): 5-11, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36605010


Liquid injection field desorption ionization (LIFDI) proves the extraordinary softness of the ionization process combined with a convenient sample supply under the exclusion of moisture and air. LIFDI-mass spectrometry (MS) is used for organometallic and other seriously air-sensitive compounds forming intact ions without substantial fragmentation. Unprecedented molecular radical anions M-• are presented along with well-known intact M+• radical cations. Furthermore closed shell cations [C]+ and adduct ions like [M + H]+ or [M + Alkali]+ are gently transferred from the solid emitter surface into the gas phase. Anions [A]- or [M - H]- are accessible by LIFDI-MS at medium field strengths. Ion pairs [C]+[A]- are separately detected by positive and negative mode LIFDI-MS, respectively. Here we give an overview of the different ion types accessible by LIFDI-MS. For the first time the field ionization/desorption of solar cell electron acceptor compounds is shown to deliver M-• and M2-• radical ions.

Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(27): 6845-6855, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494122


Field ionization (FI), field desorption (FD), and liquid injection field desorption/ionization (LIFDI) provide soft positive ionization of gaseous (FI) or condensed phase analytes (FD and LIFDI). In contrast to the well-established positive-ion mode, negative-ion FI or FD have remained rare exceptions. LIFDI provides sample deposition under inert conditions, i.e., the exclusion of atmospheric oxygen and water. Thus, negative-ion LIFDI could potentially be applied to highly sensitive anionic compounds like catalytically active transition metal complexes. This work explores the potential of negative-ion mode using modern mass spectrometers in combination with an LIFDI source and presents first results of the application of negative-ion LIFDI-MS. Experiments were performed on two orthogonal-acceleration time-of-flight (oaTOF) instruments, a JEOL AccuTOF GCx and a Waters Micromass Q-TOF Premier equipped with LIFDI sources from Linden CMS. The examples presented include four ionic liquids (ILs), i.e., N-butyl-3-methylpyridinium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethide, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate), 3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenol, dichloromethane, iodine, polyethylene glycol diacid, perfluorononanoic acid, anionic surfactants, a tetraphosphazene silanol-silanolate, and two bis(catecholato)silanes. Volatile samples were delivered as vapors via the sample transfer capillary of the LIFDI probe or via a reservoir inlet. Condensed phase samples were applied to the emitter as dilute solutions via the sample transfer capillary. The compounds either yielded ions corresponding to their intact anions, A-, or the [M-H]- species formed upon deprotonation. This study describes the instrumental setups and the operational parameters for robust operation along with a discussion of the negative-ion LIFDI spectra of a variety of compounds.

Dalton Trans ; 50(26): 9031-9036, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970171


A new setup combining a ThermoFisher Exactive Plus Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer with a liquid injection field desorption ionization (LIFDI) source directly connected to an inert atmosphere glovebox is presented. The described setup allows for the analysis of very air- and moisture sensitive samples. Furthermore, the soft nature of LIFDI ionization gives access to the molecular ions of fragile molecules. This new setup is therefore especially useful for sensitive organometallic complexes. The functionality of the new setup is tested against [(Cp)2TiCl]˙, which is known for its notorious sensitivity to air and moisture. Its drastic colour change from green to orange upon exposure to air further supports the easy detection of traces of oxygen during the experiment. In addition, we applied this setup to the mass spectrometric analysis of the qualitative composition of a Cu/Al cluster mixture, which is not accessible by other analytical methods.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(11): 2358-2368, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376121


A new implementation of a dedicated ion source for field ionization (FI), field desorption (FD), and liquid injection field desorption/ionization (LIFDI) for the JEOL AccuTOF GC series of orthogonal-acceleration time-of-flight instruments is presented. In contrast to existing implementations, this third-party LIFDI probe and source combination does not require the exchange of the entire ion source comprising ion source block and lens stack to switch from electron ionization (EI) to LIFDI. Rather, the methods may be swapped conveniently by only exchanging the ion source block for a mechanical probe guide and inserting the LIFDI probe in place of the standard direct insertion probe (DIP) via the vacuum lock. Further, this LIFDI setup does not require any changes of the electronics or software of the AccuTOF mass spectrometer because it is self-supplied in terms of power supply, observation optics, and computer control. The setup offers advanced FI/FD/LIFDI control features such as emission-controlled emitter heating current and emitter flash baking during elongated runs as required for gas chromatography-FI-mass spectrometry (MS). The LIFDI source and probe and its operation are reported in detail. FI spectra of the volatile analytes toluene, heptane, and pentafluoroiodobenzene are presented. LIFDI operation is demonstrated for the analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon dotriacontane and the low-mass hydrocarbon polymers polystyrene 484 and polystyrene 1050. Further, the air-sensitive 2nd-generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst is analyzed by LIFDI-MS. For comparison with long-established LIFDI instrumentation, some of the spectra obtained with the new setup are also compared with those from a double-focusing magnetic sector instrument.