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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(2): 382-387, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859802

RESUMO

Intraspinal inflammatory and immune responses are considered to play central roles in the pathological development of spinal cord injury. This study aimed to decipher the dynamics of systemic immune responses, initiated by spinal cord injury. The spinal cord in mice was completely transected at T8. Changes in the in vivo inflammatory response, between the acute and subacute stages, were observed. A rapid decrease in C-reactive protein levels, circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, spleen-derived CD4+ interferon-γ+ T-helper cells, and inflammatory cytokines, and a marked increase in neutrophils, monocytes, and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells were observed during the acute phase. These systemic immune alterations were gradually restored to basal levels during the sub-acute phase. During the acute phase of spinal cord injury, systemic immune cells and factors showed significant inhibition; however, this inhibition was transient, and the indicators of these serious disorders gradually returned to baseline levels during the subacute phase. All experiments were performed in accordance with the institutional animal care guidelines, approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Experimental Animal Center of Drum Tower Hospital, China (approval No. 2019AE01040) on June 25, 2019.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141688, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835964

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused tremendous loss to human life and economic decline in China and worldwide. It has significantly reduced gross domestic product (GDP), power generation, industrial activity and transport volume; thus, it has reduced fossil-related and cement-induced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China. Due to time delays in obtaining activity data, traditional emissions inventories generally involve a 2-3-year lag. However, a timely assessment of COVID-19's impact on provincial CO2 emission reductions is crucial for accurately understanding the reduction and its implications for mitigation measures; furthermore, this information can provide constraints for modeling studies. Here, we used national and provincial GDP data and the China Emission Accounts and Datasets (CEADs) inventory to estimate the emission reductions in the first quarter (Q1) of 2020. We find a reduction of 257.7 Mt. CO2 (11.0%) over Q1 2019. The secondary industry contributed 186.8 Mt. CO2 (72.5%) to the total reduction, largely due to lower coal consumption and cement production. At the provincial level, Hubei contributed the most to the reductions (40.6 Mt) due to a notable decrease of 48.2% in the secondary industry. Moreover, transportation significantly contributed (65.1 Mt), with a change of -22.3% in freight transport and -59.1% in passenger transport compared with Q1 2019. We used a point, line and area sources (PLAS) method to test the GDP method, producing a close estimate (reduction of 10.6%). One policy implication is a change in people's working style and communication methods, realized by working from home and holding teleconferences, to reduce traffic emissions. Moreover, GDP is found to have potential merit in estimating emission changes when detailed energy activity data are unavailable. We provide provincial data that can serve as spatial disaggregation constraints for modeling studies and further support for both the carbon cycle community and policy makers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Humanos
3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155470

RESUMO

Textile-based triboelectric nanogenerators (T-TENGs), combining the functions of energy harvesting and self-powered sensing with advantages of breathability and flexibility, have received intensive attention, which is vital to the rapid advancements in smart textiles. However, there exists few reports of T-TENGs applied to fires under the intelligent era of high requirements for devices with versatility and multiscenario practicability. Here, in combination with flame-retardant conductive cotton fabric, polytetrafluoroethylene-coated cotton fabric, and a divider, a low-cost and environmentally friendly flame-retardant textile-based triboelectric nanogenerator (FT-TENG) is developed, which is endowed with excellent fire resistance and outstanding energy harvesting capabilities. The cotton fabrics treated with a layer-by-layer self-assembly method show great self-extinguishing performance. Besides, the maximum peak power density of the FT-TENG can reach 343.19 mW/m2 under the tapping frequency of 3 Hz. Furthermore, the FT-TENG still keeps 49.2% of the initial electrical output even after being burned at 17 different positions; 34.48% of the electrical output is also retained when the FT-TENG is exposed to 220 °C. Moreover, the FT-TENGs are successfully applied as energy harvesters for firefighters and self-powered sensors for forest self-rescue and fire alarm systems. This work may provide a promising potential for multifunctional smart textiles in energy harvesting, self-powered sensing, and life or property security.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Muscle cell necrosis is the most common pathological manifestation of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Evidence suggests that glycolysis might participate in it. However, the mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to determine the role of glycolysis in the muscle damage that occurs in DM/PM. METHODS: Mass spectrometry was performed on muscle lesions from DM/PM and control subjects. The expression levels of pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2), the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and pyroptosis-related genes in muscle tissues or plasma were determined by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, IF and ELISA. In addition, IFNγ was used to stimulate myotubes, and the relationships among PMK2 expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis were investigated. RESULTS: Mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis suggested that multiple glycolysis processes, the NLRP3 inflammasome and programmed cell death pathway-related proteins were dysregulated in the muscle tissues of DM/PM. PKM2 and the NLRP3 inflammasome were upregulated and positively correlated in the muscle fibres of DM/PM. Moreover, the pyroptosis-related proteins were increased in muscle tissues of DM/PM and were further increased in PM. The levels of PKM2 in muscle tissues and IL-1ß in plasma were high in patients with anti-signal recognition particle autoantibody expression. The pharmacological inhibition of PKM2 in IFNγ-stimulated myotubes attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequently inhibited pyroptosis. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed upregulated glycolysis in the lesioned muscle tissues of DM/PM, which activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and leaded to pyroptosis in muscle cells. The levels of PKM2 and IL-1ß were high in patients with anti-signal recognition particle autoantibody expression. These proteins might be used as new biomarkers for muscle damage.

