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1.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 243, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung inflammatory disease which has a close relationship with aging. Genome-wide analysis reveals that DNA methylation markers vary obviously with age. DNA methylation variations in peripheral blood have the potential to be biomarkers for COPD. However, the specific DNA methylation of aging-related genes in the peripheral blood of COPD patients remains largely unknown. METHODS: Firstly, 9 aging-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in COPD patients were screened out from the 25 aging-related genes profile through a comprehensive screening strategy. Secondly, qPCR and multiple targeted bisulfite enrichment sequencing (MethTarget) were used to detect the mRNA level and DNA methylation level of the 9 differentially expressed genes in the peripheral blood of 60 control subjects and 45 COPD patients. The candidate functional CpG sites were selected on the basis of the regulation ability of the target gene expression. Thirdly, the correlation was evaluated between the DNA methylation level of the key CpG sites and the clinical parameters of COPD patients, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in one second as percentage of predicted volume (FEV1%), forced expiratory volume/ forced vital capacity (FEV/FVC), modified British medical research council (mMRC) score, acute exacerbation frequency and the situation of frequent of acute aggravation (CAT) score. Lastly, differentially methylated CpG sites unrelated to smoking were also determined in COPD patients. RESULTS: Of the 9 differentially expressed aging-related genes, the mRNA expression of 8 genes were detected to be significantly down-regulated in COPD group, compared with control group. Meanwhile, the methylated level of all aging-related genes was changed in COPD group containing 219 COPD-related CpG sites in total. Notably, 27 CpG sites of FOXO3 gene showed a lower False Discovery Rate (FDR) and higher methylation difference values. Also, some variable DNA methylation is associated with the severity of COPD. Additionally, of the 219 COPD-related CpG sites, 147 CpG sites were not related to smoking. CONCLUSION: These results identified that the mRNA expression and DNA methylation level of aging-related genes were changed in male COPD patients, which provides a molecular link between aging and COPD. The identified CpG markers are associated with the severity of COPD and provide new insights into the prediction and identification of COPD.

2.
FASEB J ; : fj201900993RR, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652414

RESUMO

8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1)-initiated base excision repair pathway is primarily responsible for 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) removal from DNA. Recent studies, however, have shown that 8-oxoG in gene regulatory elements may serve as an epigenetic mark, and OGG1 has distinct functions in modulating gene expression. Genome-wide mapping of oxidative stress-induced OGG1 enrichment within introns was documented, but its significance has not yet been fully characterized. Here, we explored whether OGG1 recruited to intron 1 of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) gene and modulated its expression. Using chromatin and DNA:RNA hybrid immunoprecipitation assays, we report recruitment of OGG1 to the DNA:RNA hybrid in intron 1, where it increases nascent RNA but lowers mRNA levels in O3-exposed human airway epithelial cells and mouse lungs. Decrease in TIMP1 expression is alleviated by antioxidant administration, small interfering RNA depletion, or inhibition of OGG1 binding to its genomic substrate. In vitro studies revealed direct interaction between OGG1 and 8-oxoG containing DNA:RNA hybrid, without excision of its substrate. Inhibition of OGG1 binding to DNA:RNA hybrid translated into an increase in TIMP1 expression and a decrease in oxidant-induced lung inflammatory responses as well as airway remodeling. Data documented here reveal a novel molecular link between OGG1 at damaged sites and transcription dynamics that may contribute to oxidative stress-induced cellular and tissue responses.-Pan, L., Wang, H., Luo, J., Zeng, J., Pi, J., Liu, H., Liu, C., Ba, X., Qu, X., Xiang, Y., Boldogh, I., Qin, X. Epigenetic regulation of TIMP1 expression by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 binding to DNA:RNA hybrid.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4873, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653842

