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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1727, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We attempted to find if there were gender differences in Non-suicidal self injurious (NSSI) behaviors and Suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents, then analyze the impact of Internet use frequency on these variables among adolescents of different genders. METHODS: Based on the data from 6 high-schools and 4 universities in 4 cities in China, the gender difference in NSSI behaviors and Suicidal ideation and their related factors were analyzed in the study. RESULTS: Gender differences were found during different purposes of Internet use; There was no significant gender difference in NSSI behaviors among Chinese adolescents, yet females reported significantly higher intensity of suicidal ideation compared to males; Internet use frequency could explain the prevalence of NSSI behaviors and Suicidal ideation by gender, to some categories. CONCLUSIONS: There were gender differences in Internet use frequency among adolescents; Gender difference of NSSI engagement among Chinese adolescents was not statistically significant; Females had higher suicidal ideation than males; the overuse of social softwares was found to be a risk factor to both NSSI engagements and suicidal ideations for both genders; males would engage less NSSI behaviors when they spent more time on knowledge sharing softwares while might have more suicidal ideation when they spent too much time on gaming.

2.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219486

RESUMO

Recent genetic studies clearly indicate that variants in several lysosomal genes act as risk factors for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Variants in the co-activator of glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) and the four active saposins (Sap A-D) which are encoded by the prosaposin gene (PSAP) are of particular interest; however, their genetic roles in PD are unknown. Whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were used to assess the genetic etiology of 400 autosomal dominant inherited PD (ADPD) and 300 sporadic PD (SPD) patients. Variants from public databases, including Genome Aggregation Database-East Asian (GnomAD_EAS) and Chinese Millionome Database (CMDB), were used as control groups. Burden analysis based on gene and domains level were performed to investigate the role of rare PSAP variants in PD. Six rare and likely pathogenic variants, located in the Sap A-D domains, were identified and accounted for 0.75% (3/400) of ADPD and 1.33% (4/300) of SPD in the Chinese population. Based on the gene or domain, burden analysis showed that damaging missense variants in SapC had statistical significance on the risk of developing PD. Interestingly, rs4747203, an intronic variant potentially linked to PSAP expression, was associated with reduced risk for PD (p = 8.6e-7 in GnomAD EAS and p = 0.002 in Chinese). Clinically, patients carrying the likely pathogenic variants presented typical PD motor symptoms and responded well to levodopa treatment. Six out of seven patients carrying the likely pathogenic variants of PSAP presented slow disease progression, and none of the patients developed cognitive impairment. Our study expands the spectrum of mutations associated with the risk of developing PD and enhances the understanding of the relationship of the clinical phenotype of PD with PSAP variants.

3.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol ; 13(10): 2677-2690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this research, the analytical method of network pharmacology was used to explore Qixuekang molecular mechanism in treating Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) during the recovery period. METHODS: Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database was used to collect the active components and corresponding targets of Qixuekang. Disease targets, related to COVID-19 during the recovery period, were collected from the GeneCards database. Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) network was built by using the String database, and analyzing and using Cytoscape 3.7.0 software to screen out hub genes. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were analyzed by R 3.6.1 software. RESULTS: 34 active components of Qixuekang were screened out, and 161 common targets of drug and disease were identified. GO enrichment suggested 141 biologic processes, mainly involving nuclear receptor activity, transcription factor activity, and direct ligand regulated sequence-specific DNA binding. KEGG pathway enrichment suggests 96 signaling pathways, mainly including TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signal pathway, and C-type lectin receptor signal pathway. The hub genes, screened in the PPI network, were mainly inclusive of CXCL8, CXCL2, CXCL10, ADRA2A, and ADRA2C. CONCLUSION: Qixuekang has numerous components and targets in treating COVID-19 during the recovery period. It is mainly applied in anti-inflammatory action and regulating immune defense, which may guide clinical trials in the later stage.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110919, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202282

