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2.
Virus Res ; 339: 199269, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37952688

RESUMO

Cis-acting replication element (cre) is required for generating a diuridylylated VPg that acts as a protein primer to initiate the synthesis of picornaviral genome or antigenome. The cre is a stem-loop structure, dependent of different picornaviruses, located in different genomic regions. The AAACA motif is highly conserved in the apical loop of cre among several picornaviral members, and plays a key role in synthesizing a diuridylylated VPg. We previously demonstrated that senecavirus A (SVA) also possesses an AAACA-containing cre in its genome. Its natural cre (Nc), if functionally inactivated through site-directed mutagenesis (SDM), would confer a lethal impact on virus recovery, whereas an artificial cre (Ac) is able to compensate for the Nc-caused functional inactivation, leading to successful rescue of a viable SVA. In this study, we constructed a set of SVA cDNA clones. Each of them contained one functionally inactivated Nc, and an extra SDM-modified Ac. Every cDNA clone had a unique SDM-modified Ac. The test of virus recovery showed that only two SVAs were rescued from their individual cDNA clones. They were AAACU- and AAACC-containing Ac genotypes. Both viruses were serially passaged in vitro for analyzing their viral characteristics. The results showed that both AAACU and AAACC genotypes were genetically stable during twenty passages, implying when the Nc was functionally inactivated, SVA could still use an AAACH-containing Ac to complete its own replication cycle.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , RNA Viral , Humanos , Sequência de Bases , RNA Viral/genética , DNA Complementar , Células HeLa , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Picornaviridae/genética , Replicação Viral/genética
3.
Arch Virol ; 168(10): 256, 2023 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37737963

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA) can cause a vesicular disease in swine. It is a positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae. Positive-strand RNA viruses possess positive-sense, single-stranded genomes whose untranslated regions (UTRs) have been reported to contain cis-acting RNA elements. In the present study, a total of 100 SVA isolates were comparatively analyzed at the genome level. A highly conserved fragment (HCF) was found to be located in the 3D sequence and to be close to the 3' UTR. The HCF was computationally predicted to form a stem-loop structure. Eight synonymous mutations can individually disrupt the formation of a single base pair within the stem region. We found that SVA itself was able to tolerate each of these mutations alone, as evidenced by the ability to rescue all eight single-site mutants from their individual cDNA clones, and all of them were genetically stable during serial passaging. However, the replication-competent SVA could not be rescued from another cDNA clone containing all eight mutations. The failure to recover SVA might be attributed to disruption of the predicted stem-loop structure, whereas introduction of a wild-type HCF into the cDNA clone with eight mutations still had no effect on virus recovery. These results suggest that the putative stem-loop structure at the 3' end of the 3D sequence is a cis-acting RNA element that is required for SVA growth.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , Animais , Suínos , DNA Complementar , Picornaviridae/genética , Vírus de RNA de Cadeia Positiva , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência Conservada
4.
Virology ; 585: 186-195, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37379620

RESUMO

Infection with Senecavirus A (SVA) causes differential phenotypes in cells. In this study, cells were inoculated with SVA for culture. At 12 and 72 h post infection, cells were independently harvested for high-throughput RNA sequencing, and further methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The resultant data were comprehensively analyzed for mapping N6-methyladenosine (m6A)-modified profiles of SVA-infected cells. More importantly, m6A-modified regions were identified in the SVA genome. A dataset of m6A-modified mRNAs was generated for screening out differentially m6A-modified mRNAs, further subjected to a series of in-depth analyses. This study not only showed statistical differentiation of m6A-modified sites between two SVA-infected groups, but also demonstrated that SVA genome, as a positive-sense, single-stranded mRNA, itself could be modified through the m6A pattern. Out of the six samples of SVA mRNAs, only three were identified to be m6A-modified, implying that the epigenetic effect might not be a crucial driving force for SVA evolution.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae , Picornaviridae , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Picornaviridae/genética
5.
Virology ; 585: 155-163, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37348144