RESUMO

Graphene-base transistors have been proposed for high-frequency applications because of the negligible base transit time induced by the atomic thickness of graphene. However, generally used tunnel emitters suffer from high emitter potential-barrier-height which limits the transistor performance towards terahertz operation. To overcome this issue, a graphene-base heterojunction transistor has been proposed theoretically where the graphene base is sandwiched by silicon layers. Here we demonstrate a vertical silicon-graphene-germanium transistor where a Schottky emitter constructed by single-crystal silicon and single-layer graphene is achieved. Such Schottky emitter shows a current of 692 A cm-2 and a capacitance of 41 nF cm-2, and thus the alpha cut-off frequency of the transistor is expected to increase from about 1 MHz by using the previous tunnel emitters to above 1 GHz by using the current Schottky emitter. With further engineering, the semiconductor-graphene-semiconductor transistor is expected to be one of the most promising devices for ultra-high frequency operation.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593729

RESUMO

Cationic macromolecules condense DNA into small nanoparticles and form polyplex. The composition of the polyplex determines the endocytic process, the intracellular routing and the fate of the polyplex. Previously, oligochitosan-modified vectors with different protein moieties are used as gene delivery vector and the types of protein moiety can influence the endosome escape ability and transfection efficiency. Among the modified vectors, oligochitosan-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed 90% transfection efficeincy compared to the modified zein and ovalbumin. These data encouraged us to investigate the mechanism of internalization involved in the superior transfection efficiency of modified BSA/ plasmid polyplex. The effect of specific endocytic inhibitors was studied in two adherent cell lines. The caveolae-mediated and lipid-mediated pathways play a significant role in the polyplex internalization. Next, a colocation of polyplex with lysosome was investigated in the presence of LysoTracker using confocal microscopy. Up to 70% of polyplex successfully escaped the lysosome without degradation. Four non-adherent cell lines showed above than 60% transfection efficiency at an optimized vector/plasmid ratio. Moreover, no significant hemolytic effect was observed up to 500 µg/mL of cationic BSA, indicating no detectable cell membrane disruption. Overall, the hybrid biomacromolecule showed good intracellular delivery and safety in a mice model.

6.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 37(7): 525-533, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478234

RESUMO

Increasing evidence has indicated the important roles of long noncoding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 7 (SNHG7) in tumourigenesis as a potential oncogene. However, the function of SNHG7 in hepatic carcinoma remains unclear. In the present study, we found that SNHG7 expression was significantly upregulated in hepatic carcinoma tissues, especially in aggressive cases, and it was closely correlated with the poor prognosis. Furthermore, knockdown of SNHG7 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of hepatic carcinoma cell lines in vitro. Mechanistically, SNHG7 directly interacted with miR-425 as a ceRNA. Moreover, knockdown of SNHG7 significantly inhibited the tumorigenic Wnt/ß-catenin/EMT pathway. SNHG7 regulated Wnt/ß-catenin/EMT pathway through sponging miR-425 and played an oncogenic role in hepatic carcinoma progression. Together, our study elucidated the role of SNHG7 as a ceRNA in hepatic carcinoma, provided new potential diagnosis and therapeutic application in hepatic carcinoma progression. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: SNHG7 could promote proliferation and metastasis of hepatic carcinoma cell in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that SNHG7 exerts tumorigenic role in hepatic carcinoma progression. Further mechanism research revealed that SNHG7 exhibited the tumorigenic role through Wnt/ß-catenin/EMT pathway as a miR-425 sponge. These findings provided new cues to understand the molecular signalling network in carcinogenesis of hepatic carcinoma, and it may provide new evidence for therapeutic application in hepatic carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 359, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few systematic methods prioritize the image education in medical students (MS). We hope to develop a checklist of brain computerized tomography (CT) reading in patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke (AIS) for MS and primary care (PC) physicians. METHODS: Our pilot group generated the items indicating specific structures or signs for the checklist of brain CT reading in suspected AIS patients for MS and PC physicians. These items were used in a modified web-based Delphi process using the online software "SurveyMonkey". In total 15 panelists including neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, and emergency department physicians participated in the modified Delphi process. Each panelist was encouraged to express feedback, agreement or disagreement on the inclusion of each item using a 9-point Likert scale. Items with median scores of 7-9 were included in our final checklist. RESULTS: Fifty-two items were initially provided for the first round of the Delphi process. Of these, 35 achieved general agreement of being an essential item for the MS and PC physicians. The other 17 of the 52 items in this round and another two added items suggested by the panelists were further rated in the next round. Finally, 38 items were included in the essential checklist items of brain CT reading in suspected AIS patients for MS and PC physicians. CONCLUSIONS: We established a reference regarding the essential items of brain CT reading in suspected AIS patients. We hope this helps to minimize malpractice and a delayed diagnosis, and to improve competency-based medical education for MS and PC physicians.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489752

