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1.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1893): 20220263, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37952613

RESUMO

Global consciousness (GC), encompassing cosmopolitan orientation, global orientations (i.e. openness to multicultural experiences) and identification with all humanity, is a relatively stable individual difference that is strongly associated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours, less ingroup favouritism and prejudice, and greater pandemic prevention safety behaviours. Little is known about how it is socialized in everyday life. Using stratified samples from six societies, socializing institution factors correlating positively with GC were education, white collar work (and its higher income) and religiosity. However, GC also decreased with increasing age, contradicting a 'wisdom of elders' transmission of social learning, and not replicating typical findings that general prosociality increases with age. Longitudinal findings were that empathy-building, network-enhancing elements like getting married or welcoming a new infant, increased GC the most across a three-month interval. Instrumental gains like receiving a promotion (or getting a better job) also showed positive effects. Less intuitively, death of a close-other enhanced rather than reduced GC. Perhaps this was achieved through the ritualized management of meaning where a sense of the smallness of self is associated with growth of empathy for the human condition, as a more discontinuous or opportunistic form of culture-based learning. This article is part of the theme issue 'Evolution and sustainability: gathering the strands for an Anthropocene synthesis'.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Humanos , Idoso , Estado de Consciência , Comportamento Social , Preconceito , Diversidade Cultural
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21413, 2023 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38049436

RESUMO

While national parochialism is commonplace, individual differences explain more variance in it than cross-national differences. Global consciousness (GC), a multi-dimensional concept that includes identification with all humanity, cosmopolitan orientation, and global orientation, transcends national parochialism. Across six societies (N = 11,163), most notably the USA and China, individuals high in GC were more generous allocating funds to the other in a dictator game, cooperated more in a one-shot prisoner's dilemma, and differentiated less between the ingroup and outgroup on these actions. They gave more to the world and kept less for the self in a multi-level public goods dilemma. GC profiles showed 80% test-retest stability over 8 months. Implications of GC for cultural evolution in the face of trans-border problems are discussed.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Evolução Cultural , Humanos , Teoria dos Jogos , Dilema do Prisioneiro , China , Comportamento Cooperativo
3.
Menopause ; 30(10): 991-992, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37699244
4.
Soc Psychol Personal Sci ; 14(5): 662-671, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37220500

RESUMO

COVID-19 has drastically changed human behaviors and posed a threat to globalism by spurring a resurgence of nationalism. Promoting prosocial behavior within and across borders is of paramount importance for global cooperation to combat pandemics. To examine both self-report and actual prosocial behavior, we conducted the first empirical test of global consciousness theory in a multinational study of 35 cultures (N = 18,171 community adults stratified by age, gender, and region of residence). Global consciousness encompassed cosmopolitan orientation, identification with all humanity, and multicultural acquisition, whereas national consciousness reflected ethnic protection. Both global consciousness and national consciousness positively predicted perceived risk of coronavirus and concern about coronavirus, after controlling for interdependent self-construal. While global consciousness positively predicted prosocial behavior in response to COVID-19, national consciousness positively predicted defensive behavior. These findings shed light on overcoming national parochialism and provide a theoretical framework for the study of global unity and cooperation.

5.
Menopause ; 30(2): 119-120, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574637
6.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(10): 1439-1453, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796223

RESUMO

In this article, we test if conservatism predicts psychological well-being longitudinally. We based the study on previous findings showing that conservatives score higher on different measures of well-being, such as life satisfaction and happiness. Most explanations in the literature have assumed that conservatism antecedes well-being without considering the alternative-that well-being may predict conservatism. In Study 1, using multilevel cross-lagged panel models with a two-wave longitudinal sample consisting of data from 19 countries (N = 8,740), we found that conservatism did not predict well-being over time. We found similar results in Study 2 (N = 2,554), using random-intercept cross-lagged panel models with a four-wave longitudinal sample from Chile. We discuss the main implications of these results for the literature examining the association between conservatism and well-being.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Política , Humanos , Bem-Estar Psicológico , Estudos Longitudinais
7.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 62(2): 825-844, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357990

RESUMO

This paper provides a unique perspective for understanding cultural differences: representation similarity-a computational technique that uses pairwise comparisons of units to reveal their representation in higher-order space. By combining individual-level measures of trust across domains and well-being from 13,823 participants across 15 nations with a measure of society-level tightness-looseness, we found that any two countries with more similar tightness-looseness tendencies exhibit higher degrees of representation similarity in national interpersonal trust profiles. Although each individual's trust profile is generally similar to their nation's trust profile, the greater similarity between an individual's and their society's trust profile predicted a higher level of individual life satisfaction only in loose cultures but not in tight cultures. Using the framework of representation similarity to explore cross-cultural differences from a multidimensional, multi-national perspective provide a comprehensive picture of how culture is related to the human activities.


