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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(1): 392-404, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213639

RESUMO

The structure and fractal characteristics of nanopores of high-rank coal were investigated using an approach that integrates N2 adsorption and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results indicated that the high-rank coal of the Shanxi Formation has a complex pore-fracture network composed of organic matter pores, mineral-related pores, and microfractures. The pore type of high-rank coal tends to be complicated, and the main pore types are inkbottle pores and open pores, which are more conducive to methane enrichment. The Ro,max has a negative relationship with the total pore volume. In addition, the ash and inertinite contents show a positive correlation with the average pore size (APS), while the fixed carbon content exhibits a negative relationship with the APS. The pore structure of high-rank coal is controlled not only by the degree of metamorphism but also by coal composition, which leads to the variation in pore structure becoming more complicated. With the increase in coal metamorphism, high-rank coal with high amounts of fixed carbon content generally possesses a higher irregularity in pore structure. No obvious relationship was observed between D2 and the coal components, which indicates that the pore structure, ash content, moisture content and other factors controlled by the metamorphism of coal have different effects on D2 that lead to this inapparent relationship. A negative relationship exists between adsorption volume and D1, which indicates that the high irregularity of the pore structure is not conducive to methane absorption and that no obvious correlation exists between the adsorption volume and D2. In the high-rank coal, the high D1 value represents the complexity and heterogeneity of the pore structure and represents a low adsorption affinity for methane molecules; in addition, D2 has no effect on the methane adsorption capacity.

2.
J Exp Med ; 218(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104171

RESUMO

ILC2s are present in adipose tissue and play a critical role in regulating adipose thermogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of adipose-resident ILC2s remain poorly defined. Here, we show that IL-33, a potent ILC2 activator, stimulates phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 via TAK1 in primary ILC2s, which provides a feedback mechanism to inhibit IL-33-induced NF-κB activation and IL-13 production. Treating ILC2s with adiponectin or an adiponectin receptor agonist (AdipoRon) activated AMPK and decreased IL-33-NF-κB signaling. AdipoRon also suppressed cold-induced thermogenic gene expression and energy expenditure in vivo. In contrast, adiponectin deficiency increased the ILC2 fraction and activation, leading to up-regulated thermogenic gene expression in adipose tissue of cold-exposed mice. ILC2 deficiency or blocking ILC2 function by neutralization of the IL-33 receptor with anti-ST2 diminished the suppressive effect of adiponectin on cold-induced adipose thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Taken together, our study reveals that adiponectin is a negative regulator of ILC2 function in adipose tissue via AMPK-mediated negative regulation of IL-33 signaling.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123627, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113719

RESUMO

In this work, non-thermal plasma combined with zeolites was used to remove inorganic pollutant ammonia nitrogen from wastewater. Ammonia nitrogen elimination performances at various operating parameters were investigated. Roles of active species in the removal of ammonia nitrogen were also discussed. The experimental results showed that 69.97% ammonia nitrogen can be removed from the plasma/zeolites synergistic system after 30 min treatment. The removal efficiency was 16.23% and 61.55% higher than that in sole zeolites adsorption system and that in sole discharge plasma system, respectively. Higher applied voltage, lower initial ammonia nitrogen concentration and weak acidic conditions were favorable for ammonia nitrogen removal. After the addition of zeolites, part of O3 and H2O2 generated in the plasma/zeolites system were decomposed into other oxygen species (•OH and 1O2), which improved the oxidation degree of ammonia nitrogen. In addition, the reaction mechanism of ammonia nitrogen in water by plasma/zeolites process was discussed. After repeated use three times, the effect of the zeolites in the plasma/zeolites system remained stable. Characterization of the zeolites after reaction was analyzed through BET, SEM, XRD and FT-IR. The experiments have confirmed the applicability of the plasma/zeolites system for the further treatment of low-concentration ammonia nitrogen wastewater.

