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1.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430485

RESUMO

During conservation of the painted ceiling decoration of Lin'xi Pavilion in the Forbidden City, two distinct paint campaigns were isolated as a unique case study into architectural paint materials during both the Ming and Qing dynasties. Paint samples and cross sections from both paint generations were analyzed with SEM-EDX, time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopies. Similar organic and inorganic materials characteristic of these time periods were identified. The pigments of interest found in both paint generations were botallackite and atacamite polymorphs. This suggests a shift from natural mineral sources to synthetic copper-based pigments for these larger architectural projects.

2.
Reprod Sci ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432533

RESUMO

Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is characterized by repeated embryo transfers without pregnancy. To date, the etiology of RIF remains poorly understood. Accumulating evidence indicates a beneficial role of endometrial extracellular vesicles (EVs) during the implantation by delivering signaling molecules to embryos, especially miRNAs. However, whether EVs secreted by RIF patients' endometria have a similar miRNA expression profile of endometrial EVs of fertile women has not been investigated. Therefore, in this study, we compared the miRNA expression profiles between the endometrial EVs of RIF patients (RIF-EVs) and fertile women (FER-EVs). Endometrial tissues from fifteen RIF patients and nine fertile women were collected and digested to cells for culture. Endometrial cells were modulated by estrogen and progesterone to mimic the secretory phase, and the conditioned medium was collected for EV isolation. EVs were determined by western blotting, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Three pairs of EV samples from two groups were used for miRNA sequencing, and twelve RIF-EV samples and six FER-EV samples were used for validation using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results showed that a total of 11 miRNAs were differently expressed in the RIF-EVs. Besides, four of the differently expressed miRNAs were validated using qRT-PCR. Target genes of the differently expressed miRNAs were predicted, and the functional analysis was performed. Besides, we proved that the most significantly different miRNA, 6131, inhibited the growth and invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells. Our study suggested that the altered miRNAs in the RIF-EVs might be involved in the pathogenesis of RIF.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 50(2): 511-519, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416063

RESUMO

Lithium-ion batteries with conversion-type anode electrodes have attracted increasing interest in providing higher energy storage density than those with commercial intercalation-type electrodes. However, conversion-type materials exhibit severe structural instability and capacity fade during cycling. In this work, a molecular layer deposition (MLD)-derived conductive Al2O3/carbon layer was employed to stabilize the structure of the cactus-like NiCo2O4 nanocrystal (NC) anode. The conductive Al2O3/carbon network and cactus-like NiCo2O4 NCs are beneficial for fast Li+/e- transport. Moreover, the Al2O3/carbon buffer-layer can prevent the NiCo2O4 NCs from agglomeration and form a steady solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), thus hampering the penetration of the electrolyte. Owing to these advantages, the assembled NiCo2O4@Al2O3/carbon half battery shows a high reversible capacity (931.2 mA h g-1 at 2 A g-1) and long-term stability of 290 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1 over 500 cycles. Quantitative analyses further reveal the fast kinetics and the capacitance-battery dual model mechanism in the 3D core-shell structures. The design and introduction of MLD-derived hybrid coating may open a new way to conversion-type and alloy-type anode materials beyond NiCo2O4 to achieve high cyclability.

4.
Environ Manage ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462675

RESUMO

As China's demand for paper products increases, China's paper industry faces enormous pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. By using material flow analysis in combination with input-output analysis, this study measured the waste paper recovery rate in a more accurate method and analyzed the impact of waste paper recycling on the carbon emissions from China's paper industry. China's waste paper recovery rate estimated in this study was close to 70% in 2017, much higher than that of 48% obtained with the traditional method. The regression results displayed a negative relationship between waste paper recovery rate and CO2 emissions per unit of paper consumption during 2000-2017 in China. The rolling regression results further indicated that the impact of waste paper recycling was becoming stronger on reducing CO2 emissions per unit of paper consumption in China. Since an inverted "U" shape relationship exists between waste paper recovery rate and its reduction effect on carbon emissions from the paper industry, the regression results suggested that China's waste paper recovery rate has not reached the optimal level with regard to carbon emissions from China's paper industry. Thus, although China's waste paper recovery rate has reached a relatively high level, currently waste paper recycling is still an effective method to reduce carbon emissions from China's paper industry.