Assuntos
Confiança , Humanos
8.
Mem Cognit ; 51(4): 1027-1040, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261776

RESUMO

Individual selves and the collectives to which people belong can be mentally represented as following intertemporal trajectories-progress, decline, or stasis. These studies examined the relation between intertemporal trajectories for the self and nation in American and British samples collected at the beginning and end of major COVID-19 restrictions. Implicit temporal trajectories can be inferred from asymmetries in the cognitive availability of positive and negative events across different mentally represented temporal periods (e.g., memory for the past and the imagined future). At the beginning of COVID-19 restrictions, both personal and collective temporal thought demonstrated implicit temporal trajectories of decline, in which future thought was less positive than memory. The usually reliable positivity biases in personal temporal thought may be reversable by major public events. This implicit trajectory of decline attenuated in personal temporal thought after the lifting of COVID-19 restrictions. However, collective temporal thought demonstrated a pervasive negativity bias across temporal domains at both data collection points, with the collective future more strongly negative than collective memory. Explicit beliefs concerning collective progress, decline, and hope for the national future corresponded to asymmetries in the cognitive availability of positive and negative events within collective temporal thought.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Cognição
9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052277

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, does more internet and social media use lead to taking more- or less-effective preventive measures against the disease? A two-wave longitudinal survey with the general population in mainland China in mid-2020 found that during the COVID-19 pandemic, internet and social media use intensity promoted the adoption of nonpharmaceutical and pharmaceutical antipandemic measures. The first wave of data (n = 1014) showed that the more intensively people used the internet/social media, the more they perceived the threat of the pandemic, and took more nonpharmaceutical preventive measures (e.g., wearing masks, maintaining social distance, and washing hands) as a result. The second wave (n = 220) showed firstly the predicted relationship between internet/social media use intensity and the perceived threat of the pandemic and the adoption of nonpharmaceutical preventive measures by cross-lagged analysis; secondly, the predictive effect of internet/social media use on the adoption of pharmacological measures (i.e., willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19) and the mediating role of perceived pandemic threat were verified. The article concludes with a discussion of the role of the internet and social media use in the fight against COVID-19 in specific macrosocial contexts.

11.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 64(4): 772-783, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593694

RESUMO

Progestogens are steroid compounds that have the ability to induce secretory transformation in the endometrium and are utilized in menopausal hormone therapy to prevent endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. Progestogens can be derived from 21-carbon or 19-carbon steroid cytoskeletons and thus have different properties and metabolic effects beyond the progestational effects on the endometrium. This limited review will focus on the available progestogens utilized in combination hormone therapy including progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, levonorgestrel, and drospirenone. The impact of progestogens on a variety of target tissues including the endometrium, breast, cardiovascular system, brain, and bone, will be reviewed. Last, the current clinical regimens that can be utilized by clinicians will be discussed.


Assuntos
Levanogestrel , Progestinas , Feminino , Humanos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona , Menopausa , Progesterona
12.
Polit Psychol ; 42(5): 715-728, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548719

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to unprecedented and extraordinary conditions. It represents a profound threat to health and political and economic stability globally. It is the pressing issue of the current historical moment and is likely to have far-reaching social and political implications over the next decade. Political psychology can inform our preparedness for the next phase of the pandemic as well as our planning for a post COVID-19 world. We hope that this special issue will play its part in helping us to think how we manage and live with COVID-19 over the coming decade. In this editorial, we review the key themes arising from the contributions to our special issue and, alongside existing knowledge highlight the relevance of political psychology to finding solutions during this time of crisis. The contributions to this special issue and the pandemic raise many classic topics of central interest to political psychology: leadership, solidarity and division, nationalism, equality, racism, and international and intergroup relations. In our editorial, we offer an analysis that highlights three key themes. First, the importance of sociopolitical factors in shaping behavior during this pandemic. Second, the relevance of political leadership and rhetoric to collective efforts to tackle SARS-COV-2. And third, how sociopolitical cohesion and division has become increasingly relevant during this time of threat and crisis.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4456, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294708

