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1.
Food Chem ; 306: 125613, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610331

RESUMO

Reduction of bitter taste in protein hydrolysates is a challenging task. The aim of this study was to apply a simple two-step approach to prepare low bitter hydrolysates and investigate the influence of peptide modifications on taste characteristics. Protein hydrolysates were prepared from porcine muscle and plasma through simultaneous hydrolysis using endo- and exo-peptidases combined with peptide glycation by glucosamine (GlcN). Spectroscopic analysis and quantification of major alpha-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs) indicated the relatively low extent of Maillard reaction in GlcN-glycated protein hydrolysates. Thermal degradation of high MW peptides (>10 kDa) might play a major role in Maillard reaction, reflected by the formation of more Maillard reacted peptides (1-5 kDa), especially in plasma samples. Sensory evaluation indicated that glycation by GlcN can alter taste profiles of protein hydrolysates, which may be attributed to the formation of Maillard reacted peptides and peptide modifications revealed by LC-MS/MS analysis.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121018, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446354

RESUMO

The broad spectrum detection of veterinary drugs is very important for rapid and large-scale safe screen of animal-derived foods. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), as a kind of emerged functional porous materials are quite promising in the chemical sensing and molecular detection. In this work, we report the high-performance broad spectrum detection of 15 commonly-used veterinary drugs through the fluorescence quenching in a newly-designed chemically stable Al-based MOF, Al3(µ3-O)(OH)(H2O)2(PPTTA)3/2 (BUT-22). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic investigation for the application of MOFs in the detection/sensing of veterinary drugs through fluorescence quenching method. The quenching efficiencies of the tested veterinary drugs on BUT-22 are all beyond 82%, and the limits of detection (LOD) are low at parts per billion (ppb) levels. Interestingly, BUT-22 also enables the selective detection of nicarbazin (NIC) through the clearly-observed red shift of its maximum fluorescence emission wavelength. Moreover, the fluorescence quenching mechanism was explored with the help of theoretical calculations. Our work indicates that MOFs are favorable materials for the detection of veterinary drugs, being potentially useful in monitoring drug residues of animal-derived foods.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121047, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450204

RESUMO

The temporal influence of reaction atmosphere and chlorine on arsenic release in combustion, gasification and pyrolysis of sawdust was studied using an on-line analysis system. The arsenic release amount in combustion atmosphere was higher than that in CO2 gasification and argon pyrolysis. The derived values of activation energy followed the order: combustion < gasification < pyrolysis. Furthermore, the enhancement effect of chlorine species on arsenic release percentage in air combustion was also higher than that in gasification and pyrolysis conditions. The total proportion of arsenic release in combustion with additive chlorine is bigger than the case in gasification and pyrolysis, especially when 20% chlorine is added. According to equilibrium analysis, arsenic oxides were identified as the main gaseous arsenic species and their formation were decreased in the oxygen-deficient environment, mainly accounting for lesser arsenic release proportion in gasification and pyrolysis than combustion. The release of arsenic was promoted to a different extent with additive chlorine, mainly caused by the AsCl3 (g) formation. By the findings of the experiments and theoretical analyses, the possible reaction pathways and release mechanisms of arsenic species were proposed.

4.
Food Chem ; 308: 125569, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644967

RESUMO

In this study, the solubility of phloretin (PT) was enhanced via steviol glycoside (STE)-based micelle (MC) and solid dispersion (SD). Computer simulation, characterization, interaction with serum albumin (SA) and in vitro release were carried out to investigate the solubilization mechanisms and the difference in their solubilization capacities. For PT-loaded MC (STE-PT MC), PT was encapsulated into the hydrophobic core of a spherical micelle with a droplet diameter of 5 nm. For PT-loaded SD (STE-PT SD), PT was completely dispersed with the amorphous state in STE. Most of those PTs were directly dissolved in water, and few were encapsulated by STE micelles. The amorphous state combined with relatively large micelles contributed to the high solubilization capacity of STE-PT SD. In addition, PT of STE-PT SD exhibited a higher dissolution rate and more effective interaction with SA than that of STE-PT MC. No undesirable chemical interaction between PT and STE occurred.

