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1.
Talanta ; 207: 120300, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594586

RESUMO

A "signal-on" chemiluminescence biosensor was established for detecting thrombin. The thrombin aptamer1-functionalized magnetic sodium alginate (Malg-Apt1) hydrogel was synthesized by physical interaction between sodium alginate and Ca2+, and it was used in the biosensor for separating and enriching thrombin. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to chelate with Ca2+ to dissolve the hydrogel and release thrombin. A metalloporphyrinic metal-organic framework nanosheet, named as Cu-TCPP(Co) MOFs, was prepared as signal amplification strategy. Cu-TCPP(Co) MOFs/Au-ssDNA (ssDNA: single-strand DNA) was synthesized for controllable further amplification of chemiluminescent signal. The thrombin aptamer2-functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs-Apt2) were used as a matrix, and Cu-TCPP(Co) MOFs/Au-ssDNA was adsorbed on the MCNTs by the complementary pairing of the partial bases between ssDNA and Apt2. Compared with ssDNA, Apt2 has a stronger interaction with thrombin. Therefore, thrombin can trigger the release of Cu-TCPP(Co) MOFs/Au-ssDNA to achieve signal amplification. Under the optimal conditions, the biosensor could detect thrombin as low as 2.178 × 10-13 mol/L with the range from 8.934 × 10-13 to 5.956 × 10-10 mol/L and exhibited excellent selectively. Moreover, the "signal-on" chemiluminescence biosensor showed potential application for the detection of thrombin in body fluids.

2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115368, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590842

RESUMO

This paper reveals the structural variations of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) prepared from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using different methods and the organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials were constructed with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). First, pure cellulose was extracted from SCB, and four CNCs were successfully obtained. The huge differences in structure and properties provide a choice for various applications. Subsequently, novel CNC/POSS hybrid nanomaterials were prepared from carboxylated CNC via carbodiimide-assisted coupling chemistry. The morphology and properties of hybrids were investigated in detail. The hybrids exhibit great differences in structure and properties due to the difference in CNC. The incorporation of POSS has improved the thermal performance of the CNC, and the mass ratio has a significant impact on molecular structure. This work provides useful information for the preparation of multi-type CNCs using agricultural and forestry by-products, and the novel CNC/POSS hybrid has opened up new ideas for the application of nanocellulose.

3.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 909-919, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241766

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are a group of endogenous regulators that participate in several cellular physiological processes. However, the role of miR-137 in the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) has not been reported. This study verified a general downward trend in miR-137 expression during the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. MiR-137 knockdown promoted the osteogenesis of hASCs in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, inhibition of miR-137 activated the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-mothers against the decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) pathway, whereas repressed lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1), which was confirmed as a negative regulator of osteogenesis in our previous studies. Furthermore, LSD1 knockdown enhanced the expression of BMP2 and SMAD4, suggesting the coordination of LSD1 in the osteogenic regulation of miR-137. This study indicated that miR-137 negatively regulated the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via the LSD1/BMP2/SMAD4 signaling network, revealing a new potential therapeutic target of hASC-based bone tissue engineering.

4.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 183: 105091, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The functional regions clustering through microelectrode recording (MER) is a critical step in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. The localization of the optimal target highly relies on the neurosurgeon's empirical assessment of the neurophysiological signal. This work presents an unsupervised clustering algorithm to get the optimal cluster result of the functional regions along the electrode trajectory. METHODS: The dataset consists of the MERs obtained from the routine bilateral DBS for PD patients. Several features have been extracted from MER and divided into groups based on the type of neurophysiological signal. We selected single feature groups rather than all features as the input samples of each division of the divisive hierarchical clustering (DHC) algorithm. And the optimal cluster result has been achieved through a feature group combination selection (FGS) method based on genetic algorithm (GA). To measure the performance of this method, we compared the accuracy and validation indexes of three methods, including DHC only, DHC with GA-based FGS and DHC with GA-based feature selection (FS) in other studies, on the universal and DBS datasets. RESULTS: Results show that the DHC with GA-based FGS achieved the optimal cluster result compared with other methods. The three borders of the STN can be identified from the cluster result. The dorsoventral sizes of the STN and dorsal STN are 4.45 mm and 2.02 mm. In addition, the features extracted from the multiunit activity, background unit activity and local field potential are found to be the most representative feature groups to identify the dorsal, d-v and ventral borders of the STN, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our clustering algorithm showed a reliable performance of the automatic identification of functional regions in DBS. The findings can provide valuable assistance for both neurosurgeons and stereotactic surgical robots in DBS surgery.