RESUMO

Cooperation within and across borders is of paramount importance for the provision of public goods. Parochialism - the tendency to cooperate more with ingroup than outgroup members - limits contributions to global public goods. National parochialism (i.e., greater cooperation among members of the same nation) could vary across nations and has been hypothesized to be associated with rule of law, exposure to world religions, relational mobility and pathogen stress. We conduct an experiment in participants from 42 nations (N = 18,411), and observe cooperation in a prisoner's dilemma with ingroup, outgroup, and unidentified partners. We observe that national parochialism is a ubiquitous phenomenon: it is present to a similar degree across the nations studied here, is independent of cultural distance, and occurs both when decisions are private or public. These findings inform existing theories of parochialism and suggest it may be an obstacle to the provision of global public goods.

15.
Menopause ; 28(9): 998-1003, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate endometrial progesterone receptor (PGR) expression in menopausal women who used vaginal 4-µg and 10-µg estradiol (E2) inserts or placebo. METHODS: REJOICE was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigating vaginal E2 inserts in women with moderate to severe dyspareunia due to menopause. In this post hoc analysis, 25 eligible women with endometrial biopsies were randomly selected from each treatment group (4-µg and 10-µg E2 vaginal inserts and placebo). Endometrial biopsy sections were immunostained using an anti-PR (A and B) monoclonal antibody. Cell staining was quantified using an artificial intelligence feature-recognition algorithm. Mean PGR expression levels were analyzed between baseline and week 12. RESULTS: PGR expression results were available for 22 women in the 4-µg E2 group, and 25 women each for the 10-µg E2 and placebo groups. Similar PGR expression levels were observed at baseline (0.301-0.470 pmol/mg) and after 12 weeks of treatment (0.312-0.432 pmol/mg) for all treatment groups, with no significant differences between baseline and week 12. CONCLUSIONS: No meaningful differences in endometrial PGR expression were observed with the vaginal E2 (4- and 10-µg) inserts at week 12 from baseline, supporting the hypothesis that local exposure to E2 from a low-dose, vaginal insert placed near the vaginal introitus will not be sufficient to upregulate endometrial PGR expression. Coupled with the lack of histologic changes and systemic absorption, our data suggest that these softgel vaginal E2 inserts would not be expected to stimulate endometrial hyperplasia leading to a potential endometrial safety issue in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe dyspareunia, a symptom of vulvar and vaginal atrophy. Further study on the endometrial safety of softgel vaginal E2 inserts is under way.


Assuntos
Estradiol , Progesterona , Administração Intravaginal , Inteligência Artificial , Atrofia/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Receptores de Progesterona , Vagina/patologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8925, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903603

RESUMO

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected both physical health and mental well-being around the world. Stress-related reactions, if prolonged, may result in mental health problems. We examined the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in a multinational study and explored the effects of government responses to the outbreak. We sampled 18,171 community adults from 35 countries/societies, stratified by age, gender, and region of residence. Across the 35 societies, 26.6% of participants reported moderate to extremely severe depression symptoms, 28.2% moderate to extremely severe anxiety symptoms, and 18.3% moderate to extremely severe stress symptoms. Coronavirus anxiety comprises two factors, namely Perceived Vulnerability and Threat Response. After controlling for age, gender, and education level, perceived vulnerability predicted higher levels of negative emotional symptoms and psychological distress, whereas threat response predicted higher levels of self-rated health and subjective well-being. People in societies with more stringent control policies had more threat response and reported better subjective health. Coronavirus anxiety exerts detrimental effects on subjective health and well-being, but also has the adaptive function in mobilizing safety behaviors, providing support for an evolutionary perspective on psychological adaptation.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
17.
Asian J Soc Psychol ; 24(1): 23-29, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821138