4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag) is a hazardous pathogen able to cause bacterial pustule disease in soybean, reducing crop yield and quality. Although flavonoids rutin and genistein are known to play an important role in soybean defence, soybean is only able to produce Biochanin A in low concentration. RESULTS: In this work, Biochanin A was found to produce higher antibacterial activity against Xag in comparison with genistein (MIC < 100 µg/mL). Biochanin A was able to inhibit DNA synthesis and flagella formation in Xag, and altered the composition of the bacterial membrane. These effects reduced swimming motility, extracellular protease activity and biofilm formation. Further, Biochanin A was tested for the control of Xag in soybean leaves, showing similar, or even higher, inhibitory ability in comparison with some products commonly used for the control of this pathogen. CONCLUSIONS: The antibacterial properties of Biochanin A against Xag have been studied for the first time, revealing new insights on the potential applications of this isoflavonoid for the management of bacterial pustule disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Immunity ; 53(5): 934-951.e9, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159854

RESUMO

Inflammatory signaling is required for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development. Here, we studied the involvement of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) in HSPC formation. Rig-I or Mda5 deficiency impaired, while Lgp2 deficiency enhanced, HSPC emergence in zebrafish embryos. Rig-I or Mda5 deficiency reduced HSPC numbers by inhibiting inflammatory signals that were in turn enhanced in Lgp2 deficient embryos. Simultaneous reduction of Lgp2 and either Rig-I or Mda5 rescued inflammatory signals and HSPC numbers. Modulating the expression of the signaling mediator Traf6 in RLR deficient embryos restored HSPC numbers. Repetitive element transcripts could be detected in hemogenic endothelial cells and HSPCs, suggesting a role as RLR ligands. Indeed, ectopic expression of repetitive elements enhanced HSPC formation in wild-type, but not in Rig-I or Mda5 deficient embryos. Manipulation of RLR expression in mouse fetal liver HSPCs indicated functional conservation among species. Thus, repetitive elements transcribed during development drive RLR-mediated inflammatory signals that regulate HSPC formation.

6.
Air Qual Atmos Health ; : 1-14, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193909

RESUMO

As we move through 2020, our world has been transformed by the spread of COVID-19 in many aspects. A large number of cities across the world entered "sleep mode" sequentially due to the stay-at-home or lockdown policies. This study exploits the impact of pandemic-induced human mobility restrictions, as the response to COVID-19 pandemic, on the urban air quality across China. Different from the "traditional" difference-in-differences analysis, a human mobility-based difference-in-differences method is used to quantify the effect of intracity mobility reductions on air quality across 325 cities in China. The model shows that the air quality index (AQI) experiences a 12.2% larger reduction in the cities with lockdown. Moreover, this reduction effect varies with different types of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO decreased by 13.1%, 15.3%, 4%, 3.3%, and 3.3%, respectively). The heterogeneity analysis in terms of different types of cities shows that the effect is greater in northern, higher income, more industrialized cities, and more economically active cities. We also estimate the subsequent health benefits following such improvement, and the expected averted premature deaths due to air pollution declines are around 26,385 to 38,977 during the sample period. These findings illuminate a new light on the role of a policy intervention in the pollution emission, while also providing a roadmap for future research on the pollution effect of COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 280(Pt A): 319-325, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of imaging techniques, evidence of abnormal neural activity has been implicated in patients with somatization disorder (SD). It remains unclear whether abnormal spontaneous neural activities are related to specific frequency bands. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using the frequency-specific amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) approach was applied to investigate changes in spontaneous neural activity in different frequency bands in patients with SD. METHODS: Twenty-five first-episode, medication-naive patients with SD and 28 age-, sex-, education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state fMRI. The ALFF method with the classical low-frequency (0.01 - 0.08 Hz), slow-5 (0.01 - 0.027 Hz) and slow-4 (0.027 - 0.08 Hz) bands was employed to analyze the data. RESULTS: With the classical low-frequency and slow-5 bands, patients with SD showed significantly increased ALFF in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and reduced ALFF in the right cerebellum compared with HCs. With the slow-4 band, patients with SD exhibited significantly reduced ALFF in the right cerebellum compared with HCs. However, no significant correlation was observed between the ALFF value in the left OFC or right cerebellum and clinical/cognitive variables. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that there are abnormal regional activities of the left OFC and right cerebellum in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD, suggesting that these alterations occur early in the course of the disease and are independent of medication status. Our study provides novel evidence that different regional activities of the frontal-cerebellar circuit may be involved in the pathophysiology of SD.