5.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433196

RESUMO

A concise and diastereoselective construction of the ABCD ring system of spirochensilide A is described. The key steps of this synthesis are a semipinacol rearrangement reaction to stereoselectively construct the AB ring system bearing two vicinal quaternary chiral centers and a Co-mediated Pauson-Khand reaction to form the spiro-based bicyclic CD ring system. This chemistry leads to the stereoselective synthesis of 13(R)-demethyl spirochensilide A, paving the way for the first asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-spirochensilide A.

6.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 113-120, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465603

RESUMO

High pathogenicity island (HPI), which is widely distributed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), can enhance the pathogenicity of E. coli. Thus the HPI positive E. coli could pose a threat to human and animal health. It remains to be elucidated how HPI affects the virulence of pathogenic E. coli. Autophagy is an important mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis and an innate immunity responses of organisms against pathogens. The interaction between pathogenic E. coli possessing HPI (E. coli HPI) and host autophagy system has not been reported. In this study, it was demonstrated that pathogenic E. coli induced autophagy in 3D4/21 macrophages and HPI was associated with enhanced autophagy through transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is an important negative regulatory pathway for autophagy. Through detecting the expression of key genes of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, it was speculated that HPI enhanced the inhibition of the signaling pathway stimulated by pathogenic E. coli. Furthermore, HPI inhibited the secretion of IFN-γ, while the presence of HPI did not significantly affect the secretion of IL-1ß. This work is the first attempt to explore the interplay between HPI carried by pathogenic E. coli and host cell autophagy. The findings might enable better understanding of the contribution of HPI to pathogenicity.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(2): e23923, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466134

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; no specific effective medication to treat the disease has been identified to date. We aimed to investigate the administered medications and intervention times for patients who completely recovered from COVID-19.This single-center, retrospective, observational study included 55 patients with COVID-19 who were transferred to Shenyang Sixth People's Hospital between January 20 and March 15, 2020. Data on demographics, symptoms, laboratory indicators, treatment processes, and clinical outcomes were collected. Administered drugs and intervention times were compared in 47 and 8 patients with mild and severe symptoms, respectively.All 55 patients recovered. Fifty-three patients (96.36%) received antiviral therapy, including 45 in the mild group (median treatment: 14 days; 17 received umifenovir) and all 8 severe-group patients (median treatment: 17.5 days; 4 received lopinavir/ritonavir). Twenty-nine patients (52.72%) were administered antibiotics, including 21 in the mild group (median treatment: 13.5 days; 15 received moxifloxacin) and all 8 in the severe group (median treatment: 9 days; 2 received linezolid). Moreover, 7 patients (12.72%) were treated with glucocorticoids and 9 (16.36%) with immunomodulators.Given the 100% recovery rate, early administration of antiviral drugs can be considered. Umifenovir may benefit patients with mild symptoms, while lopinavir/ritonavir may benefit those with severe symptoms. Prophylactic administration of common antibiotics may reduce the risk of co-infection. The use of glucocorticoids is usually not necessary. Randomized, double-blind, and controlled trials remain necessary for more accurate conclusions.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434120

RESUMO

Modern CNN-based object detectors assign anchors for ground-truth objects under the restriction of object-anchor Intersection-over-Union (IoU). In this study, we propose a learning-to-match (LTM) method to break IoU restriction, allowing objects to match anchors in a flexible manner. LTM updates hand-crafted anchor assignment to "free" anchor matching by formulating detector training in the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) framework. During the training phrase, LTM is implemented by converting the detection likelihood to anchor matching loss functions which are plug-and-play. Minimizing the matching loss functions drives learning and selecting features which best explain a class of objects with respect to both classification and localization. LTM is extended from anchor-based detectors to anchor-free detectors, validating the general applicability of learnable object-feature matching mechism for visual object detection. Experiments on MS COCO dataset demonstrate that LTM detectors consistently outperform counterpart detectors with significant margins. The last but not the least, LTM require negligible computational cost in both training and inference phrases as it does not involve any additional architecture or parameter. Code has been made publicly available.