RESUMO

Described here is a new and viable approach to achieve Pd catalysis for aerobic oxidation systems (AOSs) by circumventing problems associated with both the oxidation and the catalysis through an all-in-one strategy, employing a robust metal-organic framework (MOF). The rational assembly of a PdII catalyst, phenanthroline ligand, and CuII species (electron-transfer mediator) into a MOF facilitates the fast regeneration of the PdII active species, through an enhanced electron transfer from in situ generated Pd0 to CuII , and then CuI to O2 , trapped in the framework, thus leading to a 10 times higher turnover number than that of the homogeneous counterpart for Pd-catalyzed desulfitative oxidative coupling reactions. Moreover, the MOF catalyst can be reused five times without losing activity. This work provides the first exploration of using a MOF as a promising platform for the development of Pd catalysis for AOSs with high efficiency, low catalyst loading, and reusability.

9.
FEBS Open Bio ; 9(11): 1928-1938, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495071

RESUMO

Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a common immunosuppressant, but its use is limited as it can cause chronic kidney injury. Oxidative stress and apoptosis play a key role in CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. This study investigated the protective effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid and iron (5-ALA/SFC) on CsA-induced injury in murine proximal tubular epithelial cells (mProx24). 5-ALA/SFC significantly inhibited apoptosis in CsA-treated mProx24 cells with increases in heme oxygenase (HO)-1, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and p38, and Erk-1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, 5-ALA/SFC suppressed production of reactive oxygen species in CsA-exposed cells and inhibition of HO-1 suppressed the protective effects of 5-ALA/SFC. In summary, 5-ALA/SFC may have potential for development into a treatment for the anti-nephrotoxic/apoptotic effects of CsA.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222025, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536537

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a self-adaptive deep learning (DL) method to automatically detect the eye laterality based on fundus images. METHODS: A total of 18394 fundus images with real-world eye laterality labels were used for model development and internal validation. A separate dataset of 2000 fundus images with eye laterality labeled manually was used for external validation. A DL model was developed based on a fine-tuned Inception-V3 network with self-adaptive strategy. The area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) with sensitivity and specificity and confusion matrix were applied to assess the model performance. The class activation map (CAM) was used for model visualization. RESULTS: In the external validation (N = 2000, 50% labeled as left eye), the AUC of the DL model for overall eye laterality detection was 0.995 (95% CI, 0.993-0.997) with an accuracy of 99.13%. Specifically for left eye detection, the sensitivity was 99.00% (95% CI, 98.11%-99.49%) and the specificity was 99.10% (95% CI, 98.23%-99.56%). Nineteen images were wrongly classified as compared to the human labels: 12 were due to human wrong labelling, while 7 were due to poor image quality. The CAM showed that the region of interest for eye laterality detection was mainly the optic disc and surrounding areas. CONCLUSION: We proposed a self-adaptive DL method with a high performance in detecting eye laterality based on fundus images. Results of our findings were based on real world labels and thus had practical significance in clinical settings.

11.
Cancer Med ; 8(14): 6358-6369, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an oncogene, long noncoding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) can promote tumor metastasis. Hyperexpression of MALAT1 has been observed in many malignant tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role and mechanism of MALAT1 in HCC remain unclear. METHODS: Thirty human HCC and paracancerous tissue specimens were collected, and the human hepatoma cell lines Huh7 and HepG2 were cultured according to standard methods. MALAT1 and Snail family zinc finger (Slug) expression were measured by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting. Luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay verified the direct interaction between miR-124-3p and Slug(SNAI2) or MALAT1. Wound healing and transwell assays were performed to examine invasion and migration, and a subcutaneous tumor model was established to measure tumor progression in vivo. RESULTS: MALAT1 expression was upregulated in HCC tissues and positively correlated with Slug expression. MALAT1 and miR-124-3p bind directly and reversibly to each other. MALAT1 silencing inhibited cell migration and invasion. miR-124-3p inhibited HCC metastasis by targeting Slug. CONCLUSIONS: MALAT1 regulates Slug through miR-124-3p, affecting HCC cell metastasis. Thus, the MALAT1/miR-124-3p/Slug axis plays an important role in HCC.