8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; : 111831, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229004

RESUMO

Understanding the transportation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) across the water-sediment interface can help researchers to partition their sources while being particularly important for managing PAH input. This study fully explored the PAH dynamics between water and sediment in a tide-dominated estuary. The monthly concentration of ΣPAHs in sediments ranged from 325.47 to 1098.49 ng/g (dry weight), while that in water varied from 154.00 to 725.80 ng/L. The PAH levels found in the present study were relatively high in comparison with other estuarine systems worldwide. The high-molecular-weight PAHs were more readily redissolved from sediment to water, while the low-molecular-weight PAHs were mostly in an unsaturated state with diffusion occurring from water to sediment. The seasonal differences of ΣPAHs were significant and were largely controlled by the changes in sediment properties, marine currents, and water temperature. The diagnostic ratios revealed that predominant sources of PAHs were pyrogenic processes and petrogenic inputs.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1072, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nuclear transport system has been proposed to be indispensable for cell proliferation and invasion in cancers. Prognostic biomarkers and molecular targets in nuclear transport systems have been developed. However, no systematic analysis of genes related to nuclear transport in gliomas has been performed. An integrated prognostic classification involving mutation and nuclear transport gene signatures has not yet been explored. METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed gliomas from a training cohort (TCGA dataset, n = 660) and validation cohort (CGGA dataset, n = 668) to develop a prognostic nuclear transport gene signature and generate an integrated classification system. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that glioblastoma (GBM) was mainly enriched in nuclear transport progress compared to lower-grade glioma (LGG). Then, we developed a nuclear transport risk score (NTRS) for gliomas with a training cohort. NTRS was significantly correlated with clinical and genetic characteristics, including grade, age, histology, IDH status and 1p/19q codeletion, in the training and validation cohorts. RESULTS: Survival analysis revealed that patients with a higher NTRS exhibited shorter overall survival. NTRS showed better prognostic value compared to classical molecular markers, including IDH status and 1p/19q codeletion. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that NTRS was an independent prognostic factor for gliomas. Enrichment map and Gene Ontology analysis demonstrated that signaling pathways related to the cell cycle were enriched in the NTRSHigh group. Subgroup survival analysis revealed that NTRS could differentiate the outcomes of low- and high-risk patients with wild-type IDH or mutant IDH and 1p/19q non-codeletion. CONCLUSIONS: NTRS is associated with poor outcomes and could be an independent prognostic marker in diffuse gliomas. Prognostic classification combined with IDH mutation, 1p/19q codeletion and NTRS could better predict the survival of glioma patients.

10.
FASEB J ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184978

RESUMO

Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common valvular heart disease in adults. The cellular mechanisms of CAVD are still unknown, but accumulating evidence has revealed that osteogenic differentiation of human valve interstitial cells (hVICs) plays an important role in CAVD. Thus, we aimed to investigate the function of estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) in the osteogenic differentiation of hVICs. We found that the level of ERRα was significantly increased in CAVD samples compared to normal controls. In addition, ERRα was significantly upregulated during hVIC osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments were performed to identify the function of ERRα in hVIC calcification in vitro. Inhibition of endogenous ERRα attenuated hVIC calcification, whereas overexpression of ERRα in hVICs promoted this process. RNA sequencing results suggested that heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1) was a downstream target of ERRα, which was further confirmed by western blotting. Additionally, we also found that downregulation of Hmox1 by shHmox1 efficiently reversed the inhibition of calcification induced by ERRα shRNA in hVICs. ChIP-qPCR and luciferase assays indicated that Hmox1 was negatively regulated by ERRα. We found that overexpression of Hmox1 or its substrates significantly inhibited hVIC calcification in vitro. In conclusion, we found that knockdown of ERRα can inhibit hVIC calcification through upregulating Hmox1 and that ERRα and Hmox1 are potential targets for the treatment of CAVD.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175505

