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1.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562887

RESUMO

Protein kinases are key signaling nodes that regulate fundamental biological and disease processes. Illuminating kinase signaling from multiple angles can provide deeper insights into disease mechanisms and improve therapeutic targeting. While fluorescent biosensors are powerful tools for visualizing live-cell kinase activity dynamics in real time, new molecular tools are needed that enable recording of transient signaling activities for post hoc analysis and targeted manipulation. Here, we develop a light-gated kinase activity coupled transcriptional integrator (KINACT) that converts dynamic kinase signals into "permanent" fluorescent marks. KINACT enables robust monitoring of kinase activity across scales, accurately recording subcellular PKA activity, highlighting PKA signaling heterogeneity in 3D cultures, and identifying PKA activators and inhibitors in high-throughput screens. We further leverage the ability of KINACT to drive signaling effector expression to allow feedback manipulation of the balance of GαsR201C-induced PKA and ERK activation and dissect the mechanisms of oncogenic G protein signaling.

2.
Cell Discov ; 10(1): 39, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594259

RESUMO

Glioma, with its heterogeneous microenvironments and genetic subtypes, presents substantial challenges for treatment prediction and development. We integrated 3D bioprinting and multi-algorithm machine learning as a novel approach to enhance the assessment and understanding of glioma treatment responses and microenvironment characteristics. The bioprinted patient-derived glioma tissues successfully recapitulated molecular properties and drug responses of native tumors. We then developed GlioML, a machine learning workflow incorporating nine distinct algorithms and a weighted ensemble model that generated robust gene expression-based predictors, each reflecting the diverse action mechanisms of various compounds and drugs. The ensemble model superseded the performance of all individual algorithms across diverse in vitro systems, including sphere cultures, complex 3D bioprinted multicellular models, and 3D patient-derived tissues. By integrating bioprinting, the evaluative scope of the treatment expanded to T cell-related therapy and anti-angiogenesis targeted therapy. We identified promising compounds and drugs for glioma treatment and revealed distinct immunosuppressive or angiogenic myeloid-infiltrated tumor microenvironments. These insights pave the way for enhanced therapeutic development for glioma and potentially for other cancers, highlighting the broad application potential of this integrative and translational approach.

3.
ACS Nano ; 18(11): 8531-8545, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456901

RESUMO

Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy due to its ability to inhibit T cell activation; however, its expression on various noncancer cells may cause on-target off-tumor toxicity when designing PD-L1-targeting Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell therapies. Combining rational design and directed evolution of the human fibronectin-derived monobody scaffold, "PDbody" was engineered to bind to PD-L1 with a preference for a slightly lower pH, which is typical in the tumor microenvironment. PDbody was further utilized as a CAR to target the PD-L1-expressing triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. To mitigate on-target off-tumor toxicity associated with targeting PD-L1, a Cluster of Differentiation 19 (CD19)-recognizing SynNotch IF THEN gate was integrated into the system. This CD19-SynNotch PDbody-CAR system was then expressed in primary human T cells to target CD19-expressing MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. These CD19-SynNotch PDbody-CAR T cells demonstrated both specificity and efficacy in vitro, accurately eradicating cancer targets in cytotoxicity assays. Moreover, in an in vivo bilateral murine tumor model, they exhibited the capability to effectively restrain tumor growth. Overall, CD19-SynNotch PDbody-CAR T cells represent a distinct development over previously published designs due to their increased efficacy, proliferative capability, and mitigation of off-tumor toxicity for solid tumor treatment.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Ligantes , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linfócitos T , Imunoterapia Adotiva
4.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370804

RESUMO

Fluorescent biosensors revolutionized biomedical science by enabling the direct measurement of signaling activities in living cells, yet the current technology is limited in resolution and dimensionality. Here, we introduce highly sensitive chemigenetic kinase activity biosensors that combine the genetically encodable self-labeling protein tag HaloTag7 with bright far-red-emitting synthetic fluorophores. This technology enables five-color biosensor multiplexing, 4D activity imaging, and functional super-resolution imaging via stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy.

5.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 203: 115135, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931847

RESUMO

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy has emerged as a transformative therapeutic strategy for hematological malignancies. However, its efficacy in treating solid tumors remains limited. An in-depth and comprehensive understanding of CAR-T cell signaling pathways and the ability to track CAR-T cell biodistribution and activation in real-time within the tumor microenvironment will be instrumental in designing the next generation of CAR-T cells for solid tumor therapy. This review summarizes the signaling network and the cellular and molecular imaging tools and platforms that are utilized in CAR-T cell-based immune therapies, covering both in vitro and in vivo studies. Firstly, we provide an overview of the existing understanding of the activation and cytotoxic mechanisms of CAR-T cells, compared to the mechanism of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. We further describe the commonly employed tools for live cell imaging, coupled with recent research progress, with a focus on genetically encoded fluorescent proteins (FPs) and biosensors. We then discuss the utility of diverse in vivo imaging modalities, including fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and photoacoustic (PA) imaging, for noninvasive monitoring of CAR-T cell dynamics within tumor tissues, thereby providing critical insights into therapy's strengths and weaknesses. Lastly, we discuss the current challenges and future directions of CAR-T cell therapy from the imaging perspective. We foresee that a comprehensive and integrative approach to CAR-T cell imaging will enable the development of more effective treatments for solid tumors in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Humanos , Distribuição Tecidual , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Imunoterapia , Linfócitos T , Imagem Molecular , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Mol Ther ; 31(1): 35-47, 2023 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045585