5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124607, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524603

RESUMO

A fluoride exposure mouse model is established to evaluate the relationship between mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and renal dysfunction. Morphological changes in kidney tissues were observed. Renal function and cell proliferation in the kidneys were evaluated. The expression of mitochondrial fusion protein including mitofusin-1 (Mfn1) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex subunits, including NDUFV2, SDHA, CYC1 and COX Ⅳ, were detected via real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry staining and Western blot, respectively. Results showed that the structures of renal tubule, renal glomerulus and renal papilla were seriously damaged. Renal function was impaired, and cell proliferation was remarkably inhibited by excessive fluoride in kidney. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Mfn1, OPA1, NDUFV2, CYC1 and COX Ⅳ were significantly increased after excessive fluoride exposure. However, the mRNA and protein expression of SDHA significantly decreased. Overall, our findings revealed that excessive fluoride can damage kidney structure, inhibit renal cell proliferation, interfere with the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and elevate mitochondrial fusion. Consequently, renal function disorder occurred.

6.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 118-128, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694418

RESUMO

A series of novel quinolinone derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate moiety were designed and synthesised as multifunctional AChE inhibitors for the treatment of AD. Most of these compounds exhibited strong and clearly selective inhibition to eeAChE. Among them, compound 4c was identified as the most potent inhibitor to both eeAChE and hAChE (IC50 = 0.22 µM for eeAChE; IC50 = 0.16 µM for hAChE), and it was also the best inhibitor to AChE-induced Aß aggregation (29.02% at 100 µM) and an efficient inhibitor to self-induced Aß aggregation (30.67% at 25 µM). Kinetic and molecular modelling studies indicated that compound 4c was a mixed-type inhibitor, which could interact simultaneously with the catalytic anionic site (CAS) and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. In addition, 4c had good ability to cross the BBB, showed no toxicity on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and was well tolerated in mice at doses up to 2500 mg/kg (po).

7.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 536-548, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585902

RESUMO

Hyperhomocysteinemia induces stress response in endoplasmic reticulum (ERS). Here, we tested whether blockage of homocysteine (Hcy) induced ERS and subsequent apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells can be inhibited by  blockage of PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP signaling. Short-term exposure of vascular smooth muscle cells to Hcy led to the phosphorylation of PERK (pPERK), which in turn, phosphorylated eIF2 alpha (peIF2a) and inhibited the unfolded protein response. Long-term Hcy exposure, however, increased the expression of ATF-4 and CHOP and led to apoptosis. Treatment of cells with salubrinal, a specific inhibitor for eIF2a decreased the expression of ATF-4 and CHOP, and prevented apoptosis. Together, the results show that PERK pathway is involved in Hcy-induced vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis and that blocking the PERK pathway protects against this injury.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673835

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a radiomics-based model to stratify the risk of early progression (local/regional recurrence or metastasis) among patients with hypopharyngeal cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy and modify their pretreatment plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We randomly assigned 113 patients into two cohorts: training (n = 80) and validation (n = 33). The radiomic significant features were selected in the training cohort using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and Akaike information criterion methods, and they were used to build the radiomic model. The concordance index (C-index) was applied to evaluate the model's prognostic performance. A Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to assess risk stratification ability of models in predicting progression. A nomogram was plotted to predict individual risk of progression. RESULTS: Composed of four significant features, the radiomic model showed good performance in stratifying patients into high- and low-risk groups of progression in both the training and validation cohorts (log-rank test, p = 0.00016, p = 0.0063, respectively). Peripheral invasion and metastasis were selected as significant clinical variables. The combined radiomic-clinical model showed good discriminative performance, with C-indices 0.804 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.688-0.920) and 0.756 (95% CI, 0.605-0.907) in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) in the high-risk group was significantly shorter than that in the low-risk group in the training (median PFS, 9.5 m and 19.0 m, respectively; p [log-rank] < 0.0001) and validation (median PFS, 11.3 m and 22.5 m, respectively; p [log-rank] = 0.0063) cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: A radiomics-based model was established to predict the risk of progression in hypopharyngeal cancer with chemoradiotherapy. KEY POINTS: • Clinical information showed limited performance in stratifying the risk of progression among patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. • Imaging features extracted from CECT and NCCT images were independent predictors of PFS. • We combined significant features and valuable clinical variables to establish a nomogram to predict individual risk of progression.

