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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 124, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326786

RESUMO

The PRIME-NP (Professional-Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator/Evaluation-Nurse Practitioner) Model is adapted from the RIME (Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator) model used in medical education to guide medical student and resident education. The Delphi technique was used to validate the PRIME-NP Model. After two rounds of review by a group of experts in NP curriculum, the model was determined to be valid based on expert consensus. Agreement percent increase from the first round to the second round in all categories. Interrater reliability (IRR) was assessed using interclass correlation after instrument validation was completed for each of the five levels of the PRIME-NP model. Overall, the IRR of the instrument was found to be acceptable with some notable exceptions. No variance was noted in professional behaviors at any level. Variance was increased in management and educator/evaluator behaviors in higher/later course levels. The PRIME-NP Model and PRIME-NP OSCE Rubric is a valid and reliable instrument to assess NP student progression in objective structured clinical examinations. This instrument has the potential for adaptation for use in other types of health sciences education and settings.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Competência Clínica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Currículo , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação
2.
Nurse Educ Today ; 127: 105858, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37247591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve health equity, nursing curricula should include content specific to the needs of marginalized and underserved communities, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex groups (LGBTQI+). Harmful and absent academic discussions of LGBTQI+ patients lead to provider discomfort and inadequacy in treating this patient population. Nursing schools are well-positioned to increase comfort with LGBTQI+ content as part of pre-licensure curricula. This article presents a systematic evaluation of LGBTQI+ content in nursing pre-licensure textbooks and the nature and quality of the representations. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive analysis of LGBTQI+ content from 14 nursing-specific textbooks required by a pre-licensure degree program at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing was conducted by a student-led team with faculty oversight. A priori and iterative search terms were used to identify and extract text segments that referenced LGBTQI+ content in each textbook. An iterative codebook was developed, codes were applied, and analysis of the information and context in which the terms were presented was performed. RESULTS: The research team observed gaps and notable patterns in distribution of LGBTQI+ terms and health content areas across the textbooks reviewed. The majority of LGBTQI+ search terms were identified in the following health content areas: social determinants of health, sexual/reproductive health, pediatric sexual & gender diversity, intersectionality, and infectious disease. Based on qualitative descriptive analyses, the data were organized into the following categories: a) Language; b) Medicalization; c) Vague, Incomplete, or Lacking Specificity; and d) Comprehensive Approach. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight the need for increased academic exposure for pre-licensure nursing students regarding the care of LGBTQI+ patients. Thoughtful inclusion of LGBTQI+ content may better foster the delivery of evidence-based care for this patient population. These findings underscore the need for improved nursing curricula to support nurses in delivering affirming care for LGBTQI+ populations.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pessoas Transgênero , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Licenciamento em Enfermagem , Currículo
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1098443, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37056649

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a challenge for the public health system and has highlighted health disparities. COVID-19 vaccines have effectively protected against infection and severe disease, but some patients continue to suffer from symptoms after their condition is resolved. These post-acute sequelae, or long COVID, continues to disproportionately affect some patients based on their social determinants of health (SDOH). This paper uses the World Health Organization's (WHO) SDOH conceptual framework to explore how SDOH influences long COVID outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36767198

RESUMO

With the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, many elements of society were faced with attempting to assimilate public health recommendations for infectious control. Vital social organizations had to balance delivering their social services while attempting to stay up to date with COVID-19 information and comply with evolving regulations. In the realm of schools and school systems, guidance on how to best adapt to COVID-19 was often limited. School officials and staff had to assist with multiple public health crises as a consequence of the pandemic, from the pandemic's transmission prevention strategies (e.g., face masks and physical distancing) to the recognition that students would have personal tragedies related to COVID-19. In this review, we highlight the process and feasibility of implementing an international COVID-19 school-based initiative over two years of the pandemic, the Health Education and Training (HEAT) Corps program.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Controle de Infecções , Educação em Saúde
5.
Nurs Open ; 10(2): 1071-1082, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126188

RESUMO

AIM: Nurse leaders influence workplace culture; however, little is known about ethnic cultural influences on nurse leader development. This research aims to identify personal strategies promoting effective leadership by nurse leaders from European small island countries. DESIGN: Descriptive qualitative study. METHODS: In 2017, nineteen semi-structured interviews with nurse leaders from England, Greece, Republic of Ireland and Malta explored leadership journeys, strategies employed to support their growth and development, and how cultural identity played a role. Transcripts were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes and 12 subthemes captured the strategies and approaches of the nurse leaders: (1) Influences, (2) Communication, (3) Process and (4) Relationships. These findings reflect and validate the five transformational leadership practices of the Exemplary Leadership Model. While cultural island identity was discussed, there was a shared cultural identity within the role of "nurse leader" that spanned all islands. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTIONS: Nineteen nurse leaders contributed to this study.