RESUMO

Mushroom Inonotus sanghuang has been characterized as a traditional medicine in China and has pharmacological activities to treat inflammation, gastroenteric dysfunction, and cancer. Recently, we reported the impact of Inonotus sanghuang extract (ISE) from ethyl acetate fraction on bleomycin (BLM)-induced acute lung injury in mice. Here, we aimed to investigate ISE's impact on pulmonary fibrosis using in vivo and in vitro models and the underlying mechanisms. To evaluate pulmonary fibrosis, female C57BL/6 mice fed ISE (0% or 0.6% in diet) for 4 weeks were instilled intratracheally with BLM and then continued the same diet before the end of the experiment. A549 cells were used to evaluate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Feeding ISE improved BLM-treated mice's survival via decreasing lung infiltrating cells and fibrosis, followed by reducing hydroxyproline content, collagen deposition, and mesenchymal markers (α-SMA and vimentin) while increasing epithelial marker E-cadherin. ISE also suppressed the TGF-ß expression, Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and EMT-related transcription factor Snail upon BLM instillation. Iin vitro study demonstrated that ISE inhibited TGF-ß-induced EMT-like phenotype and cell behaviors, the expression of α-SMA and vimentin, and prevented E-cadherin reduction of A549 cells. Consistent with in vivo study, ISE abrogated p-Smad2/3, and Snail expression. Finally, the influence of ISE on EMT was not due to ISE toxicity. Our findings indicated that ISE effectively attenuated BLM-induced lung fibrosis. These ISE properties were thought to be involved in interfering TGF-ß, Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and EMT process, suggesting that the material has the potential health benefits to improve lung fibrosis.

5.
New Phytol ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205452

RESUMO

Assumptions about the germination ecology of alpine plants are presently based on individual species and local studies. A current challenge is to synthesize, at the global level, the alpine seed ecological spectrum. We performed a meta-analysis of primary data from laboratory experiments conducted across four continents (excluding the tropics) and 661 species, to estimate the influence of six environmental cues on germination proportion, mean germination time and germination synchrony; accounting for possible effects of seed morphology (mass, embryo:seed ratio) and phylogeny. Most alpine plants show physiological seed dormancy, a strong need for cold stratification, warm-cued germination and positive germination responses to light and alternating temperatures. Species restricted to the alpine belt have a higher preference for warm temperatures and a stronger response to cold stratification than species whose distribution extends also below the treeline. Seed mass, embryo size and phylogeny have strong constraining effects on germination responses to the environment. Globally, overwintering and warm-cued germination are key drivers of germination in alpine habitats. The interplay between germination physiology and seed morphological traits further reflects pressures to avoid frost or drought stress. Our results indicate the convergence, at the global level, of the seed germination spectrum of alpine species.

6.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119521

RESUMO

This article studies the reachable set of cyber-physical systems subject to stealthy attacks with the Kullback-Leibler divergence adopted to describe the stealthiness. The reachable set is defined as the set in which both the system state and the estimation error of the Kalman filter reside with a certain probability. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the reachable set being unbounded are given for the finite and infinite time cases, respectively. When the reachable set is bounded, an ellipsoidal outer approximation is obtained by solving a convex optimization problem. An application of this approximation to the safety evaluation is also given. A numerical simulation of an unmanned ground vehicle is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087340