5.
J Food Sci ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190228

RESUMO

Grape pomace is a major wine industry byproduct. Extraction of volatile compounds from grape pomace is rarely explored. A cost-effective method was developed in this study for aroma compounds extraction from grape pomace with the potential for industrial application. Based on the solvent extraction procedure, experimental factors including pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis time, solvent concentration and distillation time were investigated to optimize the extraction process. Volatile compounds of the pomace extract were analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Results revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis was the optimal pretreatment method. A maximum extraction efficiency was achieved under 48 hr of enzymatic hydrolysis, 70% of ethanol concentration and 20 min of distillation. A total of 65 volatile compounds were identified in the extract, including 16 alcohols, 1 alkane, 1 aldehyde, 9 esters, 3 ketones, 4 phenols, 6 terpenes, and 1 furan, of which 15 volatiles were determined as odor-active compounds. This study developed a feasible extraction technique to recycle the underutilized byproducts from wine industry to produce aroma/flavor food additives. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study develops a cost-effective method for aroma compounds extraction from grape pomace with the potential for industrial application as food additives.

6.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156801

RESUMO

Switch-based adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) is an optimal control problem in which a cost must be minimized by switching among a family of dynamical modes. When the system dimension increases, the solution to switch-based ADP is made prohibitive by the exponentially increasing structure of the value function approximator and by the exponentially increasing modes. This technical correspondence proposes a distributed computational method for solving switch-based ADP. The method relies on partitioning the system into agents, each one dealing with a lower dimensional state and a few local modes. Each agent aims to minimize a local version of the global cost while avoiding that its local switching strategy has conflicts with the switching strategies of the neighboring agents. A heuristic algorithm based on the consensus dynamics and Nash equilibrium is proposed to avoid such conflicts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via traffic and building test cases.

7.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(10): 1155-1159, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198854

RESUMO

Through the big data intelligent algorithm and application of artificial intelligence in critically ill patients, the value of the combination of clinical real-time warning and artificial intelligence in critical care medicine was explored. Artificial intelligence was used to simulate human thinking by studying, calculating, and analyzing a large amount of critical illness data in the medical work, and integrate a large number of clinical monitoring and treatment data generated in critical care medicine. The necessity, feasibility, relevance, data learning and application architecture of the application of artificial intelligence in the early warning of critical illness in medical work were analyzed, thus to promote the pioneering application of real-time warning of critical illness in clinical medicine. The development of critical care medicine in medical work requires the integration of big data and artificial intelligence. Through real-time early warning, accurate and scientific intelligent application of medical data, the life threatening uncertainties in the diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients can be more effectively reduced and the success rate of the treatment of critically ill patients can be improved. The perfect combination of artificial intelligence technology and big data of critical care medicine can provide a favorable guarantee for the pioneering application of real-time warning of critical care medicine in clinical work.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Estado Terminal , Big Data , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos
8.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 81: 103545, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171223

RESUMO

As an important environmental pollutant, the heavy metal cadmium has a significant negative impact on the stability of the ecological environment and on organismal health. Previous studies have shown that cadmium chloride can damage the nervous, skeletal, endocrine, and reproductive systems, but to our knowledge, the effects of cadmium on the behavior, neurotransmitter levels, and neuronal development in the offspring of exposed animals have not been reported. In the present study, sexually-mature zebrafish were exposed to cadmium chloride at different concentrations for 60 days, and in this background, behavior, neurotransmitters level, neuro-development and neurotransmitter metabolism was investigated in the F1 offspring. The results showed that exposure of the parental zebrafish to cadmium chloride resulted swimming speed and distance of F1 offspring significantly reduced; the levels of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine is disrupted. neuro-development and neurotransmitter metabolism related genes expression pattern was altered, which cause zebrafish F1 offspring developmental neurotoxicity. These findings provide further insights into the harm posed by cadmium chloride to the aquatic ecosystems.