Assuntos
Liderança , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Europa (Continente) , Irlanda , Malta
6.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 55(1): 187-201, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583656

RESUMO

PURPOSE: COVID-19 and other recent infectious disease outbreaks have highlighted the urgency of robust, resilient health systems. We may now have the opportunity to reform the flawed health care system that made COVID-19 far more damaging in the United States (U.S.) than necessary. DESIGN AND METHODS: Guided by the World Health Organization (WHO) Health System Building Blocks framework (WHO, 2007) and the socio-ecological model (e.g., McLeroy et al., 1988), we identified challenges in and strengths of the U.S.' handling of the pandemic, lessons learned, and policy implications for more resilient future health care delivery in the U.S. Using the aforementioned frameworks, we identified crucial, intertwined domains that have influenced and been influenced by health care delivery in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic through a review and analysis of the COVID-19 literature and the collective expertise of a panel of research and clinical experts. An iterative process using a modified Delphi technique was used to reach consensus. FINDINGS: Four critically important, inter-related domains needing improvement individually, interpersonally, within communities, and for critical public policy reform were identified: Social determinants of health, mental health, communication, and the nursing workforce. CONCLUSIONS: The four domains identified in this analysis demonstrate the challenges generated or intensified by the COVID-19 pandemic, their dynamic interconnectedness, and the critical importance of health equity to resilient health systems, an effective pandemic response, and better health for all. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The novel coronavirus is unlikely to be the last pandemic in the U.S. and globally. To control COVID-19 and prevent unnecessary suffering and social and economic damage from future pandemics, the U.S. will need to improve its capacity to protect the public's health. Complex problems require multi-level solutions across critical domains. The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored four interrelated domains that reveal and compound deep underlying problems in the socioeconomic structure and health care system of the U.S. In so doing, however, the pandemic illuminates the way toward reforms that could improve our ability not only to cope with likely future epidemics but also to better serve the health care needs of the entire population. This article highlights the pressing need for multi-level individual, interpersonal, community, and public policy reforms to improve clinical care and public health outcomes in the current COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics, and offers recommendations to achieve these aims.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Mental
7.
Nurse Educ Today ; 110: 105255, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of comprehensive lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex (LGBTQI+) content in pre-licensure nursing curricula. LGBTQI+ people commonly experience mistreatment from nurses and healthcare providers due to a lack of knowledge or personal biases. To date, few instruments exist to guide LGBTQI+-specific curricular improvement. OBJECTIVES/DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANT/METHODS: Johns Hopkins School of Nursing LGBTQI+ Health Initiative and Emory University School of Nursing developed the Tool for Assessing LGBTQI+ Health Training (TALHT) to assist in evaluating gaps and redundancies in LGBTQI+ health content within pre-licensure nursing curricula. Face and content validity were evaluated among experts in LGBTQI+ health, curricular development, nursing education, and measure development (N = 22). The TALHT was modified based on expert feedback and a pilot with pre-licensure faculty (N = 13) to evaluate utility and acceptability of the refined measure. RESULTS: Face and content validity evaluation of the 60-item iteration of the TALHT showed that the majority of items were consistently relevant among external expert reviewers. However, the clarity and readability of items were lacking. We triangulated the quantitative and qualitative data from experts to adapt and reduce the number of items in the TALHT to 20 items. Pilot testing of the revised 20-item measure found that utility and acceptability of the tool were rated highly among pre-licensure faculty. CONCLUSION: The validation of the TALHT comes at a time when this type of instrument is clearly needed. The Future of Nursing 2020-2030 report calls for nursing education to incorporate competencies in caring for diverse populations to promote health equity. The Essentials: Core Competencies for Professional Nursing Education calls for a transition to operationalization of competency-based nursing education. The TALHT provides faculty and programs with a valid and reliable means to operationalize implementation of those competencies as they pertain to LGBTQI+ health.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Currículo , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Psicometria
8.
Nurs Outlook ; 70(2): 337-346, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical competency validation is essential for nurse practitioner (NP) education and public accountability. While there has been robust discussion around what constitutes clinical competency and assessment, clear and consistent definitions and measurements remain elusive. PURPOSE: This article describes the PRIME-NP clinical competency model that is scalable, reproducible and accurately documents NP student competency across clinical courses. METHODS: To develop the model, work in 5 discrete domains was necessary: (a) model development, (b) assessment tool to be used in Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCE), (c) rubrics to accompany the OSCE exam, (d) faculty education, and (e) evaluating the model use. FINDINGS: Faculty and student outcomes reveal that the model and assessment tool acceptability and effectiveness of the model, especially for early identification for at risk students. CONCLUSION: The PRIME-NP offered faculty the opportunity to identify at-risk students, identify a more nuanced remediation plan, and assess student competency in simulated environments.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação , Estudantes
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(23)2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885033