12.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446619

RESUMO

There is conflicting results on whether prior antiplatelet therapy (APT) is associated with poor outcome in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) patients. To determine whether prior APT is associated with spontaneous ICH, and whether there is a difference between the different types of APT, including cyclooxygenase inhibitor (COX-I), adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor (ADP-I) and phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE-I). A retrospective study of patients with ICH diagnosed between 2001 and 2013 in the National Health Insurance Research Database. Baseline unbalance between APT and non-APT groups was solved by multivariable adjustment (primary analysis) and propensity score matching (sensitivity analysis). Patients with prior APT had a higher rate of in-hospital death (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.23) compared to non-APT group. Compared to non-APT group, there was a greater rate of in-hospital death with spontaneous ICH with ADP-I (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24-1.79) and COX-I (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.25). PDE-I exhibited no difference in in-hospital death with spontaneous ICH (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91-1.16) compared to non-APT group. Remarkably, the in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in the ADP-I group than in the PDE-I group (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.17-1.80). In this study, ADP-I and COX-1, but not PDE-I, are the most likely contributors to the association of APT with poor outcome with spontaneous ICH patients. These findings suggest that the complexity of the different mechanism of actions of prior APT can alter the outcome in spontaneous ICH.

13.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(4): 1208-1214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-apoptotic effect of Angelica polysaccharide (APS) on cryopreservated platelets and its mechanism. METHODS: The platelets were divided into 4 group: control group(4 ℃ stored platelets),APS group (APS-treated platelets stored at 4 ℃), LY294002 group (LY294002-treated platelets stored at 4 ℃) and LY294002+APS group(LY294002+APS treated platelets stored at 4 ℃ ). The expression of platelet membrane glycoprotein CD41 and CD61, as well as the platelet apoptotic rate, Caspase 3 expression and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected by flow cytometry; the anti-apoptotic mechanism of APS by PI3K /AKT signaling pathway was analyzed by Western blot assay. RESULTS: The apoptosis rate of platelets in LY294002 group obviously increased, the activity of CD41 and CD61 expression gradually decreased along with the enhancement of LY294002 concentrations (r=-0.953); compared with control group, the apoptosis rate of platelets in LY294002 group was enhanced significantly(P<0.05),while the apoptosis rate of platelets in LY294002+APS group significantly was reduced(P<0.05) as compare with LY294002 group, which suggest that APS has an anti-apoptotic effect on the cryopreserved platelets. APS decreased the expression of Caspase-3 and inhibited the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by LY294002, moreover, APS could increase the activation of PI3K /AKT pathway in Plt. CONCLUSION: APS has an anti-apoptotic effect on the cryopreserved platelets through activating the PI3K /AKT pathway, decreasing the expression of apoptosis protease Caspase-3 and inhibiting the reduction of MMP.


Assuntos
Angelica , Apoptose , Plaquetas , Cromonas , Morfolinas , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Polissacarídeos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt
14.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 20(9): 104-113, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) derived from dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) have been explored for several clinical applications in recent years. However, VMIs at low and high keVs have high levels of noise. The aim of this study was to reduce image noise in VMIs by using a two-step noise reduction technique. METHODS: VMI was first denoised using a modified highly constrained backprojection (HYPR) method. After the first-step denoising, a general-threshold filtering method was performed. Two sets of anthropomorphic phantoms were scanned with a clinical dual-source DECT system. DECT data (80/140Sn kV) were reconstructed as VMI series at 12 different energy levels (range, 40-150 keV, interval, 10 keV). For comparison, the averaged VMIs obtained from 10 repeated DECT scans were used as the reference standard. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the quality of VMIs. RESULTS: Compared to the original HYPR method, the proposed two-step image denoising method could provide better performance in terms of SNR, CNR, and RMSE. In addition, the proposed method could achieve effective noise reduction while preserving edges and small structures, especially for low-keV VMIs. CONCLUSION: The proposed two-step image denoising method is a feasible method for reducing noise in VMIs obtained from a clinical DECT scanner. The proposed method can also reduce edge blurring and the loss of intensity in small lesions.