5.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(7): 075701, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675747

RESUMO

A new 3d-5d hybridized quadruple perovskite oxide, CaCu3Mn2Ir2O12, was synthesized by high-pressure and high-temperature methods. The Rietveld structure analysis reveals that the compound crystallizes in an [Formula: see text]-type perovskite structure with space group Im-3, where the Ca and Cu are 1:3 ordered at fixed atomic positions. At the B site the 3d Mn and the 5d Ir ions are disorderly distributed due to the rare equal +4 charge states for both of them as determined by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The competing antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions among Cu2+, Mn4+, and Ir4+ ions give rise to spin glass behavior, which follows a conventional dynamical slowing down model.

6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 107: 110206, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761168

RESUMO

The concentration of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) rises greatly in patients with liver cancer and it is a challenge to construct a sensitive AFP detection method with wide range. Therefore, an easy and label-free sensing electrochemical platform for AFP detection with wide concentration range had been designed in this work. Firstly, MnO2 functionalized mesoporous carbon hollow sphere (MCHS@MnO2) with optimal performance was synthesized by regulating experimental conditions and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV), etc. Then, it was immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (MCHS@MnO2/GCE) to build an immunosensor for the detection of AFP. The MCHS@MnO2/GCE can catalyze decomposition of H2O2 to generate electrochemical signal, and the signal will decrease after capturing AFP. Due to good electrocatalytic activity of MCHS@MnO2 to H2O2, the immunosensor achieved indirect detection of AFP with wide sensing range from 0.10 ng mL-1 to 420 ng mL-1 and a detection limit of 0.03 ng mL-1. Furthermore, the method had been proven to be satisfactory selectivity and reproducibility, and it was successfully applied to determine the content of AFP in human serum samples with satisfactory results. This method is expected to be used for early diagnosis and prognosis examination of liver cancer patients.

7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104579, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect and mechanism of calcium on LS8 cell differentiation, especially on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) /protein kinase B(AKT) pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ameloblast-like LS8 cell line was used and additional 0-3.5 mmol/L calcium chloride was treated for 24 h, 48 h. Cell viability and morphological changes, cell cycle and associated regulatory proteins were analyzed. RESULTS: No significant effects on morphological changes were observed. Decreased cell viability and increased S phase cells were accompanied by the significant decrease of cyclin A and cyclin B proteins, and significant increase of cyclin D protein in LS8 cells. Additionally, kallikrein-4 and amelotin expressions were significantly increased. Finally, the levels of PI3K, AKT, p-AKT and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) significantly downregulated after calcium treatment in LS8 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium inhibit proliferation and promotes differentiation in LS8 cells, this is closely related to the downregulation of PI3K/AKT signal in LS8 cells.

8.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101602, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698191

RESUMO

Loss of function mutations in PARK2 (encoding PARKIN) cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD), which often manifests at a juvenile age. Molecular and biochemical studies show that PARKIN functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase controlling mitochondrial homeostasis. Yet, the exact mechanisms are unclear due to the use of sub-optimal models including cancer cells and fibroblasts. We have generated a PARK2 knockout (KO) isogenic cell line using a well-characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clone with good differentiation potential. This cell line lacks the expression of all PARKIN isoforms and is valuable for elucidating the role of PARK2 mutations in PD.