RESUMO

It is highly desirable to fabricate a pesticide delivery system with excellent permeability to reduce the damage caused by root-knot nematodes in the soil. In this work, a novel electronegative pesticide nanocarrier was established by bonding anionic lignosulfonate with epoxy resin nanocarriers, which were loaded with abamectin (Aba). The results demonstrated that nanoparticles were negatively charged (-38.4 mV) spheres with an average size of 150 nm, and the encapsulation efficiency of nanocarriers for Aba was 93.4%. Polymer nanocarriers could prevent premature release of Aba and protect active ingredients from microbiological degradation. The adsorption strength of the soil to Aba loaded in nanocarriers was reduced by 6 to 10 times, so nanonematicides have remarkable soil mobility. Meanwhile, nanoparticles could easily penetrate the roots and nematodes. The application test confirmed that the control effect of this nanopesticide was 26-40% higher than that of the other agrochemicals. In consideration of its superior bioactivity and utilization rate, this pesticide delivery system has promising potential to control root-knot nematodes and improve the pesticide's utilization efficiency.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176100

RESUMO

Owing to the hierarchically three-dimensional (3D) network, ultralow density, and high porosity, nanofiber-based aerogels (NFAs) have drawn great attention recently. However, precise control of the porous structure and mechanical properties of NFAs, which have been proved to be extremely essential to the applications, still remains a major challenge. Herein, electrospun polyimide (PI) nanofibers were utilized as building blocks to construct NFAs through the solid-templating technique. The porous structure of PI nanofiber-based aerogels (PI-NFAs) could be adjusted by changing the processing parameters. By further welding the adjacent nanofibers at the contact sites with solvent vapor, high-resilience PI-NFAs were successfully prepared with comparable or higher recoverable, under compression, folding and torsion relative to other NFAs. The welded PI-NFAs showed ultralow density (minimum of 0.96 mg/cm3), high porosity (maximum of 99.93%), and tunable hierarchical structure. Therefore, this study brought a new perspective on the simple preparation of high-resilience nanofiber-based aerogels with tunable porous structures.

13.
Brain ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170925

RESUMO

Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is now recognized as an early manifestation of α-synucleinopathies. Increasing experimental studies demonstrate that manipulative lesion or inactivation of the neurons within the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus (also known as the subcoeruleus nucleus in humans) can induce RBD-like behaviours in animals. As current RBD animal models are not established on the basis of α-synucleinopathy, they do not represent the pathological substrate of idiopathic RBD and thus cannot model the phenoconversion to Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was therefore to establish an α-synucleinopathy-based RBD animal model with the potential to convert to parkinsonian disorder. To this end, we first determined the functional neuroanatomical location of the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus in wild-type C57BL/6J mice and then validated its function by recapitulating RBD-like behaviours based on this determined nucleus. Next, we injected preformed α-synuclein fibrils into the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus and performed regular polysomnographic recordings and parkinsonian behavioural and histopathological studies in these mice. As a result, we recapitulated RBD-like behaviours in the mice and further showed that the α-synucleinopathy and neuron degeneration identified within the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus acted as the neuropathological substrates. Subsequent parkinsonian behavioural studies indicated that the α-synucleinopathy-based RBD mouse model were not stationary, but could further progress to display parkinsonian locomotor dysfunction, depression-like disorder, olfactory dysfunction and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Corresponding to that, we determined α-synuclein pathology in the substantia nigra pars compacta, olfactory bulb, enteral neuroplexus and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve, which could underlie the parkinsonian manifestations in mice. In conclusion, we established a novel α-synucleinopathy-based RBD mouse model and further demonstrated the phenoconversion of RBD to Parkinson's disease in this animal model.