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging virus, causing vesicular disease in swine. SVA is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus, which is the only member of the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae. SVA genome encodes 12 proteins: L, VP4, VP2, VP3, VP1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D. The VP1 to VP4 are structural proteins, and the others are nonstructural proteins. The replication of SVA in host cells is a complex process coordinated by an elaborate interplay between the structural and nonstructural proteins. Structural proteins are primarily involved in the invasion and assembly of virions. Nonstructural proteins modulate viral RNA translation and replication, and also take part in antagonizing the antiviral host response and in disrupting some cellular processes to allow virus replication. Here, we systematically reviewed the molecular functions of SVA structural and nonstructural proteins by reference to literatures of SVA itself and other picornaviruses.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , Animais , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , RNA Viral
6.
Virology ; 585: 72-77, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37307649

RESUMO

The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Senecavirus A (SVA) was predicted to harbor two hairpin structures, hairpin-I and -II. The former is composed of two internal loops, one terminal loop and three stem regions; the latter comprises one internal loop, one terminal loop and two stem regions. In this study, we constructed a total of nine SVA cDNA clones, which contained different point mutations within a stem-formed motif in the hairpin-I or -II, for rescuing replication-competent viruses. Only three mutants were successfully rescued and moreover genetically stable during at least five serial passages. Computer-aided prediction showed these three mutants bearing either a wild-type or a wild-type-like hairpin-I in their individual 3' UTRs. Neither wild-type nor wild-type-like hairpin-I could be computationally predicted to exist in 3' UTRs of the other six unviable "viruses". The results suggested that the wild-type or wild-type-like hairpin-I was necessary in the 3' UTR for SVA replication.


Assuntos
RNA Viral , Replicação Viral , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Sequência de Bases , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/química , Linhagem Celular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 280: 109717, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36893554

RESUMO

Picornavirus possesses one positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, in which a cis-acting replication element (cre) is located. The cre is a stem-loop structure that harbors a conserved AAACA motif within its loop region. This motif functions as a template for adding two U residues to the viral VPg, therefore generating a VPg-pUpU that is required for viral RNA synthesis. Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging picornavirus. Its cre has not been identified as yet. In the present study, one putative cre containing a typical AAACA motif was computationally predicted to exist within the VP2-encoding sequence of SVA. To test the role of this putative cre, 22 SVA cDNA clones with different point mutations in their cre-formed sequences were constructed in an attempt to rescue replication-competent SVAs. A total of 11 viruses were rescued from their individual cDNA clones, implying that some mutated cres exerted lethal impacts on SVA replication. To eliminate these impacts, an intact cre was artificially inserted into those SVA cDNA clones without ability of recovering virus. The artificial cre was proven to be able of compensating for some, but not all, defects caused by mutated cres, leading to successful recovery of SVAs. These results indicated that the putative cre of SVA was functionally similar to those of other picornaviruses, perhaps involved in the uridylylation of VPg.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Complementar/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Picornaviridae/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/química , Replicação Viral/genética
8.
Virus Res ; 328: 199076, 2023 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36841440

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA) belongs to the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae. Its genome is a positive-sense, single-strand RNA that has 5' and 3' untranslated regions. There is a poly(A) tail at the 3' end of viral genome. Although the number of poly(A)s is variable, the length of poly(A) tail generally has the minimum nucleotide limit for picornaviral replication. To identify a range limit of poly(A)s for SVA recovery, five SVA cDNA clones, separately containing 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5 poly(A)s, were constructed for rescuing viruses. Replication-competent SVAs could be rescued from the first three cDNA clones, implying the range limit of poly(A)s was (A)15 to (A)10. To recognize the precise limit, four extra cDNA clones, separately containing 14, 13, 12 and 11 poly(A)s, were constructed to rescue SVAs further. The replication-competent SVA was rescued only from the poly(A)14-containing plasmid, indicating that the precise limit was poly(A)14 at the 3' end of cDNA clone for SVA recovery. The rescued SVA was serially passaged in cells. The passage-5 and -10 progenies were independently subjected to the analysis of 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Both progenies showed their own poly(A) tails far more than 14 (A)s, implying extra (A)s added to the poly(A)14 sequence during viral passaging. It can be concluded that fourteen (A)s are sufficient for rescuing a replication-competent SVA from its cDNA clone, but inadequate for maintaining viral propagation in cells.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , Poli A , DNA Complementar/genética , Poli A/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Picornaviridae/genética , Replicação Viral , Células Clonais , RNA Mensageiro
9.
Virology ; 579: 67-74, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608596