9.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 277, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of sepsis is very important. It is necessary to find effective and adequate biomarkers in order to diagnose sepsis. In this study, we compared the value of sialic acid and procalcitonin for diagnosing sepsis. METHODS: Newly admitted intensive care unit patients were enrolled from January 2019 to June 2019. We retrospectively collected patient data, including presence of sepsis or not, procalcitonin level and sialic acid level. Receiver operating characteristic curves for the ability of sialic acid, procalcitonin and combination of sialic acid and procalcitonin to diagnose sepsis were carried out. RESULTS: A total of 644 patients were admitted to our department from January 2019 to June 2019. The incomplete data were found in 147 patients. Finally, 497 patients data were analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve for the diagnosis of sepsis with sialic acid, procalcitonin and combination of sialic acid and procalcitonin were 64.2, 78.3%, 0.763; 67.9, 84.0%, 0.816 and 75.2, 84.6%, 0.854. Moreover, sialic acid had good values for diagnosing septic patients with viral infection, with 87.5% sensitivity, 82.2% specificity, and 0.882 the area under the curve. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to procalcitonin, sialic acid had a lower diagnostic efficacy for diagnosing sepsis in critically ill patients. However, the combination of sialic acid and procalcitonin had a higher diagnostic efficacy for sepsis. Moreover, sialic acid had good value for diagnosing virus-induced sepsis.

10.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180213

RESUMO

The enhanced release of inflammatory cytokines mediated by high mobility group box1 (HMGB1) leads to pain sensation, and has been implicated in the etiology of inflammatory pain. Paeonol (PAE), a major active phenolic component in Cortex Moutan, provides neuroprotective efficacy via exerting anti-inflammatory effect. However, the role and mechanism of PAE in inflammatory pain remain to be fully clarified. In this study, we showed that PAE treatment significantly ameliorated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia of mice induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The analgesic effect of PAE administration was associated with suppressing the enhanced expression of HMGB1 as well as the downstream signaling molecules including toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the nuclear NF-κB p65, TNF-α and IL-1ß after CFA insult in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key brain region responsible for pain processing. Furthermore, inhibition of HMGB1 activity by glycyrrhizin (GLY), an HMGB1 inhibitor, alleviated CFA-induced pain and also facilitated PAE-mediated analgesic effect in mice along with the decreased expression of TLR4, NF-κB p65, TNF-α and IL-1ß upon CFA injury. Collectively, we showed PAE exerted analgesic effect through inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway and subsequent generation of cytokines TNF-α and IL-1ß in the ACC.

12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 599735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193455

RESUMO

Background: Ulva prolifera extract contains a variety of functional active substances. Whether these substances had any beneficial effects on the small intestine of weaned piglets under oxidative stress remained unknown. Method: We explored the effects of U. prolifera extract on oxidative stress and related mechanisms in weaned piglets and intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) challenged with hydrogen peroxide. Results: U. prolifera extract was found to mainly consist of polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. U. prolifera extract increased total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, while it decreased malondialdehyde content, in the serum of weaned piglets challenged with hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, U. prolifera extract increased mRNA expression of SOD and catalase, as well as the intestinal expression of nuclear NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, U. prolifera extract decreased reactive oxygen species and improved mitochondrial respiration in IPEC-J2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. However, AMPK inhibition did not affect nuclear Nrf2 expression and only partially affected the effects of U. prolifera extract on oxidative stress. Conclusion: We suggest that U. prolifera extract alleviates oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling, but independent of AMPK pathway in weaned piglets challenged with hydrogen peroxide. These results shed new insight into the potential applications of U. prolifera extract as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-induced intestinal diseases.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17161, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051518

RESUMO

To explore the prognostic value of three lymph node staging systems, including number of positive lymph nodes (pN), lymph node ratio (LNR), and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS), in patients with pT3 stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Data from 1667 patients with pT3 stage ESCC who underwent surgical resection were reviewed. The log-rank test was used to assess the differences in overall survival (OS) between groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the prognostic accuracy of the three staging methods. The median survival time for the entire group was 48.0 months, and the 1-, 3- and 5-year OS rates were 83.9%, 55.1% and 66.6%, respectively. All three lymph node staging systems were significantly correlated with OS in univariate and multivariate analyses. However, LNR and LODDS staging systems could more accurately predict survival than the pN staging system in patients with < 15 lymph nodes dissected, while LODDS have the best prognostic homogeneity. All three staging systems could be used for prognostic assessment in pT3 stage ESCC. But LODDS staging system might be superior to the others due to its prognostic homogeneity.