14.
Chemosphere ; : 128779, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172671

RESUMO

In this study, graphene oxide (GO) was coated in geotextiles (GO-GT) to evaluate its potential for bio-clogging mitigation in the leachate collection system (LCS) of a landfill. Results showed that GO coating enhanced the surface hydrophilicity of geotextile. Bacterial experiments revealed that dead cells in the bio-clogging increased to 68.7% with GO-GT, compared to that in the GT (44.0%). After 136 days of operation, the GO-GT reduced the bio-clogging by decreasing the total amount of bacteria and the percentage of living bacteria. The total amount of extracellular polymeric substances in the GO-GT and GT was 22.8 ± 4.4 and 52.8 ± 4.8 mg/g of volatile suspended solids, respectively. Microbial analysis showed that Limnochordia and Symbiobacteriia were the most sensitive groups, with a decreased percentage in the GO-GT. Electrostatic repulsion and surface wrinkling were attributed to the attenuation effect on the GO-GT. These results imply the potential application of GO-coated geotextile for reducing bio-clogging in landfill LCS.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169980

RESUMO

The exploration of ternary Pt-based catalysts represents a new trend for the application of electrocatalysts in fuel cells. In the present study, intermetallic PtPbBi hexagonal nanoplates (HNPs) with a hexagonal close-packed structure have been successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal synthesis approach. The optimized PtPbBi HNPs exhibited excellent mass activity in the ethanol oxidation reaction (8870 mA mg-1Pt) in an alkaline ethanol solution, which is 12.7 times higher than that of JM Pt/C. Meanwhile, the mass activity of PtPbBi HNPs in an ethylene glycol solution (10,225 mA mg-1Pt) is 1.85 times higher than that of JM Pt/C. In particular, its catalytic activity is better than that of most reported Pt-based catalysts. In addition, the optimized PtPbBi HNPs also show a better operational durability than commercial Pt/C. For the ethylene glycol oxidation reaction, a mass activity of 42.7% was retained even after a chronoamperometric test for 3600 s, which is rare among the reported Pt-based catalysts. By combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical characterization, we reveal the electron transfer between Pt, Pb, and Bi; this would lead to weakened CO adsorption and enhanced OH adsorption, thereby promoting the removal of toxic intermediates and ensuring that PtPbBi HNP samples have high activity and excellent stability. This work can inspire the design and synthesis of Pt-based nanocatalysts.

16.
Harmful Algae ; 99: 101911, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218437

RESUMO

The phytoplankton Phaeocystis globosa thrives in a wide range of marine regions and plays an important role in climate control. It can also form harmful algal blooms (HABs) that threaten environments and impact important coastal infrastructures. Mechanisms underlying the formation of P. globosa blooms still remain poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that P. globosa has high genetic diversity and different P. globosa strains may have differential contributions to the development of P. globosa blooms. However, due to the lack of molecular markers with adequate resolution for distinguishing P. globosa genetic diversity, such differential contributions by different P. globosa strains could not be accurately ascertained. As such, high-resolution molecular markers need to be developed and applied to distinguish P. globosa genetic diversity. In this study, we undertook to define high-resolution molecular marker by assembling and comparing the whole chloroplast genomes of P. globosa strains isolated from different regions of the world. Through comparative analysis of P. globosa cpDNAs and detection of single nucleotide variations (SNVs), a molecular marker pgcp1 with improved resolution was developed. The pgcp1 demonstrated the highest resolution compared with other regions including 18S rDNA V4 region, 28S rDNA D1-D2 region and rbcL region, through genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis of 13 P. globosa strains. Molecular analysis of environmental samples and strains collected in multiple expeditions from a wide range of ocean regions including multiple regions in China, Vietnam, Thailand and Western Pacific using pgcp1 as the molecular marker displayed high genetic diversity of P. globosa with at least four major P. globosa clades. In conclusion, we have developed pgcp1 as a high-resolution molecular marker for the harmful algal bloom species P. globosa, which can be used to track intra-species genetic diversity and dynamics of P. globosa during bloom development.

17.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226078

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global public health emergency. Despite being caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), besides the lung, this infectious disease also has severe implications in cardiovascular system. In this review, we summarize diverse clinical complications of heart and vascular system, as well as the relevant high mortality, in COVID-19 patients. Systemic inflammation and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-involved signaling networking in SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular system may contribute to the manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, integration of clinical observations and experimental findings can promote our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, which would aid in identifying and treating the cardiovascular injury in patients with COVID-19 appropriately.