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) with an efficient and scalable method is highly needed to reduce blindness, due to the growing epidemic of diabetes. The aim of the study was to validate an artificial intelligence-enabled DR screening and to investigate the prevalence of DR in adult patients with diabetes in China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was prospectively conducted at 155 diabetes centers in China. A non-mydriatic, macula-centered fundus photograph per eye was collected and graded through a deep learning (DL)-based, five-stage DR classification. Images from a randomly selected one-third of participants were used for the DL algorithm validation. RESULTS: In total, 47 269 patients (mean (SD) age, 54.29 (11.60) years) were enrolled. 15 805 randomly selected participants were reviewed by a panel of specialists for DL algorithm validation. The DR grading algorithms had a 83.3% (95% CI: 81.9% to 84.6%) sensitivity and a 92.5% (95% CI: 92.1% to 92.9%) specificity to detect referable DR. The five-stage DR classification performance (concordance: 83.0%) is comparable to the interobserver variability of specialists (concordance: 84.3%). The estimated prevalence in patients with diabetes detected by DL algorithm for any DR, referable DR and vision-threatening DR were 28.8% (95% CI: 28.4% to 29.3%), 24.4% (95% CI: 24.0% to 24.8%) and 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5% to 11.1%), respectively. The prevalence was higher in female, elderly, longer diabetes duration and higher glycated hemoglobin groups. CONCLUSION: This study performed, a nationwide, multicenter, DL-based DR screening and the results indicated the importance and feasibility of DR screening in clinical practice with this system deployed at diabetes centers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04240652.

8.
J Vis Exp ; (163)2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016940

RESUMO

Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is an objective technique for the evaluation of postural stability under static and dynamic conditions and perturbation. CDP is based on the inverted pendulum model that traces the interrelationship between the center of pressure and the center of gravity. CDP can be used to analyze the proportions of vision, proprioception, and vestibular sensation to maintain postural stability. The following characters define chronic ankle instability (CAI): persistent ankle pain, swelling, the feeling of "giving way," and self-reported disability. Postural stability and fibular muscle activation level in individuals with CAI decreased due to lateral ankle ligament complex injuries. Few studies have used CDP to explore the postural stability of individuals with CAI. Studies that investigate postural stability and related muscle activation by using synchronized CDP with surface electromyography are lacking. This CDP protocol includes a sensory organization test (SOT), a motor control test (MCT), and an adaption test (ADT), as well as tests that measure unilateral stance (US) and limit of stability (LOS). The surface electromyography system is synchronized with CDP to collect data on lower limb muscle activation during measurement. This protocol presents a novel approach for evaluating the coordination of the visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems and related muscle activation to maintain postural stability. Moreover, it provides new insights into the neuromuscular control of individuals with CAI when coping with real complex environments.

9.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 916, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099574

RESUMO

In our previous study, ETV5 mediated-angiogenesis was demonstrated to be dependent upon the PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ß/Src/STAT3/VEGFA pathway in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the ability of ETV5 to affect the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy in CRC requires further investigation. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and a series of experiments were performed to identify the critical candidate gene involved in Bevacizumab resistance. Furthermore, the ability of treatment targeting the candidate gene to enhance Bevacizumab sensitivity in vitro and in vivo was investigated. Our results revealed that ETV5 directly bound to the VEGFA promoter to promote translation of VEGFA. However, according to in vitro and in vivo experiments, ETV5 unexpectedly accelerated antiVEGF therapy (Bevacizumab) resistance. GSEA and additional assays confirmed that ETV5 could promote angiogenesis by inducing the secretion of another tumor angiogenesis factor (CCL2) in CRC cells to facilitate Bevacizumab resistance. Mechanistically, ETV5 upregulated CCL2 by activating STAT3 to facilitate binding with the CCL2 promoter. ETV5 induced-VEGFA translation and CCL2 secretion were mutually independent mechanisms, that induced angiogenesis by activating the PI3K/AKT and p38/MAPK signaling pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In CRC tissues, ETV5 protein levels were positively associated with CD31, CCL2, and VEGFA protein expression. CRC patients possessing high expression of ETV5/VEGFA or ETV5/CCL2 exhibited a poorer prognosis compared to that of other patients. Combined antiCCL2 and antiVEGFA (Bevacizumab) treatment could inhibit tumor angiogenesis and growth more effectively than single treatments in CRCs with high expression of ETV5 (ETV5+ CRCs). In conclusion, our results not only revealed ETV5 as a novel biomarker for anti-angiogenic therapy, but also indicated a potential combined therapy strategy that involved in targeting of both CCL2 and VEGFA in ETV5+ CRC.