RESUMO

United Nations and World Health Organization data show a positive correlation, r = .53, p < .0001, N = 189, between COVID-19 infection rates and the human development index (HDI). Less wealthy, less educated countries with lower life spans were also more successful in maintaining lower fatality rates, r = .46, p < .0001, N = 189 whereas 9 of the top-10 countries in the world in per capita fatalities due to COVID-19 were Western societies high in HDI. Similar positive correlations were found between COVID-19 infection and fatality rates and a smaller sample of 76 countries measured on Schwartz intellectual autonomy (or individualism), and negative correlations of similar magnitude were found for embeddedness (or collectivism). East Asia was a global leader in preventing the spread of COVID-19 because of a vigilant public concerned for public safety and compliant with public safety measures. African Union leaders coordinated their responses, and bought into a continent-wide African Medical Supplies Platform that prevented panicked competition for scare supplies. Western global media and scholars have not paid attention to the successes of East Asia, Africa, and the South Pacific in fighting the pandemic. It is worth asking why this should be the case; understand the weaknesses of extreme individualism in fighting a pandemic requiring coordinated and unified public response, and consider the lessons for global scholars from the pandemic for doing research in the future.

18.
Asian J Soc Psychol ; 24(1): 42-47, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821141

RESUMO

Growing efforts have been made to pool coronavirus data and control measures from countries and regions to compare the effectiveness of government policies. We examine whether these strategies can explain East Asia's effective control of the COVID-19 pandemic based on time-series data with cross-correlations between the Stringency Index and number of confirmed cases during the early period of outbreaks. We suggest that multidisciplinary empirical research in healthcare and social sciences, personality, and social psychology is needed for a clear understanding of how cultural values, social norms, and individual predispositions interact with policy to affect life-saving behavioural changes in different societies.

19.
Contraception ; 104(3): 229-234, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To predict serum segesterone (SA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) levels after 364 days of hypothetical continuous use (without removal) of a cyclic contraceptive vaginal system (CVS) containing 0.15 mg SA and 0.013 mg EE. STUDY DESIGN: We used pharmacokinetic (PK) data (n = 37) from a multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized study of healthy women (18-38 years) that used the CVS for 13 cycles in a 21 days-in/7 days-out regimen to develop a linear regression model to predict daily serum SA and EE levels for 364 days of continuous CVS use. We then determined residual SA/EE levels in vitro from 18 randomly chosen CVS used by women who completed 13 cycles. Serum SA and EE levels were also predicted for 364 days of continuous CVS use in another in vitro study. RESULTS: After a hypothetical 364 days of continuous CVS use, we predicted daily mean serum levels to be 184 pmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 102‒332 pmol/L) for SA and 43 pmol/L (95% CI, 19‒95 pmol/L) for EE. We did predict that serum EE levels would not accumulate over time. Residual SA and EE in the CVS were 60% and 80% of the original load after 13 cycles, respectively. CONCLUSION: The predicted serum SA level after 364 days of hypothetical continuous CVS use was comparable to reported levels at which no pregnancy occurred (>100 pmol/L), showing the potential of the CVS for one year of continuous use. Clinical trials on continuous CVS use are planned. IMPLICATIONS: Based on statistical modeling, the long-term, user-controlled contraceptive vaginal system containing segesterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol may have the potential to provide effective pregnancy prevention if used continuously (without removal) for one year. Further investigation is warranted.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Pregnenodionas , Anticoncepcionais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etinilestradiol , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1822): 20200146, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611989

RESUMO

Political ideology has been hypothesized to be associated with cooperation and national parochialism (i.e. greater cooperation with members of one's nation), with liberals thought to have more cooperation with strangers and less national parochialism, compared to conservatives. However, previous findings are limited to few-and predominantly western-nations. Here, we present a large-scale cross-societal experiment that can test hypotheses on the relation between political ideology, cooperation and national parochialism around the globe. To do so, we recruited 18 411 participants from 42 nations. Participants made decisions in a prisoner's dilemma game, and we manipulated the nationality of their interaction partner (national ingroup member, national outgroup member or unidentified stranger). We found that liberals, compared to conservatives, displayed slightly greater cooperation, trust in others and greater identification with the world as a whole. Conservatives, however, identified more strongly with their own nation and displayed slightly greater national parochialism in cooperation. Importantly, the association between political ideology and behaviour was significant in nations characterized by higher wealth, stronger rule of law and better government effectiveness. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the association between political ideology and cooperation. This article is part of the theme issue 'The political brain: neurocognitive and computational mechanisms'.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisões , Política , Confiança , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dilema do Prisioneiro , Adulto Jovem
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