9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120314156, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reverse cholesterol transport, removing excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, is an important therapeutic target for atherosclerosis treatment. In this study, we propose a new small molecule, E17241, that may be used to treat atherosclerosis by promoting reverse cholesterol transport via ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) upregulation. Approach and Results: E17241 (4-(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)-N-(3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)benzamide) was first identified as an ABCA1 upregulator using a cell-based reporter assay. E17241 significantly increases the mRNA and protein expression levels of ABCA1 in both hepatic cells and macrophages. It promotes cholesterol efflux to apo AI in macrophage cells, and this effect depends on ABCA1. It also decreases total cholesterol content in Ox-LDL (oxidized low-density lipoprotein) loading macrophage cells. E17241 treatment increases the content of 3H-labeled cholesterol in the feces of male C57BL/6J mice intraperitoneally injected with 3H-cholesterol-labeled macrophage J774 cells, indicating that it could promote in vivo macrophage reverse cholesterol transport. Compared with the western diet group (western diet-fed male ApoE-/- mice), the E17241 group (western diet+E17241 treatment) shows decreased plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, with increased fecal cholesterol content. Importantly, E17241 reduces atherosclerotic lesion areas in the en face aorta and aortic sinus while increasing ABCA1 protein levels in both liver and macrophages. Human proteome microarray, coimmunoprecipitation, and other assays demonstrate that PKCζ (protein kinase C zeta) is a binding target of E17241, and this small molecule increases ABCA1 expression in macrophages via the PKCζ-NR (nuclear receptor) pathway. CONCLUSIONS: E17241 may be developed as a new lead or drug candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis by upregulating ABCA1.

10.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 13, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The feasibility and safety of administrating a small amount of oral fluid to children in the early recovery period following tonsillectomy under general anesthesia to reduce the thirst and its associated restlessness remain unknown. METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee and adhered to the CONSORT guidelines. Pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of our study were randomized into the study and control groups. In the study group, patients were given a small amount of water instantly after recovering from general anesthesia, which included the recovery of the cough and deglutition reflex, and attaining grade V of muscle strength. The control group was given a small amount of water at 4 to 6 h after the operation. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and the degree of thirst relief were measured and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Three hundred patients were randomized into each group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of nausea and vomiting at 20 min after drinking water between the two groups (P > 0.05). The thirst score of children over 5 years old in the study group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Early administration of a small amount of oral fluid to children following tonsillectomy and recovering from general anesthesia is not only safe but also effective in reducing postoperative thirst. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ChiCTR1800020058 , 12-12-2018.

11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449160

RESUMO

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a short-day plant and its flowering time, and consequently, pod yield and quality is influenced by photoperiod. In this study, the photoperiodic-sensitive variety 'Hong jin gou', which flowers 31 days (d) earlier in short-day than in long-day, was used as the experimental material. Samples were collected to determine the growth and photosynthetic parameters in each daylength treatment, and transcriptome and metabolome data were conducted. We identified eight genes related to flowering by further screening for differentially expressed genes. These genes function to regulate the biological clock. The combination of differentially expressed genes and metabolites, together with the known regulation network of flowering time and the day-night expression pattern of related genes allow us to speculate on the regulation of flowering time in the common bean and conclude that TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) plays a pivotal role in the network and its upregulation or downregulation causes corresponding changes in the expression of downstream genes. The regulatory network is also influenced by gibberellic acid (GA) and jasmonic acid (JA). These regulatory pathways jointly comprise the flowering regulatory network in common bean.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111691, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396023

RESUMO

DNA barcoding is an emerging molecular identification and classification technology that has been applied to medicinal plants since 2008. The application of this technique has greatly ensured the safety and effectiveness of medicinal materials. In this paper, we review the application of DNA barcoding and some related technologies over the past 10 years with respect to improving our knowledge of medicinal plant identification and authentication. From single locus-based DNA barcodes to combined markers to genome-scale levels, DNA barcodes contribute more and more genetic information. At the same time, other technologies, such as high-resolution melting (HRM), have been combined with DNA barcoding. With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS), metabarcoding technology has also been shown to identify species in mixed samples successfully. As a widely used and effective tool, DNA barcoding will become more useful over time in the field of medicinal plants.

13.
Stem Cells ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426760

RESUMO

ERG1, a potassium ion channel, is essential for cardiac action potential repolarization phase. However, the role of ERG1 for normal development of the heart is poorly understood. Using the rat embryonic stem cells (rESCs) model, we show that ERG1 is crucial in cardiomyocyte lineage commitment via interactions with Integrin ß1. In the mesoderm phase of rESCs, the interaction of ERG1 with Integrin ß1 can activate the AKT pathway by recruiting and phosphorylating PI3K p85 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to further phosphorylate AKT. Activation of AKT pathway promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation through two different mechanisms, 1) through phosphorylation of GSK3ß to upregulate the expression levels of ß-catenin and Gata4; 2) through promotion of nuclear translocation of NF-κB by phosphorylating IKKß to inhibit cell apoptosis, which occurs due to increased Bcl2 expression. Our study provides solid evidence for a novel role of ERG1 on differentiation of rESCs into cardiomyocytes. © AlphaMed Press 2021 SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: ERG1 is a key potassium channel that maintains the action potential of cardiomyocytes, and its mutation can cause arrhythmia. Here we reveal the new functional mechanism of this ion channel in maintaining the differentiation process of cardiomyocytes. We found that the interaction of ERG1 with integrin ß1/FAK/PI3K p85 is essential for rESC-derived cardiomyocyte lineage commitment. We also clarified the signaling pathway mediated by ERG1 in cardiac development. This work expands the understanding for the new role of classical functional molecules and provides new evidence for the complex mechanisms of heart development.