15.
Neuroreport ; 30(16): 1055-1061, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425346

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the age-specific effects of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) knockout on olfactory function in mice. In this study, we analyzed olfactory functions of 2-month-old, 10-month-old and 18-month-old female P2X7R KO mice and age-matched female C57BL/6 wildtype mice (WT mice) by buried food seeking test and olfactory avoidance test. The structure of mitochondria and synapses in olfactory bulb were observed by electron microscopy. The content of interleukin-1 (IL-1ß) in olfactory bulb and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) in olfactory epithelium were analyzed by ELISA. The results indicated that middle and old-aged P2X7R KO mice showed better olfactory function than middle and old-aged WT mice. Mitochondrial structures were complete and more spine synapses were observed in middle and old-aged P2X7R KO mice. Compared with middle and old-aged WT mice, IL-1ß content in olfactory bulb was decreased in middle and old-aged P2X7R KO mice, and there was no significant difference in TGF-ß1 content in olfactory epithelium. However, worse olfactory function was observed in young-aged P2X7R KO mice compared with young-aged WT mice. Abnormal mitochondrial structure and less synapses in olfactory bulb were observed. TGF-ß1 content in olfactory epithelium was significantly higher in P2X7R KO mice compared with young-aged WT mice. There was no significant difference in IL-1ß content in olfactory bulb of young-aged mice. In conclusion, P2X7R knockout can improve the olfactory function of middle and old-aged mice, while it may cause damage to young-aged mice, suggesting that P2X7R plays age-specific role on olfactory functions in mice.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 249-258, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349166

RESUMO

We discovered one purple photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris YSC3, which has a specific ability to degrade 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). The whole transcriptome of R. palustris YSC3 was analyzed using the RNA-based sequencing technology in illumina and was compared as well as discussed through Multi-Omics onLine Analysis System (MOLAS, http://molas.iis.sinica.edu.tw/NTUIOBYSC3/) platform we built. By using genome based mapping approach, we can align the trimmed reads on the genome of R. palustris and estimate the expression profiling for each transcript. A total of 341 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HBCD-treated R. palustris (RPH) versus control R. palustris (RPC) was identified by 2-fold changes, among which 305 genes were up-regulated and 36 genes were down-regulated. The regulated genes were mapped to the database of Gene Ontology (GO) and Genes and Genomes Encyclopedia of Kyoto (KEGG), resulting in 78 pathways being identified. Among those DEGs which annotated to important functions in several metabolic pathways, including those involved in two-component system (13.6%), ribosome assembly (10.7%), glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism (5.3%), fatty acid degradation (4.7%), drug metabolism-cytochrome P450 (2.3%), and chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation (3.0%) were differentially expressed in RPH and RPC samples. We also identified one transcript annotated as dehalogenase and other genes involved in the HBCD biotransformation in R. palustris. Furthermore, the putative HBCD biotransformation mechanism in R. palustris was proposed.

17.
Phys Med Biol ; 64(16): 165019, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307019

RESUMO

Reducing radiation dose is important for PET imaging. However, reducing injection doses causes increased image noise and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), subsequently affecting diagnostic and quantitative accuracies. Deep learning methods have shown a great potential to reduce the noise and improve the SNR in low dose PET data. In this work, we comprehensively investigated the quantitative accuracy of small lung nodules, in addition to visual image quality, using deep learning based denoising methods for oncological PET imaging. We applied and optimized an advanced deep learning method based on the U-net architecture to predict the standard dose PET image from 10% low-dose PET data. We also investigated the effect of different network architectures, image dimensions, labels and inputs for deep learning methods with respect to both noise reduction performance and quantitative accuracy. Normalized mean square error (NMSE), SNR, and standard uptake value (SUV) bias of different nodule regions of interest (ROIs) were used for evaluation. Our results showed that U-net and GAN are superior to CAE with smaller SUVmean and SUVmax bias at the expense of inferior SNR. A fully 3D U-net has optimal quantitative performance compared to 2D and 2.5D U-net with less than 15% SUVmean bias for all the ten patients. U-net outperforms Residual U-net (r-U-net) in general with smaller NMSE, higher SNR and lower SUVmax bias. Fully 3D U-net is superior to several existing denoising methods, including Gaussian filter, anatomical-guided non-local mean (NLM) filter, and MAP reconstruction with Quadratic prior and relative difference prior, in terms of superior image quality and trade-off between noise and bias. Furthermore, incorporating aligned CT images has the potential to further improve the quantitative accuracy in multi-channel U-net. We found the optimal architectures and parameters of deep learning based methods are different for absolute quantitative accuracy and visual image quality. Our quantitative results demonstrated that fully 3D U-net can both effectively reduce image noise and control bias even for sub-centimeter small lung nodules when generating standard dose PET using 10% low count down-sampled data.