RESUMO

To clarify whether Senecavirus A (SVA) has the potential of alternative translation, an extra G residue was inserted into an SVA cDNA clone, resultantly generating an "AUGAUG" motif. The second AUG is the authentic SVA initiation codon, whereas the first AUG is a putative one. Subsequently, eighteen nucleotides were inserted one by one between AUG and AUG for reconstructing cDNA clones. The test of virus recovery showed that three replication-competent SVAs, whose AUG/AUG-flanked sequences were not multiples of three nucleotides, were successfully rescued from their individual cDNA clones. The wild-type SVA possesses a UUUUU motif within the polyprotein-encoding region. Sanger sequencing showed that these three replication-competent SVAs harbored one or two extra U residues in the UUUUU motif, implying that polyprotein translation was initiated from the putative AUG, and the authentic AUG would be inactivated. This is probably attributed to the lack of ribosome scanning along an SVA genome.


Assuntos
Poliproteínas , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Códon de Iniciação , Poliproteínas/genética , DNA Complementar , Nucleotídeos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1006273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211954

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. This virus has a single-stranded genomic RNA with negative polarity. The wild-type CDV genome is generally composed of 15 690 nucleotides. We previously rescued an enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-tagged recombinant CDV (rCDV-eGFP) using reverse genetics. In this study, the rCDV-eGFP at passage-7 was subjected to 38 serial plaque-to-plaque transfers (or bottleneck passages) and two extra common passages in cells. In theory, the effect of Muller's ratchet may fix deleterious mutations in a single viral population after consecutive plaque-to-plaque transfers. In order to uncover a mutated landscape of the rCDV-eGFP under the circumstances of bottleneck passages, the passage-47 progeny was collected for the in-depth analysis via next-generation sequencing. The result revealed a total of nine single-nucleotide mutations (SNMs) in the viral antigenome. Out of them, SNMs at nt 1832, 5022, 5536, 5580, 5746, 6913 and 8803 were identified as total single-nucleotide substitution, i.e., 100% of mutation frequency. The result suggested no notable formation of viral quasispecies in the rCDV-eGFP population after consecutive plaque-to-plaque transfers.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Animais , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Genômica , Nucleotídeos , RNA
11.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 957849, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060787

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging picornavirus. Its genome is one positive-sense, single-stranded RNA. The viral protein (VPg) is covalently linked to the extreme 5' end of the SVA genome. A complex hairpin-pseudoknot-hairpin (HPH) RNA structure was computationally predicted to form at the 5' end of the SVA genome. A total of three extra "U" residues (UUU) served as a linker between the HPH structure and the VPg, causing putative UUU-HPH formation at the extreme 5' end of the SVA genome. It is unclear how the UUU-HPH structure functions. One SVA cDNA clone (N0) was constructed previously in our laboratory. Here, the N0 was genetically tailored for reconstructing a set of 36 modified cDNA clones (N1 to N36) in an attempt to rescue replication-competent SVAs using reverse genetics. The results showed that a total of nine viruses were successfully recovered. Out of them, five were independently rescued from the N1 to N5, reconstructed by deleting the first five nucleotides (TTTGA) one by one from the extreme 5' end of N0. Interestingly, these five viral progenies reverted to the wild-type or/and wild-type-like genotype, suggesting that SVA with an ability to repair nucleotide defects in its extreme 5' end. The other four were independently rescued from the N26 to N29, containing different loop-modifying motifs in the first hairpin of the HPH structure. These four loop-modifying motifs were genetically stable after serial passages, implying the wild-type loop motif was not a high-fidelity element in the first hairpin during SVA replication. The other genetically modified sequences were demonstrated to be lethal elements in the HPH structure for SVA recovery, suggesting that the putative HPH formation was a crucial cis-acting replication element for SVA propagation.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 889480, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707163