14.
Invest New Drugs ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428079

RESUMO

Background Tirapazamine's (TPZ) tolerability after an intra-arterial (IA) injection remains unclear. We investigated TPZ's safety and tolerability in rats by first injecting into the left hepatic artery and then performing a hepatic artery ligation, which recapitulates the transarterial embolization used clinically. Research design and methods: Forty-six rats in five groups were respectively injected with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, or more than 1.5 mL IA of TPZ (0.7 mg/mL) into the left hepatic artery and then subjected to hepatic artery ligation under laparotomy. Blood samples were collected four times daily up to day 15 after which the rats were euthanized and necropsied. The toxicity profile of IA injection of TPZ followed by hepatic artery ligation was then assessed. Results No significant changes to the rats' body weight and serum total bilirubin were observed. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels increased slightly but remained below 100 U/L one day after treatment for most rats. Three rats in Groups 3 and 4 exhibited an over two-fold transient elevation of ALT. All ALT recovered to the baseline at day 14. Liver tissues were collected on day 15 using H&E staining. One rat in Group 3 showed ischemic coagulative necrosis in its liver tissue. Other sporadic pathological changes not related to TPZ doses were observed in Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5. Conclusion TPZ by IA injection followed by embolization is tolerated up to 7 mg/kg. This finding supports the strategy of administering an IA injection of TPZ followed by trans-arterial embolization to the liver.

15.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421343

RESUMO

Chinese mahogany (Toona sinensis) is a woody plant that is widely cultivated in China and Malaysia. T. sinensis provides important economic attributes, including as a nutritious food source, as material for traditional Chinese medicine and as a high-quality hardwood. However, the absence of a reference genome has hindered in-depth molecular and evolutionary studies of this plant. In this study, we report a high-quality T. sinensis genome assembly, with scaffolds anchored to 28 chromosomes and a total assembled length of 596 Mb (contig N50 = 1.5 Mb and scaffold N50 = 21.5 Mb). A total of 34,345 genes were predicted in the genome after homology-based and de novo annotation analyses. An evolutionary analysis showed that the genomes of T. sinensis and Populus. trichocarpa diverged approximately 99.1-103.1 million years ago, and the T. sinensis genome underwent a recent genome-wide duplication event at ~7.8 million years and one more ancient whole genome duplication event at ~71.5 million years. These results provide a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome for T. sinensis and confirm its evolutionary position at the genomic level. Such information will offer genomic resources to study the molecular mechanism of terpenoid biosynthesis and the formation of flavor compounds, which will further facilitate its molecular breeding. As the first chromosome-level genome assembled in the Meliaceae family, it will provide unique insights into the evolution of members of the Meliaceae.

16.
Analyst ; 145(24): 7849-7857, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410430

RESUMO

This work demonstrates a new strategy for sensing cerebrospinal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a cholinergic biomarker for brain dysfunction based on graphene quantum dot (GQD)-functionalized lanthanide infinite coordination polymer (Ln-ICP) nanoparticles. The ICPs used in this work were comprised of two components, i.e. a supramolecular Ln-ICP host formed by the coordination between the GMP ligand and central metal ion Tb3+, and guest GQDs with abundant functional groups, which were utilized as antenna ligands to further sensitize the fluorescence of Tb/GMP. Upon excitation at 300 nm, the obtained GQD@Tb/GMP ICP nanoparticles exhibited enhanced green fluorescence from Tb/GMP. With the addition of Cu2+, the competitive coordination between Cu2+ and GQDs weakened the antenna effect, leading to a decrease in the fluorescence of GQD@Tb/GMP ICPs. However, in the presence of thiocholine (TCh), a thiol-containing compound hydrolyzed from acetylthiocholine (ATCh) by AChE, a stronger coordination interaction between Cu2+ and TCh occurred, resulting in the restoration of the fluorescence of GQD@Tb/GMP ICPs. Using the method established herein, the cerebrospinal AChE fluctuation of rats with acute organophosphorus pesticide (OP) poisoning or chronic Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be monitored. This study essentially provides a novel approach to realize the direct monitoring of a biomarker for brain dysfunction by regulating the competitive coordination interaction reversibly, which is critical in the early diagnosis and therapy of brain diseases.