18.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(8-9): 963-977, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The relationships of manipulation of culture temperature and medium circulation rate on the metabolic parameters were regressed by multiple linear regression analysis in hollow fiber bioreactors (HFB). RESULTS: The high circulation rate could significantly enhance the oxygen consumption of the hybridoma cells and the medium's oxidation-reduction potential. A mildly hypothermic condition of 36 °C and a circulation rate of 182.5 mL/min could support the hybridoma had the maximal antibody titer of 60.75 µg/mL for 20 days. When the ammonium ion was 65 ppm or lactate close to 2.6 g/L, the medium was replaced to maintain the stable and healthy cells at the high cell concentration of 3.33 × 108/mL for continuous antibody production. Two serum-free media could be successfully applied to this perfusion system and maintain hybridoma growth and antibody production. CONCLUSION: The single-use HFBs could provide the advantages including high cell density, low shear stress, and continuous antibody production.

19.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 40(4): 250-260, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262380

RESUMO

Background: Probiotic supplementary therapy to prevent allergic diseases, including asthma in children, has been widely explored in many randomized controlled trials. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effect of probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and infancy to the incidence of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Method: This study was designed to systematically explore the potential effects of probiotic supplementation on the occurrence and development of asthma, wheeze, and allergic rhinitis. Randomized controlled trials were searched in several medical literature data bases. A meta-analysis was undertaken by using the fixed-effects model or the random effects model to calculate the pooled risk of significant heterogeneity. Two writers were designated to perform the study selection and data extraction. The primary outcome was clinically diagnosed asthma; the secondary outcomes included wheeze, allergic rhinitis, and a positive aeroallergen skin-prick test result. Results: Seventeen randomized controlled trials, which composed a total of 5264 children, were analyzed. The pooled data for risk of developing asthma after probiotic supplementation showed no significant reduction compared with controls (risk ratio [RR] 0.86 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.73-1.01]; I² = 0%; p = 0.06). A subgroup of strains indicated that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation only had a reduction to the occurrence of asthma (RR 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57-0.99]; I² = 11%; p = 0.04). The supplement in the postnatal group had a similar result, but the incorporated data were limited. Meanwhile, it is failed to identify that probiotic supplementary therapy have a clear benefit to the secondary outcomes: wheeze, allergic rhinitis, positive aeroallergen skin-prick test result. Conclusion: This study showed a significant benefit that supplementation with probiotics in pre- and postnatal periods was likely to play an essential strategic role in the prevention of asthma. However, these effects were based on the type of probiotics used, which also need more large-sample and high-quality RCTs to confirm the reliability of this study.

20.
Curr Mol Med ; 19(8): 539-546, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288721

RESUMO

Worldwide, infertility affects 8-12% of couples of reproductive age and has become a common problem. There are many ways to treat infertility, including medication, intrauterine insemination, and in vitro fertilization. In recent years, stem-cell therapy has raised new hope in the field of reproductive disability management. Stem cells are self-renewing, self-replicating undifferentiated cells that are capable of producing specialized cells under appropriate conditions. They exist throughout a human's embryo, fetal, and adult stages and can proliferate into different cells. While many issues remain to be addressed concerning stem cells, stem cells have undeniably opened up new ways to treat infertility. In this review, we describe past, present, and future strategies for the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine.

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