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma can arise from melanocytes in various structures of the eye, orbit, and ocular adnexa. We reviewed the clinical features and long-term results of all subjects with histologically proved melanoma originating from any of the ocular and periocular structures in a tertiary referral center. Overall, 88 patients including 47 men were recruited. The tumor was primarily located in the uvea, followed by the conjunctiva, orbit, eyelid, and lacrimal sac. Patients with uveal melanoma were diagnosed at a relatively younger age (47.0 years), while those with orbital and eyelid melanomas were older at presentation (79.5 years and 78.5 years, respectively). The overall local recurrence rate was 9% at a median follow-up of 41.0 months, among which orbital and eyelid melanomas recurred most commonly. The overall mortality rate was 41% in a median duration of 27.2 months (IQR, 13-58 months) from diagnosis, with the highest for lacrimal sac melanoma, followed by melanoma of the orbit, uveal, conjunctiva, and eyelid. Despite prompt local control, the risk for metastasis and mortality was high. Therefore, efficient modalities for early diagnosis and treatment of ocular melanoma are necessary.

10.
Prev Med ; 153: 106850, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662597

RESUMO

Children learn best when they are healthy. Therefore, access to school-based health and providing family support for social needs play an essential role in shaping a child's ability to succeed academically. The purpose of this mixed-methods review, which considers studies with all methods, is to describe and examine the effect of US school-based care coordination programs on all the outcomes reported. Care coordination is an organized approach to connect families to resources in the community to address social needs. The literature search identified 260 papers published since 2012 through CINAHL, ERIC, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Social Sciences Full Text, and Web of Science, from which 11 were included that described a US school-based care coordination program. An a priori organizing framework: Program Development, Implementation, and Evaluation were used to organize the findings. Whether quantitative or qualitative, all evaluation results were transformed into qualitative texts, then converted into codes then themes. Various health and learning issues such as asthma and vision screening were addressed. More than half of the care coordination programs were nurse-led. Parents and students characterized care coordination activities as convenient, trusting, and perceived to improve parent-teacher engagement. They also enhanced asthma knowledge and management, immunization adherence, follow-up care for vision and hearing, mental health, and school attendance. Nevertheless, challenges included staff shortages, unmet family needs, privacy laws regarding student data, and lack of resources (i.e., medications). This review highlights the need to expand school-based care coordination programs in the US and conduct robust program evaluations to assess their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Asma , Instituições Acadêmicas , Asma/prevenção & controle , Criança , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudantes/psicologia
11.
Virchows Arch ; 479(4): 755-764, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934231

RESUMO

BCR-ABL-fusion-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) with myelofibrosis (MF) include primary MF, post-polycythemia vera MF and post-essential thrombocythemia MF. Clonal extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) can occur during MPN pathogenesis. Although histopathological bone-marrow (BM) features during clonal EMH have been investigated, those of the spleen have been poorly described. We analyzed splenectomy samples from 28 patients with MF and BM samples from 20 of them. Slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, reticulin, and trichrome, with immunohistochemical labeling of glycophorin A, myeloperoxidase, CD61, CD34, and CD117. We also subjected splenectomy and BM samples from six patients and spleen samples from seven patients to next-generation sequencing (NGS). Megakaryocyte-rich spleen nodules (MRSNs), seen in seven of the 28 patients, were significantly associated with megakaryocyte proliferation in the spleen (p = 0.04). We devised a grading system for spleen fibrosis (SF) and found that SF was increased in 20 of 28 patients. Notably, patients with SF were more likely to have MRSNs, suggesting that megakaryocytes might participate in SF, as previously described in BM. Comparisons of spleen and BM NGS findings of six patients' specimens revealed identical mutational status in the two organs for half of the patients. We observed additional mutations in the spleen of two patients. However, the meaning of this finding remains unknown since there was a long interval between BM and spleen samplings (68 and 82 months, respectively).