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging virus that belongs to the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae. Its genome is a positive-sense and single-stranded RNA, containing two untranslated regions (UTRs). The 68-nt-long 3' UTR is computationally predicted to possess two higher-order RNA structures: a kissing-loop interaction and an H-type-like pseudoknot, both of which, however, cannot coexist in the 3' UTR. In this study, we constructed 17 full-length SVA cDNA clones (cD-1 to -17): the cD-1 to -7 contained different point mutations in a kissing-loop-forming motif (KLFM); the cD-8 to -17 harbored one single or multiple point mutations in a pseudoknot-forming motif (PFM). These 17 mutated cDNA clones were independently transfected into BSR-T7/5 cells for rescuing recombinant SVAs (rSVAs), named rSVA-1 to -17, corresponding to cD-1 to -17. The results showed that the rSVA-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -9, -13, and -15 were successfully rescued from their individual cDNA clones. Moreover, all mutated motifs were genetically stable during 10 viral passages in vitro. This study unveiled viral abilities of tolerating mutations in the computationally predicted KLFM or PFMs. It can be concluded that the putative kissing-loop structure, even if present in the 3' UTR, is unnecessary for SVA replication. Alternatively, if the pseudoknot formation potentially occurs in the 3' UTR, its deformation would have a lethal effect on SVA propagation.

13.
Vet Microbiol ; 271: 109487, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714527

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA), formerly known as Seneca Valley virus, belongs to the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae. SVA has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which is actually an mRNA that initiates translation via its own internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The SVA IRES has been demonstrated to be the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like IRES, containing eight stem-loop domains: domain (D)II, DIIIa, DIIIb, DIIIc, DIIId1, DIIId2, DIIIe and DIIIf. In this study, stem-forming motifs (SFMs) in the eight domains were independently subjected to site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) to construct eight SVA minigenomes for dual-luciferase reporter assay. The result suggested that except the DII, the other seven domains were closely evolved in the IRES activity. Subsequently, a full-length SVA cDNA clone tagged with a reporter gene was genetically modified to construct eight SFM-mutated ones, separately transfected into BSR-T7/5 cells in an attempt to rescue replication-competent SVAs. Nevertheless, no virus was successfully rescued from its own cDNA clone, implying each of the putative domains necessary in SVA IRES for viral replication. Further, we attempted to rescue replication-competent SVA via pairwise transfection of cDNA clones. Out of 28 combinations of co-transfection, four were demonstrated to be able to rescue replication-competent SVAs. Sanger sequencing showed that all four viruses had the wild-type IRES genotype, suggesting the occurrence of putative copy-choice recombination between two IRES-modifying genomes.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , RNA Viral , Animais , DNA Complementar , Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal/genética , Picornaviridae/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Transfecção/veterinária
14.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 845845, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433907

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with a high mortality rate in humans. Additionally, dogs are frequently reported to be infected with this disease. There has been no commercially available vaccine for humans and animals as yet. The SFTS is caused by Dabie bandavirus (DBV), formerly known as SFTS virus. The DBV is now classified into the genus Bandavirus in the family Phenuiviridae. DBV Gn and Gc can induce specific immune responses in vivo. In this study, we used reverse genetics technique to construct two recombinant canine distemper viruses (rCDVs), rCDV-Gn and -Gc, which could express Gn and Gc in vitro, respectively. Both of the recombinants, derived from a common parental CDV, were independently subjected to twenty serial passages in cells for Sanger sequencing. Neither point mutation nor fragment deletion was found in the Gn open reading frame (ORF), whereas the rCDV-Gc showed a nonsynonymous mutation (A157C) in the Gc ORF, correspondingly resulting in a mutation of amino acid (T53P) in the Gc. Growth curve of the rCDV-Gc almost coincided with that of a wild-type CDV, but exhibited a significant difference from that of the rCDV-Gn. Much research remains to be performed to demonstrate whether both recombinants are able of inducing specific immune responses in vivo.