17.
New Phytol ; 229(1): 370-387, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411361

RESUMO

Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), an intricate photoprotective process, plays fundamental roles in maintaining plant fitness. The PsbS protein is essential for the rapid induction of NPQ, and acts in a dose-dependent manner in leaves. However, little information is known on the transcriptional control of PsbS in land plants. Here we demonstrated that the expression of OsPsbS1 is directly upregulated by OsbZIP72 while repressed by OsMYBS2 in rice. We identified a new cis-element GACAGGTG in japonica OsPsbS1 promoter, to which OsbZIP72 could strongly bind and activate the expression of OsPsbS1. The new cis-element CTAATC confers specific binding for OsMYBS2 in japonica OsPsbS1 promoter. OsbZIP72 can be activated by SAPK1, and acts depending on the abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathway. GF14A protein affects the repression activity of OsMYBS2 by regulating its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and Ser53 is necessary for OsMYBS2 to be retained in the cytoplasm. The inducibility of OsPsbS1 transcription under high light conditions in OsbZIP72 knockout lines was greatly impaired, while the repression of OsPsbS1 transcription under a low light environment in OsMYBS2 knockout lines was significantly alleviated. These results reveal cross-talk among NPQ processes, the ABA signalling pathway and abiotic stress signalling. The elaborate mechanisms may help enhance photoprotection and improve photosynthesis in rice.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2001254, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Effective interventions to improve prognosis in metastatic esophagogastric cancer (EGC) are urgently needed. We assessed the effect of the early integration of interdisciplinary supportive care for patients with metastatic EGC on overall survival (OS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: An open-label, phase III, randomized, controlled trial was conducted at Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute. Patients with previously untreated metastatic EGC were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to either early interdisciplinary supportive care (ESC) integrated into standard oncologic care or standard care (SC). ESC was provided by a team of GI medical oncologists, oncology nurse specialists, dietitians, and psychologists; patients in the SC group received standard oncologic care alone. The primary end point was OS in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: Between April 16, 2015, and December 29, 2017, 328 patients were enrolled: 214 in the ESC group and 114 in the SC group. At the data cutoff date of January 26, 2019, 15 (5%) patients were lost to follow-up. The median number of cycles of first-line chemotherapy was five (interquartile range [IQR], 4-7) in the ESC group and four (IQR, 2-6) in the SC group. The median OS was 14.8 months (95% CI, 13.3 to 16.3) in the ESC group and 11.9 months (95% CI, 9.6 to 13.6) in the SC group (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.9; P = .021). CONCLUSION: The early integration of interdisciplinary supportive care is an effective intervention with survival benefits for patients with metastatic EGC. Further optimization and standardization are warranted.

20.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406172

RESUMO

Herein, combined with a pervasive smartphone installed with a color recognition app, dual-responsive CDs@Eu/GMP ICPs were designed as a red-to-blue paper-based colorimetric sensor for the point-of-use analysis of cerebral acetylcholinesterase (AChE) upon Cd2+ exposure. Blue-emitting CDs with multi-functional groups as guests were encapsulated into the network of Eu/GMP ICPs to obtain CDs@Eu/GMP ICPs with the sensitized red fluorescence of Eu3+. With the presence of thiocholine (TCh), derived from acetylthiocholine (ATCh) hydrolyzed by AChE, the coordination environment of the CDs@Eu/GMP ICPs was interrupted, leading to the collapse of the CDs@Eu/GMP ICP network and the corresponding release of guest CDs into the surrounding environment. Consequently, the sensitized red fluorescence of Eu3+ decreased and the blue fluorescence of the CDs increased. This obvious red-to-blue fluorescent color changes of CDs@Eu/GMP ICPs on test paper could then be integrated with the smartphone for point-of-use analysis of cerebral AChE upon Cd2+ exposure, which not only offers a new analytical platform for a better understanding of the environmental risk of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD), but also holds great potential in the early diagnosis of AD even at the asymptomatic stage with the decrease in CSF AChE as an early biomarker.

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