9.
J Mater Chem B ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674636

RESUMO

Vascular stent interventional therapy, as a regular and effective therapy, has been widely used to treat coronary artery diseases. However, adverse events occur frequently after stent intervention, especially restenosis and late stent thrombosis. The targeted implanting site will suffer from severe atherosclerosis, which is considered as a chronic inflammatory disease. Meanwhile, with the over-expanding use of endovascular mechanical intervention, vascular injury has become an increasingly common issue. Lesions and newly induced vascular injury result in inflammatory and oxidative stress; meanwhile, activated macrophages and granulocytes generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to endothelial dysfunction and neointima hyperplasia. Therefore, attenuating oxidative stress and reducing ROS generation in the inflammatory response represent reasonable strategies to inhibit intimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Herein, we have developed a multifunctional surface for the MgZnYNd alloy with tannic acid (TA) coating, and the pH dependence of the coating deposition is also demonstrated. The phenolic hydroxyl groups on the coatings endow the modified surface with excellent antioxidant functions. We found that the coating can be recycled, and the scavenging activity hardly weakened within five cycles. Also, the TA coating has a promising strong antioxidant activity as it shows a radical scavenging activity over 80% in long term. Moreover, the TA coating possesses platelet-repellent capability. No significant inflammatory response was observed for the TA modified sample in the rat subcutaneous implantation test. Combining these performances, we envision that the vascular stent modified with TA coating can have great potential in various applications by virtue of its simplicity and effectiveness.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677790

RESUMO

A failure of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to adhere to hematopoietic cells is an essential cause of the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia and is also a cause of failure of bone marrow (BM) transplantation, but the exact mechanisms of this have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are contained in leukemia-derived exosomes and are involved in modulating the BM microenvironment. In this study, we found that K562 cell-derived exosomes transfer miR-711 to BM-MSCs and suppress the adhesive function of BM-MSCs. Using qRT-PCR, we also confirmed a significantly higher level of miR-711 in exosomes derived from K562 cells than in exosomes derived from parental cells. The BM-MSCs co-cultured with exosomes derived from K562 cells showed a lower adhesion rate than did controls. We further demonstrated that exosomal transfer of miR-711 induced decreased adhesive abilities by inhibiting expression of adhesion molecule CD44 in BM-MSCs. In conclusion, our study reveals that K562 cell-derived exosomal miR-711 can be transferred to BM-MSCs and weaken adhesive abilities by silencing the expression of the adhesion molecule CD44.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 559: 313-323, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675662

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a common phenomenon observed during treatment with antibacterials. Use of nanozymes, especially those with synergistic enzyme-like activities, as antibacterials could overcome this problem, but their synthesis is limited by their high cost and/or complex production process. Herein, vanadium oxide nanodots (VOxNDs) were prepared via a one-step bottom-up ethanol-thermal method using vanadium trichloride as the precursor. VOxNDs alone possess bienzyme mimics of peroxidase and oxidase. Accordingly, highly efficient antibacterials against drug-resistant bacteria can be obtained through synergistic catalysis; the oxidase-like activity decomposes O2 to generate superoxide anion radical (O2-) and hydroxyl radicals (OH), and the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity can further induce the production of OH from external H2O2. Consequently, H2O2 concentration could decrease up to four magnitude orders with VOxNDs to achieve an antibacterial efficacy similar to that of H2O2 alone. Wound healing in vivo further confirms the high antibacterial efficiency, good biocompatibility, and application potential of the synergistic antibacterial system due to the "nano" structure of VOxNDs. The method of synthesis of nanodot antibacterials described in this paper is inexpensive, and the results of this study reveal the multi-enzymatic synergism of nanozymes.

12.
Dev Cell ; 51(3): 399-413.e7, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689386

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease affects 10% of the population with notable differences in ethnic and sex-related susceptibility to kidney injury and disease. Kidney dysfunction leads to significant morbidity and mortality and chronic disease in other organ systems. A mouse-organ-centered understanding underlies rapid progress in human disease modeling and cellular approaches to repair damaged systems. To enhance an understanding of the mammalian kidney, we combined anatomy-guided single-cell RNA sequencing of the adult male and female mouse kidney with in situ expression studies and cell lineage tracing. These studies reveal cell diversity and marked sex differences, distinct organization and cell composition of nephrons dependent on the time of nephron specification, and lineage convergence, in which contiguous functionally related cell types are specified from nephron and collecting system progenitor populations. A searchable database, Kidney Cell Explorer (https://cello.shinyapps.io/kidneycellexplorer/), enables gene-cell relationships to be viewed in the anatomical framework of the kidney.