15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 746926, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604118

RESUMO

Due to lacking a proofreading mechanism in their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp), RNA viruses generally possess high mutation frequencies, making them evolve rapidly to form viral quasispecies during serial passages in cells, especially treated with mutagens, like ribavirin. Canine distemper virus (CDV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus. Its L protein functions as an RdRp during viral replication. In this study, a recombinant enhanced green fluorescence protein-tagged CDV (rCDV-eGFP) was rescued from its cDNA clone, followed by viral identification and characterization at passage-7 (P7). This recombinant was independently subjected to extra 40 serial passages (P8 to 47) in ribavirin- and non-treated cells. Two viral progenies, undergoing passages in ribavirin- and non-treated VDS cells, were named rCDV-eGFP-R and -N, respectively. Both progenies were simultaneously subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) at P47 for comparing their quasispecies diversities with each other. The rCDV-eGFP-R and -N showed 62 and 23 single-nucleotide mutations (SNMs) in individual antigenomes, respectively, suggesting that the ribavirin conferred a mutagenic effect on the rCDV-eGFP-R. The spectrum of 62 SNMs contained 26 missense and 36 silent mutations, and that of 23 SNMs was composed of 17 missense and 6 silent mutations. Neither the rCDV-eGFP-R nor -N exhibited nonsense mutation in individual antigenomes. We speculate that the rCDV-eGFP-R may contain at least one P47 sub-progeny characterized by high-fidelity replication in cells. If such a sub-progeny can be purified from the mutant swarm, its L protein would elucidate a molecular mechanism of CDV high-fidelity replication.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Animais , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Mutação , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Inoculações Seriadas
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 262: 109223, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507016

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA), formerly known as Seneca Valley virus, is classified into the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae. Mature virion harbors an approximately 7 300-nt-long, positive-sense, and single-stranded RNA genome, which contains 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is identified in the SVA 5' UTR, and includes a RNA pseudoknot upstream of the start codon. This pseudoknot contains two stem structures, pseudoknot stem I and II (PKS-I and -II). The PKS-I is composed of two base-paired motifs (PKS-Ia and -Ib), between which there is an unpaired spacing (UpS). We reported previously that motif mutation in the PKS-II did not abolish the IRES activity, but interfered with SVA recovery from cDNA clone. In this study, we constructed five SVA minigenomes with point mutations in the PKS-I motif. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that motif mutations in PKS-I did not significantly interfere with the IRES activity to initiate protein expression. Correspondingly, we constructed five SVA cDNA clones with point mutations in the PKS-I motif. These genetically modified cDNA clones were separately transfected into BSR-T7/5 cells in attempting to rescue competent SVAs. However, only two viruses, namely PKS-Ia- and UpS-mutated recombinants, could be recovered from their individual cDNA clones. It can be concluded that the PKS-Ib is indispensable for viral growth.


Assuntos
Códon de Iniciação , Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal , Picornaviridae , Animais , Códon de Iniciação/genética , DNA Complementar , Genes Virais/genética , Mutação , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Picornaviridae/genética , RNA Viral/genética
17.
Virology ; 563: 126-133, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530232

RESUMO

The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of Senecavirus A (SVA) harbors an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), in which a pseudoknot structure is upstream of start codon AUG. Wild-type SVAs have a highly conserved 13-nt-sequence between the pseudoknot stem II (PKS-II)-forming motif and the AUG. In this study, a single nucleotide was deleted one by one from the 13-nt-sequence within a wild-type SVA minigenome. The result showed that neither mono- nor multi-nucleotide deletions abolished the IRES activity. Furthermore, a single nucleotide was deleted one by one from the 13-nt-sequence within a full-length SVA cDNA clone. The result indicated that nucleotide-deleting SVAs could be rescued from 1- to 5-nt-deleting cDNA clones, whereas only the 1- and 2-nt-deleting viruses were genetically stable during nine serial passages in vitro. Additionally, only the 1-nt-deleting SVA showed similar growth kinetics to that of the wild-type virus, suggesting that the pseudoknot-AUG distance was crucial for SVA replication.