9.
Int J Med Robot ; : e2056, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current soft endoscope intervention mainly depends on the skills of endoscopists, especially for the orientation of the endoscope within the human tortuous lumen. This dependence causes inefficient and time-consuming surgery. METHODS: A human-robot cooperation navigation strategy is proposed to perform the intervention of soft endoscope. The navigation strategy firstly detects the cavity center by processing the image of endoscope, then an auto-orienting strategy is presented to automatically adjust the endoscope pointing to the detected cavity center. RESULTS: Human phantom experiments are carried out to validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the navigation strategy. The results show that the cavity center is accurately extracted with whether the cavity is occluded or not and the auto-orienting strategy could well point the endoscope around the cavity center. CONCLUSION: The proposed human-robot cooperation navigation strategy releases endoscopists from the time-consuming operations and improves the safety and automation of intervention procedures.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134394, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733493

RESUMO

CO2 emissions caused by socioeconomic development and energy consumption in China have put enormous pressure on emissions reduction for Chinese government. In response to CO2 emissions reduction in China, this study integrated the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) stable nighttime light (SNL) data and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) composite data, and established the integrated nighttime light datasets from 1992 to 2016. The estimated CO2 emissions model utilizing the integrated nighttime light datasets and statistical CO2 emissions at the provincial level from 1995 to 2016 were established. Finally, spatiotemporal dynamics of CO2 emissions were simulated from multiscale. The results clearly showed that: (1) The fitting results of regression relationship between DMSP-OLS SNL data and NPP-VIIRS composite data met the accuracy requirements. The CO2 emissions estimated model was valid. (2) The total amount of energy consumption CO2 emissions in China had increased from 1889.3340 Mt in 1995 to 4683.3165 Mt in 2016, with a total growth of 2.47 times. (3) The high CO2 emissions regions were clearly agglomerated in eastern coastal China from the pixel scale, the highest CO2 emissions provinces were concentrated in Hebei and Shandong, the high CO2 emissions prefecture cities were concentrated in Around Bohai Gulf area, eastern coastal China and some developed cities, and the high CO2 emissions counties were concentrated in eastern coastal China and western energy intensive counties. (4) The relatively-slow growth accounted for the highest proportion among the five growth types, and the CO2 emissions rapid growth regions were concentrated in eastern China at provincial, prefectural and county scale. The western regions accounted for the largest area proportion in five growth types at prefectural scale. We provided policy implications based on the results, which was beneficial to propose mitigation CO2 emissions reduction in China.

11.
Theranostics ; 9(26): 8409-8425, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754405

RESUMO

Introduction: Metastasis and drug resistance contribute substantially to the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms by which CRC develops metastatic and drug-resistant characteristics remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-302a in the metastasis and molecular-targeted drug resistance of CRC and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: miR-302a expression in CRC cell lines and patient tissue microarrays was analyzed by qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The roles of miR-302a in metastasis and cetuximab (CTX) resistance were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatic prediction algorithms and luciferase reporter assays were performed to identify the miR-302a binding regions in the NFIB and CD44 3'-UTRs. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to examine NFIB occupancy in the ITGA6 promoter region. Immunoblotting was performed to identify the EGFR-mediated pathways altered by miR-302a. Results: miR-302a expression was frequently reduced in CRC cells and tissues, especially in CTX-resistant cells and patient-derived xenografts. The decreased miR-302a levels correlated with poor overall CRC patient survival. miR-302a overexpression inhibited metastasis and restored CTX responsiveness in CRC cells, whereas miR-302a silencing exerted the opposite effects. NFIB and CD44 were identified as novel targets of miR-302a. miR-302a inhibited the metastasis-promoting effect of NFIB that physiologically activates ITGA6 transcription. miR-302a restored CTX responsiveness by suppressing CD44-induced cancer stem cell-like properties and EGFR-mediated MAPK and AKT signaling. These results are consistent with clinical observations indicating that miR-302a expression is inversely correlated with the expression of its targets in CRC specimens. Conclusions: Our findings show that miR-302a acts as a multifaceted regulator of CRC metastasis and CTX resistance by targeting NFIB and CD44, respectively. Our study implicates miR-302a as a candidate prognostic predictor and a therapeutic agent in CRC.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769963