10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1009157, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108367

RESUMO

In rice (Oryza sativa), caryopses located on proximal secondary branches (CSBs) have smaller grain size and poorer grain filling than those located on apical primary branches (CPBs), greatly limiting grain yield. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for developmental differences between CPBs and CSBs remains elusive. In this transcriptome-wide expression study, we identified the gene Aspartic Protease 1 (OsAsp1), which reaches an earlier and higher transcriptional peak in CPBs than in CSBs after pollination. Disruption of OsAsp1 expression in the heterozygous T-DNA line asp1-1+/-eliminated developmental differences between CPBs and CSBs. OsAsp1 negatively regulated the transcriptional inhibitor of auxin biosynthesis, OsTAA1 transcriptional inhibition factor 1 (OsTIF1), to preserve indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) apical dominance in CPBs and CSBs. IAA also facilitated OsTIF1 translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus by releasing the interaction of OsTIF1 with OsAsp1 to regulate caryopses IAA levels via a feedback loop. IAA promoted transcription of OsAsp1 through MADS29 to maintain an OsAsp1 differential between CPBs and CSBs during pollination. Together, these findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the distributed auxin differential between CPBs and CSBs to regulate distinct caryopses development in different rice branches and potential targets for engineering yield improvement in crops.

11.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia (CSEA) using a needle-through-needle technique is currently widely used. However, successful epidural needle placement does not mean a successful spinal needle placement during CSEA. Whether ultrasound assistance could increase the first-pass success rate of spinal needle placement for CSEA remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate if ultrasound assistance could increase the first-pass success rate of spinal needle placement through the epidural needle during CSEA performed by experienced anaesthesiologists in patients undergoing caesarean section. DESIGN: A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind study. SETTING: Single centre, Department of Anaesthesiology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, China, from June 2019 to September 2019. PATIENTS: A total of 185 patients (aged 24 years to 52 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade (ASA) II-III, 38 to 40 weeks gestation) scheduled to undergo elective caesarean section under CSEA were enrolled. INTERVENTION: The patients were randomised to either an ultrasound group (patients received a preprocedural ultrasound scan, and the puncture site was identified by ultrasound imaging) and a palpation group (patients received a sham procedural ultrasound scan, and the puncture site was identified by conventional palpation).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was the first-pass success rate for spinal needle placement through the epidural needle. Secondary outcome measures were total duration of CSEA, time required for successful epidural needle and spinal needle placement, number of epidural needle redirections and complications. RESULTS: Preprocedural ultrasound imaging significantly increased the first-pass success rate of spinal needle placement through the epidural needle compared with conventional palpation (93.8 vs. 68.8%, P < 0.001). Preprocedural ultrasound imaging also decreased the total duration of CSEA (186.9 ±â€Š37.1 vs. 213 ±â€Š60.4 s, P = 0.0015) and the time required for successful spinal needle placement (78.3 ±â€Š22.9 vs. 100.1 ±â€Š53.7 s, P < 0.01) compared with conventional palpation. Fewer patients in the ultrasound group needed epidural needle redirections during the spinal needle placement procedure than in the palpation group (four patients vs. 20 patients, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: For experienced anaesthesiologists, preprocedural ultrasound imaging significantly increased the first-pass success rate of spinal needle placement through the epidural needle for obstetric patients undergoing caesarean section under CSEA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: chictr.org.cn, identifier: ChiCTR1900024132.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5074, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033265