Assuntos
Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal/genética , Picornaviridae/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vírus Reordenados , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
18.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 690204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368277

RESUMO

Small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), formerly known as peste-des-petits-ruminants virus, classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Its L protein functions as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) during viral replication. Due to the absence of efficient proofreading activity in their RdRps, various RNA viruses reveal high mutation frequencies, making them evolve rapidly during serial passages in cells, especially treated with a certain mutagen, like ribavirin. We have previously rescued a recombinant enhanced green fluorescence protein-tagged SRMV (rSRMV-eGFP) using reverse genetics. In this study, the rSRMV-eGFP was subjected to serial passages in ribavirin-treated cells. Due to the ribavirin-exerted selective pressure, it was speculated that viral progenies would form quasispecies after dozens of passages. Viral progenies at passage-10, -20, -30, -40, and -50 were separately subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS), consequently revealing a total of 34 single-nucleotide variations, including five synonymous, 21 missense, and one non-sense mutations. The L sequence was found to harbor eight missense mutations during serial passaging. It was speculated that at least one high-fidelity variant was present in viral quasispecies at passage-50. If purified from the population of viral progenies, this putative variant would contribute to clarifying a molecular mechanism in viral high-fidelity replication in vitro.

19.
Vet Microbiol ; 259: 109154, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237497

RESUMO

Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) belongs to the genus Orthorubulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. PIV5 can infect a range of mammals, but induce mild or even unobservable clinical signs in some animals, except kennel cough in dogs. It is also able to infect a variety of cell lines, but causes minimal or even invisible cytopathic effects on many cells. Sometimes, owing to neither observable cytopathic effects in vitro nor typical clinical signs in vivo, the PIV5 is not easily usable for screening antiviral drugs. To solve this issue, we used reverse genetics to recover a dual reporter-tagged recombinant PIV5 that could simultaneously express enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) and NanoLuc® luciferase (NLuc) in virus-infected cells. Both reporters were genetically stable during twenty serial passages of virus in MDBK cells. The eGFP allowed us to observe virus-infected MDBK cells in real time, and moreover the NLuc made it possible to quantify the degree of viral replication for determining antiviral activity of a given drug. Subsequently, the recombinant PIV5 was used for antiviral assays on five common drugs, i.e., ribavirin, apigenin, 1-adamantylamine hydrochloride, moroxydine hydrochloride and tea polyphenol. The results showed that only the ribavirin had an anti-PIV5 effect in MDBK cells. This study proposed a novel method for rapid screening (or prescreening) of anti-PIV5 drugs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Genes Reporter , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Vírus da Parainfluenza 5/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Parainfluenza 5/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105108, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324997

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as an unprecedented pandemic, has rapidly spread around the globe. Its etiological agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae. The viral S1 subunit has been demonstrated to have a powerful potential in inducing protective immune responses in vivo. Since April 2020, farmed minks were frequently reported to be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 in different countries. Unfortunately, there has been no available veterinary vaccine as yet. In this study, we used reverse genetics to rescue a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) that could express the SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit in vitro. The S1 subunit sequence was demonstrated to be relatively stable in the genome of recombinant CDV during twenty serial viral passages in cells. However, due to introduction of the S1 subunit sequence into CDV genome, this recombinant CDV grew more slowly than the wild-type strain did. The genomic backbone of recombinant CDV was derived from a virulence-attenuating strain (QN strain). Therefore, if able to induce immune protections in minks from canine distemper and COVID-19 infections, this recombinant would be a potential vaccine candidate for veterinary use.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Animais , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
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