RESUMO

Desmoplasia plays a pivotal role in promoting pancreatic cancer progression and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Targeting the desmoplastic tumor microenvironment in combination with chemotherapy is therefore a promising strategy for pancreatic cancer therapy. Here, we report a novel biodegradable copolymer to codeliver LY2109761 (a TGF-ß receptor I/II inhibitor) and CPI-613 (a novel chemotherapy agent) to desmoplastic stroma and tumor cells, respectively, in the tumor microenvironment. Hydrophobic CPI-613 is conjugated to the hydrophilic copolymer via a newly designed MMP-2-responsive linker to form a trigger-responsive nanopolyplex. LY2109761 is hydrophobic and encapsulated into the hydrophobic core of the nanopolyplex. The resulting nanopolyplex is modified with a plectin-1-targeting peptide to enhance the accumulation of the nanopolyplex in pancreatic tumors. The nanopolyplex aims to normalize the stroma by blocking the interaction between tumor cells and pancreatic stellate cells to inhibit the activation of pancreatic stellate cells and subsequently reduce the dense extracellular matrix. Normalized stroma increases the penetration of the nanopolyplex into the tumor. The nanopolyplex shows enhanced accumulation in xenograft pancreatic tumors in a biodistribution study. Moreover, the targeted nanopolyplex markedly inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model by dual-targeting tumor cells and stroma. Overall, the multifunctional nanopolyplex is a promising platform for pancreatic cancer therapy.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1000, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has become a significant public health challenge. The aim was to comprehensively estimate the national prevalence of HIV among MSM and its time trends through a large-scale systematic analysis. METHODS: Systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data databases without language restriction for studies on the prevalence of HIV among MSM published before Dec.31, 2018. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in the peer-reviewed literature and used validated assessment methods to assess the prevalence of HIV among MSM. Estimates were pooled using random-effects analysis. RESULTS: Data were extracted from 355 cross-sectional studies (571,328 individuals) covered 59 cities from 30 provinces and municipalities of China. The overall national prevalence of HIV among MSM from 2001 to 2018 was estimated to be 5.7% (95% CI: 5.4-6.1%), with high between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 98.0%, P <  0.001). Our study showed an increased tendency in the HIV prevalence as time progressed by meta-regression analysis (I2 = 95.9%, P <  0.0001). HIV prevalence was the highest in those aged 50 years and older with HIV prevalence of 19.3% (95%CI: 13.1-27.4%, N = 13). HIV was more prevalent in the illiterate population (16.8%), than in those who had received an education. Although the internet was a major venue for Chinese MSM seeking male sex partners (35.6, 95%CI: 32.3-39.9%, N = 101), seeking MSM in bathhouses/saunas had the highest associated prevalence of HIV (13.4, 95%CI: 10.3-17.1%, N = 22). The HIV prevalence among MSM varied by location: compared with other regions in China, HIV was highly prevalent among MSM in the southwest (10.7, 95%CI: 9.3-12.2%, N = 91). Compared to participants who sometimes or always used condoms, participants who had never used a condom in the past 6 months had a higher risk of HIV infection, with odds ratios of 0.1 (95%CI: 0.08-0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provided reliable estimates of China's HIV burden among MSM, which appears to present an increasing national public health challenge. Effective government responses are needed to address this challenge and include the implementation of HIV prevention.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1098, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is most often found on the limbs of aged male people, but extremely uncommon in the liver. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old female patient with a liver mass was diagnosed as a primary MFS. It had no obvious abdominal symptoms, and the tumor was resected with an extended margin. Three years after the surgery, the patient was readmitted for peritoneal metastasis and passed away 4 months later. The tumor has a benign presentation, but malignant outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive radiological inspection, intensive preoperative evaluation, careful design of operating procedures, wide margin resection, consecutive treatment, and strict periodical follow-ups should be taken to ensure a better prognosis of this kind of neoplastic disease.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16566, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719635