RESUMO

Touch and itch sensations are crucial for evoking defensive and emotional responses, and light tactile touch may induce unpleasant itch sensations (mechanical itch or alloknesis). The neural substrate for touch-to-itch conversion in the spinal cord remains elusive. We report that spinal interneurons expressing Tachykinin 2-Cre (Tac2Cre) receive direct Aß low threshold mechanoreceptor (LTMR) input and form monosynaptic connections with GRPR neurons. Ablation or inhibition markedly reduces mechanical but not acute chemical itch nor noxious touch information. Chemogenetic inhibition of Tac2Cre neurons also displays pronounced deficit in chronic dry skin itch, a type of chemical itch in mice. Consistently, ablation of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) neurons, which are essential for transmitting chemical itch, also abolishes mechanical itch. Together, these results suggest that innocuous touch and chemical itch information converge on GRPR neurons and thus map an exquisite spinal circuitry hard-wired for converting innocuous touch to irritating itch.


Assuntos
Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Prurido/fisiopatologia , Tato/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Injeções Espinhais , Luz , Potenciais da Membrana , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Receptores da Bombesina/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Sinapses/metabolismo , Taquicininas/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044933

RESUMO

We introduce a modeling tool which can evolve a set of 3D objects in a functionality-aware manner. Our goal is for the evolution to generate large and diverse sets of plausible 3D objects for data augmentation, constrained modeling, as well as open-ended exploration to possibly inspire new designs. Starting with an initial population of 3D objects belonging to one or more functional categories, we evolve the shapes through part re-combination to produce generations of hybrids or crossbreeds between parents from the heterogeneous shape collection. Evolutionary selection of offsprings is guided both by a functional plausibility score derived from functionality analysis of shapes in the initial population and user preference, as in a design gallery. Since cross-category hybridization may result in offsprings not belonging to any of the known functional categories, we develop a means for functionality partial matching to evaluate functional plausibility on partial shapes. We show a variety of plausible hybrid shapes generated by our functionality-aware model evolution, which can complement existing datasets as training data and boost the performance of contemporary data-driven segmentation schemes, especially in challenging cases.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1012, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the differences between left-sided colon cancer (LCC) and right-sided colon cancer (RCC) have received increasing attention due to the clinicopathological variation between them. However, some of these differences have remained unclear and conflicting results have been reported. METHODS: From The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we obtained RNA sequencing data and gene mutation data on 323 and 283 colon cancer patients, respectively. Differential analysis was firstly done on gene expression data and mutation data between LCC and RCC, separately. Machine learning (ML) methods were then used to select key genes or mutations as features to construct models to classify LCC and RCC patients. Finally, we conducted correlation analysis to identify the correlations between differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and mutations using logistic regression (LR) models. RESULTS: We found distinct gene mutation and expression patterns between LCC and RCC patients and further selected the 30 most important mutations and 17 most important gene expression features using ML methods. The classification models created using these features classified LCC and RCC patients with high accuracy (areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.8 and 0.96 for mutation and gene expression data, respectively). The expression of PRAC1 and BRAF V600E mutation (rs113488022) were the most important feature for each model. Correlations of mutations and gene expression data were also identified using LR models. Among them, rs113488022 was found to have significance relevance to the expression of four genes, and thus should be focused on in further study. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of ML methods, we found some key molecular differences between LCC and RCC, which could differentiate these two groups of patients with high accuracy. These differences might be key factors behind the variation in clinical features between LCC and RCC and thus help to improve treatment, such as determining the appropriate therapy for patients.