14.
Sci Adv ; 6(41)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036968

RESUMO

The development of drugs with rapid distribution in the kidney and long-term retention in the renal tubule is a breakthrough for enhanced treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI). Here, l-serine-modified chitosan (SC) was synthesized as a potential AKI kidney-targeting agent due to the native cationic property of chitosan and specific interaction between kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) and serine. Results indicated that SC was rapidly accumulated and long-term retained in ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI kidneys, especially in renal tubules, which was possibly due to the specific interactions between SC and Kim-1. SC-TK-SS31 was then prepared by conjugating SS31, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, to SC via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive thioketal linker. Because of the effective renal distribution combined with ROS-responsive drug release behavior, the administration of SC-TK-SS31 led to an enhanced therapeutic effect of SS31 by protecting mitochondria from damage and reducing the oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell apoptosis.

15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 775-801, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the anti-apoptotic effect of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside(C3 G) on H_2O_2-induced injury in human embryonic kidney(HEK)-293 cells. METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide induced injury of HEK-293 cell was used as the research object. HEK-293 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of C3 G(1. 25, 5, 20 µmol/L). The anti-apoptotic effects of C3 G on injured cells were examined by the release rates of LDH and mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP). Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to detect the protein expression and mRNA expression of NF-κB P65. RESULTS: The result showed that the release rate of LDH was increased, MMP was decreased, the protein and mRNA of P65 was increased after H_2O_2 inducing. Whereas, the release rates of LDH were significantly lower than that of the injured group after 1. 25, 5, 20 µmol/L C3 G pretreatment of injured cells(P<0. 05). The MMP of C3 G group was significantly higher than injured group with concentration-dependent increases. The proteins and mRNA of P65 were also significantly lower than that of injured group(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside shows anti-apoptotic effect on H_2O_2-induced injury in HEK-293 cell. The mechanisms of anti-apoptotic effects may be to achieve by protecting cell biofilms, and inhibiting the activity of NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , NF-kappa B , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 434, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy for wound healing. However, the poor migration capacity and low survival rate of transplanted BMSCs in wounds weaken their potential application. OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal protocol for BMSCs preconditioned with H2O2 and improve the therapeutic efficacy using H2O2-preconditioned BMSCs in wound healing. METHODS: Mouse BMSCs were exposed to various concentrations of H2O2, and the key cellular functional properties were assessed to determine the optimal precondition with H2O2. The H2O2-preconditioned BMSCs were transplanted into mice with full-thickness excisional wounds to evaluate their healing capacity and tissue engraftment. RESULTS: Treatment BMSCs with 50 µM H2O2 for 12 h could significantly enhance their proliferation, migration, and survival by maximizing the upregulation of cyclin D1, SDF-1, and its receptors CXCR4/7 expressions, and activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, but inhibiting the expression of p16 and GSK-3ß. Meanwhile, oxidative stress-induced BMSC apoptosis was also significantly attenuated by the same protocol pretreatment with a decreased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-9/3 expression. Moreover, after the identification of the optimal protocol of H2O2 precondition in vitro, the migration and tissue engraftment of transfused BMSCs with H2O2 preconditioning were dramatically increased into the wound site as compared to the un-preconditioned BMSCs. The increased microvessel density and the speedy closure of the wounds were observed after the transfusion of H2O2-preconditioned BMSCs. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that 50 µM H2O2 pretreated for 12 h is the optimal precondition for the transplantation of BMSCs, which gives a considerable insight that this protocol may be served as a promising candidate for improving the therapeutic potential of BMSCs for wound healing.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012100

RESUMO

QF-036 is an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor in pre-clinical development, and its antiviral activity against a laboratory HIV-1 strain and two drug-resistant strains was determined in the C8166 line. QF-036 was also subjected to absorption, distribution and metabolism (ADM) assessment in vitro, and pharmacokinetic profiles were evaluated in rats and monkeys. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50 ) of QF-036 against the three strains were 20.36 nM, 0.39 µM and 2.11 nM, respectively, demonstrating better antiviral potential than the first-generation antiviral maturation inhibitor bevirimat. QF-036 demonstrated moderate cell permeability, high plasma protein binding ability and good metabolic stability in vitro. After oral QF-036 administration to rats and monkeys, both species exhibited moderate bioavailability, and the plasma drug exposure increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. When administered orally (30 mg/kg) to monkeys, the QF-036 plasma concentration (Cmax ) peaked at 3671 ng/mL (4.82 µM), 12 to 2410 times higher than the EC50 of laboratory or resistant HIV-1 strains. Moreover, the plasma concentration of QF-036 at 12 hours after administration was 263 ng/mL (0.35 µM), which approximately matched the highest EC50 value of the three test strains. The favourable viral inhibitory activity and pharmacokinetic properties provide critical support for QF-036 as a promising anti-HIV therapeutic candidate.