18.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226331

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and narcolepsy has been controversial. We conducted a prospective case control study of schizophrenia and comorbid narcolepsy type 1 in adolescents, compared to patients with either diagnosis alone and healthy controls using 18-F-fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), sleep studies, and neurocognitive tests. METHODS: We included eleven 9-20 years old patients with schizophrenia and comorbid narcolepsy type 1, 11 with narcolepsy type 1, 11 with schizophrenia, and 11 controls. All groups were matched for age and gender. Participants were required to submit to clinical interviews for sleep and psychiatric disorders, sleep questionnaires, continuous performance test (CPT), Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), sleep studies including polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and actigraphy, and PET studies. All data were analyzed to compare the differences between the four groups. RESULTS: The PET results demonstrated significant differences in the dual diagnoses group, compared with the three other groups. Compared to the controls, the dual diagnoses group had a significant presence of hypometabolism in the right mid frontal, right orbital inferior frontal, and right posterior cingulum and a significant presence of hypermetabolism in the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, bilateral substantia nigra, bilateral basal ganglia, and bilateral thalamus. CPT and WCST tests showed that the dual diagnoses group had the worst performance. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with schizophrenia and comorbid narcolepsy type 1 had different PET findings than those with either schizophrenia or narcolepsy type 1 alone. They also had more neurocognitive impairments and required additional interventions.

19.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 127: 103497, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188923

RESUMO

Mosquitoes rely heavily on their olfactory systems for host seeking, selection of oviposition sites, and avoiding predators and other environmental dangers. Of these behaviors, the preferential selection of a human blood-meal host drives the vectorial capacity of anthropophilic female Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes. Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are dispersed across several appendages on the head and express an obligate odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) coupled with a "tuning" odorant receptor (OR) to form heteromeric, odor-gated ion channels in the membrane of these neurons. To examine the mechanistic and functional contributions of Orco/OR complexes to the chemosensory processes of An. coluzzii, we utilized CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to create a line of homozygous, Orco-knockout, mutant mosquitoes. As expected, orco-/- ORNs across both adult and larval stages of An. coluzzii display significantly lower background activity and lack nearly all odor-evoked responses. In addition, blood-meal-seeking, adult female, orco-/- mutant mosquitoes exhibit severely reduced attraction to human- and non-human-derived odors while gravid females are significantly less responsive to established oviposition attractants. These results reinforce observations in other insects that Orco is crucial in maintaining the activity of ORNs. In that light, it significantly influences a range of olfactory-driven behaviors central to the anthropophilic host preference that is critical to the vectorial capacity of An. coluzzii as a primary vector for human malaria.

20.
Trials ; 21(1): 908, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one kind of common functional bowel disease with obscure pathogenesis, and exploration about whole transcriptome profiling in IBS-D is still negligible. Conventional medications have limited effects, which makes focus shifted to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang, as a classic herbal formula in TCM, is pretty effective and safe for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), but the underlying therapeutic mechanism remains unknown. We aim to verify the efficacy and safety of TXYF granule (the formula particles mixed together) in IBS-D and elucidate the gene-level mechanism of IBS-D and therapeutic targets of TXYF granule based on whole transcriptome analysis. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial consisting of 2 weeks of run-in period, 12 weeks of treatment period, and 8 weeks of follow-up period. We will enroll 120 participants with IBS-D, who will be randomly assigned to the TXYF granule group and the placebo group, and recruit additional 10 healthy individuals as controls for mechanistic outcome. The two groups respectively take TXYF granule or placebo orally for treatment. The primary outcome is the response rate of IBS-Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS). The secondary outcomes include adequate relief (AR), IBS-Quality of Life Questionnaire (IBS-QOL), and long-term efficacy. Mechanistic outcome is the whole transcriptome profiling of the intestinal mucosae from IBS participants before and after the treatment and healthy individuals. DISCUSSION: This trial will prove the effectiveness and safety of TXYF granule with high-quality evidence and provide a penetrating and comprehensive perspective on the molecular mechanism of IBS-D by whole transcriptome analysis, which makes us pinpoint specific biomarkers of IBS-D and therapeutic targets of TXYF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IOR-1900021785 . Registered on 9 March 2019.

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