15.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106900

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Microvascular endothelial hyperpermeability, mainly caused by claudin-5 deficiency, is the initial pathological change that occurs in diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease. The ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) exerts unique beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, but the involvement of BHB in promoting the generation of claudin-5 to attenuate cardiac microvascular hyperpermeability in diabetes is poorly understood. METHODS: The effects of BHB on cardiac microvascular endothelial hyperpermeability and claudin-5 generation were evaluated in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and in high glucose (HG)-stimulated human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we also measured ß-catenin nuclear translocation, binding of ß-catenin, histone deacetylase (HDAC)1, HDAC3 and p300 to the Claudin-5 (also known as CLDN5) promoter, interaction between HDAC3 and ß-catenin, and histone acetylation in the Claudin-5 promoter. RESULTS: We found that 10 weeks of BHB treatment promoted claudin-5 generation and antagonised cardiac microvascular endothelial hyperpermeability in rat models of diabetes. Meanwhile, BHB promoted claudin-5 generation and inhibited paracellular permeability in HG-stimulated HCMECs. Specifically, BHB (2 mmol/l) inhibited HG-induced HDAC3 from binding to the Claudin-5 promoter, although nuclear translocation or promoter binding of ß-catenin did not change with BHB treatment. In addition, BHB prevented the binding and co-localisation of HDAC3 to ß-catenin in HG-stimulated HCMECs. Furthermore, using mass spectrometry, acetylated H3K14 (H3K14ac) in the Claudin-5 promoter following BHB treatment was identified, regardless of whether cells were stimulated by HG or not. Although reduced levels of acetylated H3K9 in the Claudin-5 promoter were found following HG stimulation, increased H3K14ac was specifically associated with BHB treatment. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BHB inhibited HDAC3 and caused acetylation of H3K14 in the Claudin-5 promoter, thereby promoting claudin-5 generation and antagonising diabetes-associated cardiac microvascular hyperpermeability. Graphical abstract.

16.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089616

RESUMO

Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomaterial that is commonly used in the treatment of bone defects. However, the inflammatory response after biomaterial implantation is a recurrent problem that requires urgent attention. Our previous studies on MC-macrophage interactions were descriptive but we did not perform an in-depth analysis on a genetic level to investigate the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we cultured RAW264.7 cells on MC or collagen and examined the proliferation of the macrophages by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. We sequenced the RNA of the cultured cells to discover differential gene expression patterns and found that a total of 1183 genes were differentially expressed between the MC- and collagen-cultured groups, of which 396 genes were upregulated and 787 were downregulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that biological processes in MC-cultured cells, such as inflammation and innate immunity, were downregulated; whereas nucleosome assembly, megakaryocyte differentiation, and chromatin assembly were upregulated. We identified several pathways associated with immunity that were significantly enriched using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Furthermore, we validated the differentially expressed genes from RNA sequencing by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. This study provides insight into the macrophage phenotype based on the microenvironment, which is the foundation for the clinical application of MC-based interventions.

17.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961026

RESUMO

γ-Valerolactone (GVL), derived from renewable lignocellulosic biomass, has been considered as a cost-competitive and green platform chemical. With the increasingly prominent environmental problems, a deep understanding of the preparation and transformation of GVL is highly needed. Based on the latest progress made with GVL, preparation and applications of GVL are summarized and discussed in this Review. In particular, the state-of-the-art in catalytic production of GVL is described based on the use of noble-metal and non-noble-metal catalysts. The application of GVL for the valorization of lignocellulose would improve the yield of target products such as sugar monomers and furfural. Thus, GVL can be produced from lignocellulose and simultaneously it can also be used for the valorization of lignocellulose, just as in the sustainable and renewable cycle, "the falling leaves returns to their roots". This Review is expected to provide valuable reference and new proposal for the further development and better utilization of GVL.