18.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 447, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (T) score is a known determinant of the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Strong evidence indicates that the components of the coagulation system closely linked with fibrotic events have been highlighted in the kidney. However, whether the coagulation system can affect the renal outcome of IgAN remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the association of coagulation parameters and pathological phenotype of IgAN and their combined effects on the deterioration of renal function. METHODS: This retrospective study included N = 291 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN from May 2009 to April 2013 in the Second Xiangya Hospital. Clinical data, pathological features were collected, and the associations of coagulation parameters at biopsy, T score, and renal outcome were evaluated. T score indicated the degree of tubular atrophy or interstitial fibrosis. The renal outcome was defined as an end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or an irreversible 50% estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reduction. RESULTS: Shorter prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were significantly associated with T (both p < 0.001). PT (< 11.15 s) or APTT (< 29.65 s) had worse cumulative survival rate (p = 0.008, p = 0.027 respectively) and were significantly but not independently associated with a higher risk of renal outcome (p = 0.012, p = 0.032 respectively). In the combined analyses of PT, APTT, and T lesions, the odd ratios for the outcome were significantly higher in the presence of T with PT (< 11.15 s) or APTT (< 29.65 s). CONCLUSION: Shorter PT and APTT are associated with an increased incidence of the T lesion and are additional factors that portend a poorer prognosis in IgAN. Monitoring coagulation function might be important when assessing the risk of progression. Additional studies exploring the molecular mechanism between coagulation and IgAN pathology are needed.

19.
Waste Manag Res ; : 734242X20962841, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028174

RESUMO

The unprecedented urbanization that is occurring worldwide brings with it a vast amount of solid waste, leading to a rapid increase in study of municipal waste management (MWM) worldwide. This mini-review assessed this body of research both quantitatively and qualitatively. The data for the review were 9711 publications indexed by the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index for the period 2000-2019. The analysis showed that developed countries, the United States in particular, led trends in research during the first part of the period, and developing countries made substantial contributions to the literature more recently. For all years since 2009 except for 2014, China produced more research than the United States, becoming the most productive country in the study of MWM. Home to five of the ten most productive global research institutes on this subject, China is also a hub for collaboration among countries and institutes, as is the United States. Using content analysis and keyword visualization, this study characterized two decades of study of MWM. This study found that the keywords "sustainability," "waste-to-energy," "life-cycle assessment," and "China" exhibited an upward trend in research. This study seeks the pathway to successful scientific research, helping guide researchers as they innovate in and contribute to the field, and proposes pathways that governments can take to build sustainable MWM systems.

20.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 385, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many contradictory conclusions pertaining to the telomere length in peripheral leukocyte chromosomes as a potential biomarker for ischemic stroke (IS) risk have been reported by the various observational studies in previous years. This study aims to investigate whether the leukocyte telomere length is associated with an increased IS risk or not, based on the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: Based on the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog database, the Chinese online genetic database as well as the previous published studies, twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequency ≥ 0.05 were selected and the leukocyte telomere length was measured in 431 first-ever IS patients and 304 healthy controls (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). To explore linear and non-linear effect of telomere length on the IS risk, we preformed the linear MR analysis (the inverse-variance weighted method, the maximum likelihood method, and the mode-based estimation method), and the non-linear MR analysis (semiparametric method with three tests for non-linearity, including the quadratic test, Cochran's Q test, and the fractional polynomial test). RESULTS: Two verified SNPs (rs11125529 and rs412658) were chosen as instrumental variables. In linear MR analysis, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of IS for genetically predicted telomere lengths, based on the two SNPs, were 1.312 (0.979 to 1.759), 1.326 (0.932 to 1.888) and 1.226 (0.844 to 1.781) for the inverse-variance weighted method, the maximum likelihood method, and the mode-based estimation method, respectively. Three tests for nonlinearity failed to reject the null exactly, indicating that the relationship between telomere length and IS risk is unlikely to be non-linear. CONCLUSION: This MR study based on individual data does not provide strong evidence for a positive linear or non-linear effect of telomere length on the IS risk.

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