RESUMO

Heparin and heparan sulfate (Hp/HS) are linear complex glycosaminoglycans which are involved in diverse biological processes. The structural complexity brings difficulties in separation, making the study of structure-function relationships challenging. Here we present a separation method for Hp/HS oligosaccharide fractionation with cross-compatible solvent and conditions, combining size exclusion chromatography (SEC), ion-pair reversed phase chromatography (IPRP), and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as three orthogonal separation methods that do not require desalting or extensive sample handling. With this method, the final eluent is suitable for structure-function relationship studies, including tandem mass spectrometry and microarray printing. Our data indicate that high resolution is achieved on both IPRP and HILIC for Hp/HS isomers. In addition, the fractions co-eluted in IPRP could be further separated by HILIC, with both separation dimensions capable of resolving some isomeric oligosaccharides. We demonstrate this method using both unpurified reaction products from isomeric synthetic hexasaccharides and an octasaccharide fraction from enoxaparin, identifying isomers resolved by this multi-dimensional separation method. We demonstrate both structural analysis by MS, as well as functional analysis by microarray printing and screening using a prototypical Hp/HS binding protein: basic-fibroblast growth factor (FGF2). Collectively, this method provides a strategy for efficient Hp/HS structure-function characterization.

16.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 799, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), represent important DNA variations that are widely distributed across the entire plant genome and can be used to develop SSR markers, which can then be used to conduct genetic analyses and molecular breeding. Cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea L.), an important oil crop worldwide, is an allotetraploid (AABB, 2n = 4× = 40) plant species. Because of its complex genome, genomic marker development has been very challenging. However, sequencing of cultivated peanut genome allowed us to develop genomic markers and construct a high-density physical map. RESULTS: A total of 8,329,496 SSRs were identified, including 3,772,653, 4,414,961, and 141,882 SSRs that were distributed in subgenome A, B, and nine scaffolds, respectively. Based on the flanking sequences of the identified SSRs, a total of 973,984 newly developed SSR markers were developed in subgenome A (462,267), B (489,394), and nine scaffolds (22,323), with an average density of 392.45 markers per Mb. In silico PCR evaluation showed that an average of 88.32% of the SSR markers generated only one in silico-specific product in two tetraploid A. hypogaea varieties, Tifrunner and Shitouqi. A total of 39,599 common SSR markers were identified among the two A. hypogaea varieties and two progenitors, A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. Additionally, an amplification effectiveness of 44.15% was observed by real PCR validation. Moreover, a total of 1276 public SSR loci were integrated with the newly developed SSR markers. Finally, a previously known leaf spot quantitative trait locus (QTL), qLLS_T13_A05_7, was determined to be in a 1.448-Mb region on chromosome A05. In this region, a total of 819 newly developed SSR markers were located and 108 candidate genes were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of these newly developed and public SSR markers both provide a large number of molecular markers that could potentially be used to enhance the process of trait genetic analyses and improve molecular breeding strategies for cultivated peanut.

17.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 843, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695022

RESUMO

Doxorubicin is conventionally used in chemotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but acquired resistance developed during long-term therapy limits its benefits. Autophagy, a conserved catabolic process for cellular self-protection and adaptation to the changing environment, is regarded as a potential clinical target to overcome doxorubicin resistance. In this study, the potential role of miR-223 in modulating doxorubicin-induced autophagy and sensitivity were evaluated in four transfected human HCC cell lines, and the in vivo relevance was assessed using a mouse xenograft model of HCC. We found that the well-defined miR-223 is expressed at low levels in doxorubicin treated HCC cells and that miR-223 overexpression inhibits the doxorubicin-induced autophagy that contributes to chemoresistance. Blockade of autophagic flux by chloroquine resulted in the failure of miR-223 inhibitor to suppress doxorubicin sensitivity of HCC cells. We further identified FOXO3a as a direct downstream target of miR-223 and primary mediator of the regulatory effect of miR-223 on doxorubicin-induced autophagy and chemoresistance in HCC cells. Finally, we confirmed the enhancement of doxorubicin sensitivity by agomiR-223 in xenograft models of HCC. These findings establish a novel miRNA-based approach for autophagy interference to reverse doxorubicin resistance in future chemotherapy regimens against human HCC.