Assuntos
Hematopoese Extramedular/fisiologia , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hematopoese , Hematopoese Extramedular/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/patologia , Policitemia Vera/patologia , Mielofibrose Primária/epidemiologia , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Baço/patologia , Trombocitemia Essencial/patologia
17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0213079, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818374

RESUMO

Staphylococcus epidermidis, is a common microflora of human body that can cause opportunistic infections associated with indwelling devices. It is resistant to multiple antibiotics necessitating the need for naturally occurring antibacterial agents. Malaysian propolis, a natural product obtained from beehives exhibits antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Chitosan-propolis nanoparticles (CPNP) were prepared using Malaysian propolis and tested for their effect against S. epidermidis. The cationic nanoparticles depicted a zeta potential of +40 and increased the net electric charge (zeta potential) of S. epidermidis from -17 to -11 mV in a concentration-dependent manner whereas, ethanol (Eth) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of propolis further decreased the zeta potential from -17 to -20 mV. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) depicted that CPNP effectively disrupted biofilm formation by S. epidermidis and decreased viability to ~25% compared to Eth and EA with viability of ~60-70%. CPNP was more effective in reducing the viability of both planktonic as well as biofilm bacteria compared to Eth and EA. At 100 µg/mL concentration, CPNP decreased the survival of biofilm bacteria by ~70% compared to Eth or EA extracts which decreased viability by only 40%-50%. The morphology of bacterial biofilm examined by scanning electron microscopy depicted partial disruption of biofilm by Eth and EA extracts and significant disruption by CPNP reducing bacterial number in the biofilm by ~90%. Real time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression in treated bacteria showed that genes involved in intercellular adhesion such as IcaABCD, embp and other related genes were significantly downregulated by CPNP. In addition to having a direct inhibitory effect on the survival of S. epidermidis, CPNP showed synergism with the antibiotics rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and doxycycline suggestive of effective treatment regimens. This would help decrease antibiotic treatment dose by at least 4-fold in combination therapies thereby opening up ways of tackling antibiotic resistance in bacteria.


Assuntos
Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Própole/administração & dosagem , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genética , Staphylococcus epidermidis/fisiologia
18.
Ann Pathol ; 39(1): 29-35, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554835

RESUMO

Herein we report the case of a 41-year-old woman who presented with pelvic pain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging exhibited a single pelvic mass, measuring 50mm long axis, alongside the right iliac vessels. Histological examination of the excision specimen showed a lymphoid tumor with features of localized Castleman disease, hyaline vascular type. Moreover we identified multiple interfollicular dark clusters, composed of cells morphologically resembling cortical thymocytes. Their immunophenotype was consistent with an intermediate stage of T-cell differentiation, with the expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, TdT, CD1a, CD99, CD2, CD5, CD7 and CD10, with 40% Ki67. After integration of clinical and molecular data, the retained diagnosis was an indolent T-cell lymphoblastic proliferation associated with hyaline vascular localized Castleman disease. The clinical course confirmed the indolent nature of the proliferation, despite a late local recurrence at 7 years of the initial diagnosis, without histological modification, due to an incomplete initial resection surgery.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/patologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Adulto , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia
20.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 30(11): 614-618, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211783

RESUMO

Military children make tremendous sacrifices in support of a parent(s) military service. More than two million children have a parent who is serving or has served in the Armed Forces. Research shows that military-connected children are at higher risk of physical, psychological, and behavioral health issues. While "resilient" is the word used to describe most military children, it is important to recognize the stresses/stressors of military life- that military children serve too-to support and care for them.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras de Saúde da Família/tendências , Família Militar/estatística & dados numéricos , Folhetos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Militares/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências
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