13.
Infect Genet Evol ; : 104094, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689545

RESUMO

Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic nucleic acid sensor that can bind to dsDNA. It maintains an autoinhibited state in the absence of cytosolic dsDNA, while when activated, it in turn activates its adaptor protein STING, ultimately triggering a cascade that produces inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). With further research, additional types of nucleic acids have been found to be activators of the cGAS-STING pathway. The cGAS-STING pathway can provide protection or resistance against infections; however, improper or overactivation might cause severe inflammatory pathologies, including autoimmunity. This article systematically reviews the latest research progress on the axis, including categorical pathway triggers, the connection with autoimmune disease and drug therapy progress.

14.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690669

RESUMO

The emerging role of heparanase in tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance is well recognized, encouraging the development of heparanase inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Unlike the function of heparanase in cancer cells, little attention has been given to heparanase contributed by cells composing the tumor microenvironment. Here, we focused on the cross-talk between macrophages, chemotherapy, and heparanase and the combined effect on tumor progression. Macrophages were markedly activated by chemotherapeutics paclitaxel (PCT) and cisplatin, evidenced by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, supporting recent studies indicating that chemotherapy may promote rather than suppress tumor re-growth and spread. Strikingly, cytokine induction by chemotherapy was not observed in macrophages isolated from heparanase-knockout mice, suggesting macrophage activation by chemotherapy is heparanase-dependent. PCT-treated macrophages enhanced the growth of lewis lung carcinoma tumors which was attenuated by a CXCR2 inhibitor. Mechanistically, PCT and cisplatin activated methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4) in wild-type but not heparanase-knockout macrophages. Furthermore, the H3K4 presenter WDR5 functioned as a molecular determinant that mediated cytokine induction by PCT. This epigenetic, heparanase-dependent host-response mechanism adds a new perspective to the tumor-promoting functions of chemotherapy, and offers new treatment modalities to optimize chemotherapeutics.

16.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675755

RESUMO

Although the colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are decreasing in virtue of CRC screening and improved therapeutic methods, CRC is still a leading cause of cancer deaths. One of the main causes is chemoresistance occurrence in CRC. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance benefits to CRC diagnosis and treatment. In this study, gene expression was determined by Western blot and qRT-PCR. The biological functions of genes in CRC cells were studied by knocking down or overexpressing the gene in CRC cells and then analyzing cell sensitivity to 5-Fu by the MTT assay and the flow cytometry, and analyzing cell migration and invasion by transwell assays. The luciferase reporter assay was used to examine microRNA regulation of target gene expression, and biotin pulldown assay was performed to detect interaction between RNA molecules. This study found that Ferritin Light Chain (FTL) and long intergenic non-coding RNA Linc00467 were both upregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines, and inversely correlated to CRC patient survival. FTL and Linc00467 promoted CRC cells abilities to resistance against 5-fluor-ouracil (5-Fu), migration and invasion. These effects were compromised by miR-133b which targeted both FTL and Linc00467. miR-133b interacted with Linc00467 and miR-133b inhibitor prevented Linc00467 knockdown-induced alternations of FTL expression and biological functions. Both FTL and Linc00467 are oncogenes in CRC. FTL expression upregulated in CRC via Linc00467/ miR-133b axis, and leads to CRC cell resistance against 5-FU treatment and promotes CRC metastasis.

17.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677030

RESUMO

Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) modulates mitochondria-localized processes and is implicated in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, especially fatty acid (FA) synthesis. However, the relationship between SIRT3 and aberrant lipid synthesis in cervical cancer remains unclear. Here, we investigated the clinical relevance of SIRT3 expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and normal tissues. To analyze the role of SIRT3 in CCSC in vitro, endogenous SIRT3 levels were up- and down-regulated in SiHa and C33a cells, respectively, via lentiviral-based transfection. Levels were quantified using qRT-PCR. Acetylation levels for acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC1) were measured with the anti-acetyllysine antibody. Knockdown of SIRT3 reduced levels of cellular lipid content in cells. To investigate the role of SIRT3 in cell proliferation, nude mice were xenografted with SIRT3-overexpressing or SIRT3-knockdown CCSC cells. Overall, the results demonstrate that SIRT3 significantly contributed to the reprogramming of FA synthesis in CCSC by up-regulating ACC1 to promote de novo lipogenesis by SIRT3 deacetylation. Moreover, the findings show that the SIRT3-mediated regulation of FA synthesis played a critical role in the proliferation and metastasis of CCSC cells, suggesting that SIRT3 has therapeutic potential in CCSC treatment.