18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(41): 6205-6221, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic biliary obstruction results in ischemia and hypoxia of hepatocytes, and leads to apoptosis. Apoptosis is very important in regulating the homeostasis of the hepatobiliary system. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the signaling pathways that induce apoptosis. Moreover, the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-induced apoptotic pathway is the main way; but its role in liver injury remains unclear. Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula that alleviates liver injury and apoptosis, yet its mechanism is unknown. We undertook this study to investigate the effects of YCHD on the expression of ER stress proteins and hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ). AIM: To investigate whether YCHD can attenuate OJ-induced liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis by inhibiting the PERK-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)-growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34) pathway and B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 related X protein (Bax)/B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) ratio. METHODS: For in vivo experiments, 30 rats were divided into three groups: control group, OJ model group, and YCHD-treated group. Blood was collected to detect the indicators of liver function, and liver tissues were used for histological analysis. For in vitro experiments, 30 rats were divided into three groups: G1, G2, and G3. The rats in group G1 had their bile duct exposed without ligation, the rats in group G2 underwent total bile duct ligation, and the rats in group G3 were given a gavage of YCHD. According to the serum pharmacology, serum was extracted and centrifuged from the rat blood to cultivate the BRL-3A cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay was used to detect BRL-3A hepatocyte apoptosis. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in the medium were detected. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were used to detect protein and gene expression levels of PERK, CHOP, GADD34, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the liver tissues and BRL-3A cells. RESULTS: Biochemical assays and haematoxylin and eosin staining suggested severe liver function injury and liver tissue structure damage in the OJ model group. The TUNEL assay showed that massive BRL-3A rat hepatocyte apoptosis was induced by OJ. Elevated ALT and AST levels in the medium also demonstrated that hepatocytes could be destroyed by OJ. Western blot or qRT-PCR analyses showed that the protein and mRNA expression levels of PERK, CHOP, and GADD34 were significantly increased both in the rat liver tissue and BRL-3A rat hepatocytes by OJ. The Bax and Bcl-2 levels were increased, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was also increased. When YCHD was used, the PERK, CHOP, GADD34, and Bax levels quickly decreased, while the Bcl-2 levels increased, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decreased. CONCLUSION: OJ-induced liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis are associated with the activation of the PERK-CHOP-GADD34 pathway and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. YCHD can attenuate these changes.

19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 514, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant defense against herbivores begins with perception. The earlier plant detects the harm, the greater plant will benefit in its arm race with the herbivore. Before feeding, the larvae of the rice pest Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, initially spin silk and fold up a leaf. Rice can detect and protect itself against C. medinalis feeding. However, whether rice could perceive C. medinalis leaf rolling behavior is currently unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of leaf rolling by C. medinalis and artificial leaf rolling in rice plant defense and its indirect effect on two important C. medinalis parasitoids (Itoplectis naranyae and Apanteles sp.) through a combination of volatile profiling, gene-transcriptional and phytohormonal profiling. RESULTS: Natural leaf rolling by C. medinalis resulted in an increased attraction of I. naranyae when compared to the undamaged plant after 12 h. Volatile analysis revealed that six out of a total 22 components significantly increased in the headspace of C. medinalis rolled plant when compared to undamaged plant. Principal component analysis of these components revealed similarities in the headspace of undamaged plant and artificially rolled plant while the headspace volatiles of C. medinalis rolled plant deferred significantly. Leaf rolling and feeding by C. medinalis up-regulated the plant transcriptome and a series of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) related genes. While feeding significantly increased JA level after 12 to 36 h, rolling significantly increased SA level after 2 to 12 h. Compared to artificial rolling, natural rolling significantly increased JA level after 36 h and SA level after 2 and 12 h. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that natural leaf rolling by C. medinalis can be perceived by rice plant. The detection of this behavior may serve as an early warning signal in favor of the rice plant defenses against C. medinalis.

20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109502, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707351

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein frequently overexpressed in many malignancies and plays an essential role in regulating proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion in cancer cells. However, No STAT3 inhibitor was used clinically. In this study, we evaluated the toxic potential of a novel STAT3 inhibitor, 6Br-6a in breast cancer cell lines. The anti-cancer effect and underlying mechanism of 6Br-6a on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were determined in vitro and in xenograft mouse model. Our data demonstrated that 6Br-6a significantly induced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in breast cancer via blocking the activation of STAT3. Finally, we verified these inhibitory effects of 6Br-6a in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, 6Br-6a effectively inhibited activation of STAT3 and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via regulating cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 expression. All of these data indicate that 6Br-6a could be a potential candidate for the treatment of breast cancer.

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