18.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(9): 708-13, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of manual acupuncture stimulation of acupoints at different spinal nerve segments on uterine motility and the complicated adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. METHODS: Eighteen adult non-pregnant SD rats were used in the present study. The contractive activities of the uterus were measured by using a pressure transducer which was connected to an inserted water-filled balloon in the uterus via a PE tube at one end and an amplifier at the other end. Manual acupuncture needle was applied to "Zigong"(EX-CA1),"Huiyin" (CV1), "Xuehai "(SP10) and "Taichong "(LR3) acupoints located at the same or adjacent spinal nerve segments of the uterus, and to "Neiguan" (PC6) situated at the distant spinal nerve segment at about 2 Hz for 1 min, followed by observing changes of the uterine contractility. After acupuncture, α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (0.5 mg/kg, n=9) or cholinergic muscarinic (M) receptor antagonist atropine (0.5 mg/kg,n=9) was given to the rats of different acupoints respectively through tail vein, followed by observing changes of the uterine automatic systolic pressure difference (value of systolic pressure peak minuses the trough value) and frequency after manual acupuncture stimulation as well as after blocking the activities of α-adrenoceptors and M receptors, separately. RESULTS: After acupuncture stimulation of EX-CA1, CV1, SP10 and LR3, but not PC6, the systolic pressure difference and frequency of the uterus were signi-ficantly increased (P<0.05,P<0.001, P<0.01). Following intravenous injection of phentolamine, both the systolic pressure difference and frequency had no marked changes after acupuncture at the 5 acupoints (P>0.05). After intravenous injection of atropine, the uterine systolic pressure difference and frequency were markedly decreased compared with the basic values before acupuncture stimulation (P<0.001), but had no obvious changes after acupuncture at the 5 acupoints at both the same and distant spinal segments to the uterus (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Manual acupuncture stimulation of acupoints at the same and adjacent spinal segments can promote the contractility of uterus in normal rats, which is realized by activating both α-adrenoceptor and cholinergic M receptors.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Feminino , Contração Muscular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Útero
19.
Analyst ; 145(22): 7210-7224, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960188

RESUMO

Single-cell analysis is an emerging research area that aims to reveal delicate cellular status and underlying mechanisms by conquering the intercellular heterogeneity. Current single-cell research methods, however, are highly dependent on cell-destructive protocols and cannot sequentially display the progress of cellular events. A recently developed pH nanoprobe in our lab conceptually showed its ability to detect intracellular pH (pHi) without cell labeling or disruption. In the present study, we took the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) as a typical example of cell heterogeneity, to testify the practicality of the pH nanoprobe in interpreting cell status. Three types of NPs (CeO2, TiO2, and SiO2) were employed to generate varied toxic effects. Results showed that the traditional assays - including cell viability, intracellular ROS generation, and mitochondrial inner membrane depolarization - not only failed to report the nanotoxicity accurately and timely, but also drew confusing or misleading conclusions. The pH nanoprobe revealed explicit pHi changes induced by the NPs, which corresponded well with the cell damages found by the transmission electron microscopic (TEM) imaging. Besides, our results unveiled an unexpectedly devastating effect of SiO2 NPs on cells during the early stage NP-cell interaction. The developed novel pH nanoprobe demonstrated a rapid sensing capability at single-cell resolution with minimum invasiveness. Therefore, it may become a promising alternative for a wide range of applications in areas such as single-cell research and precision medicine.

20.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(11): e1479, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the clinical characteristics and molecular genetic background responsible for USH2A mutations associated with nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in five Chinese families, a retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. METHODS: Data on detailed history and comprehensive ophthalmological examinations were extracted from medical charts. Genomic DNA was sequenced by whole-exome sequencing. The pathogenicity predictions were evaluated by in silico analysis. The structural modeling of the wide-type and mutant USH2A proteins was displayed based on the I-Tasser software. RESULTS: The ultra-wide-field fundus imaging showed a distinctive pattern of hyperautofluorescence in the parafoveal ring with macular sparing. Ten USH2A variants were detected, including seven missense mutations, two splicing mutations, and one insertion mutation. Six of these variants have already been reported, and the remaining four were novel. Of the de novo mutations, the p.C931Y and p.G4489S mutations were predicted to be deleterious or probably damaging; the p.M4853V mutation was predicted to be neutral or benign; and the IVS22+3A>G mutation was a splicing mutation that could influence mRNA splicing and affect the formation of the hairpin structure of the USH2A protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our data further confirm that USH2A protein plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of photoreceptors and expand the spectrum of USH2A mutations that are associated with nonsyndromic RP in Chinese patients.

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