18.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether transfusion of platelets or fresh frozen plasma, in addition to red blood cells, is associated with an increased risk of mortality and infection after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent valve surgery and/or coronary artery bypass grafting from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2017 and September 1, 2013 to June 30, 2017 at 2 centers performing cardiac surgery were included in this retrospective study. After stratifying patients based on propensity score matching, we compared rates of mortality and infection between patients who transfused red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, or platelets with those who did not receive such transfusions. We also compared outcomes between patients who received any of the 3 blood products and patients who received no transfusions at all. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between transfusion and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 8238 patients in this study, 109 (1.3%) died, 812 (9.9%) experienced infection, and 4937 (59.9%) received at least 1 type of blood product. Transfusion of any blood type was associated with higher rates of mortality (2.0% vs 0.18%; P < .01) and infection (13.3% vs 4.8%; P < .01). Each of the 3 blood products was independently associated with an increase in mortality per unit transfused (red blood cells, odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.22; fresh frozen plasma, odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI, 1.18-1.30; platelets, odds ratio 1.12, 95% CI, 1.07-1.18). Transfusing 3 units of any of the 3 blood products was associated with a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of mortality (odds ratio 1.88, 95% CI, 1.70-2.08) and infection (odds ratio 1.50, 95% CI, 1.43-1.57). CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, or platelets is an independent risk factor of mortality and infection, and combination of the 3 blood products is associated with adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in a dose-dependent manner.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121466, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679891

RESUMO

Organic phosphorus is an important source of eutrophication. In this study, to understand the mechanism of organophosphorus photodegradation, humic acid-Fe3+ (HA-Fe3+) complexes were prepared as a sensitizer, and glyphosate (GP) was used as a substrate for photodegradation. The effects of the initial GP concentration, HA concentration, Fe3+ concentration and microbial factors on photodegradation were investigated. The initial concentrations of GP, HA and Fe3+ could significantly affect the degradation rate of GP. Phosphate is the main product of GP photodegradation. Based on the identification of the active species in the reaction process, t-butanol was found to have the most significant inhibitory effect on the degradation. The reaction rate after t-butanol treatment was reduced from 0.017 to 0.003. This confirmed that OH was the main oxidant in the system, which was also demonstrated by EPR spectroscopy. A possible mechanism of GP photodegradation sensitized by HA-Fe3+ complexes was revealed for the first time. The HA-Fe3+ complexes in the reaction system were photodegraded and oxidized to finally produce OH, which promotes GP photodegradation. This study facilitates understanding the phosphorus cycle in a water environment and provides a scientific basis for the restoration of eutrophic lakes.

20.
Biosci Rep ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682263

RESUMO

Catestatin (CTS), a catecholamine-release inhibitory peptide, exerts pleiotropic cardiac protective effects. Pulmonary embolism caused by deep vein thrombosis involving vascular dysfunction. This study aims to investigate the effects of CTS on thrombus formation that may inhibit the development of pulmonary embolism and its potential pathway. Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) model was developed as an in vivo model. The effects of CTS on mice with APE were examined. Human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) were pretreated with CTS before thrombin stimulation, and endothelial inflammation and underlying mechanisms were evaluated in vitro. That plasma CTS level was decreased in APE mice, while the number of platelets was significantly increased. The decreased circulating CTS level negatively associated with the number of platelets. CTS administration increased the survival rate of APE mice and protected against microvascular thrombosis in lung. APE-induced the increase of platelets number and plasma von Willerbrand factor (VWF) were inhibited by CTS. Platelets from CTS-treated APE mice showed impaired agonist-induced platelets aggregation and spreading. CTS also ameliorated APE-induced the systemic inflammatory response. In in vivo study, thrombin-induced the increase of inflammation, TLR-4 expression and p38 phosphorylation were abrogated by CTS in HPAECs. Furthermore, TLR-4 overexpression inhibited the effect of CTS on VWF release and inflammation in HPAECs. Collectively, CTS increases thrombus resolution by attenuating endothelial inflammation at partially via inhibiting TLR-4-p38 pathway. This study may provide a novel approach for anti-thrombosis.

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