RESUMO

CD19-targeting chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) with CD28 and CD3ζ signaling domains have been approved by the US FDA for treating B cell malignancies. Mutation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in CD3ζ generated a single-ITAM containing 1XX CAR, which displayed superior antitumor activity in a leukemia mouse model. Here, we investigated whether the 1XX design could enhance therapeutic potency against solid tumors. We constructed both CD19- and AXL-specific 1XX CARs and compared their in vitro and in vivo functions with their wild-type (WT) counterparts. 1XX CARs showed better antitumor efficacy in both pancreatic and melanoma mouse models. Detailed analysis revealed that 1XX CAR-T cells persisted longer in vivo and had a higher percentage of central memory cells. With fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, we found that decreased ITAM numbers in 1XX resulted in similar 70-kDa zeta chain-associated protein (ZAP70) activation, while 1XX induced higher Ca2+ elevation and faster extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation than WT CAR. Thus, our results confirmed the superiority of 1XX against two targets in different solid tumor models and shed light on the underlying molecular mechanism of CAR signaling, paving the way for the clinical applications of 1XX CARs against solid tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Linfócitos T , Animais , Camundongos , Antígenos CD28/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/química , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Neoplasias/terapia
8.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(12): e1141, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495108

RESUMO

Cell-based immunotherapy, for example, chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell immunotherapy, has revolutionized cancer treatment, particularly for blood cancers. However, factors such as insufficient T cell tracking, tumour heterogeneity, inhibitory tumour microenvironment (TME) and T cell exhaustion limit the broad application of CAR-based immunotherapy for solid tumours. In particular, the TME is a complex and evolving entity, which is composed of cells of different types (e.g., cancer cells, immune cells and stromal cells), vasculature, soluble factors and extracellular matrix (ECM), with each component playing a critical role in CAR-T immunotherapy. Thus, developing approaches to mitigate the inhibitory TME factors is critical for future success in applying CAR-T cells for solid tumour treatment. Accordingly, understanding the bilateral interaction of CAR-T cells with the TME is in pressing need to pave the way for more efficient therapeutics. In the following review, we will discuss TME-associated aspects with an emphasis on T cell trafficking, ECM barriers, abnormal vasculature, solid tumour heterogenicity and immune suppressive microenvironment. We will then summarize current engineering strategies to overcome the challenges posed by the TME-associated factors. Lastly, the future directions for engineering efficient CAR-T cells for solid tumour therapy will be discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Microambiente Tumoral , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia
9.
Nat Mater ; 21(10): 1191-1199, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927431

RESUMO

Cell reprogramming has wide applications in tissue regeneration, disease modelling and personalized medicine. In addition to biochemical cues, mechanical forces also contribute to the modulation of the epigenetic state and a variety of cell functions through distinct mechanisms that are not fully understood. Here we show that millisecond deformation of the cell nucleus caused by confinement into microfluidic channels results in wrinkling and transient disassembly of the nuclear lamina, local detachment of lamina-associated domains in chromatin and a decrease of histone methylation (histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation) and DNA methylation. These global changes in chromatin at the early stage of cell reprogramming boost the conversion of fibroblasts into neurons and can be partially reproduced by inhibition of histone H3 lysine 9 and DNA methylation. This mechanopriming approach also triggers macrophage reprogramming into neurons and fibroblast conversion into induced pluripotent stem cells, being thus a promising mechanically based epigenetic state modulation method for cell engineering.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Histonas , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo
10.
EMBO J ; 41(17): e111799, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844093

RESUMO

Piezo1 belongs to mechano-activatable cation channels serving as biological force sensors. However, the molecular events downstream of Piezo1 activation remain unclear. In this study, we used biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to investigate the dynamic modes of Piezo1-mediated signaling and revealed a bimodal pattern of Piezo1-induced intracellular calcium signaling. Laser-induced shockwaves (LIS) and its associated shear stress can mechanically activate Piezo1 to induce transient intracellular calcium (Ca[i] ) elevation, accompanied by an increase in FAK activity. Interestingly, multiple pulses of shockwave stimulation caused a more sustained calcium increase and a decrease in FAK activity. Similarly, tuning the degree of Piezo1 activation by titrating either the dosage of Piezo1 ligand Yoda1 or the expression level of Piezo1 produced a similar bimodal pattern of FAK responses. Further investigations revealed that SHP2 serves as an intermediate regulator mediating this bimodal pattern in Piezo1 sensing and signaling. These results suggest that the degrees of Piezo1 activation induced by both mechanical LIS and chemical ligand stimulation may determine downstream signaling characteristics.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Canais Iônicos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Canais Iônicos/genética , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Ligantes , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia
11.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(15)2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893630

RESUMO

Ammanniaauriculata is a troublesome broadleaf weed, widely distributed in the paddy fields of southern China. In this study, 10 biotypes of A. auriculata were sampled from Yangzhou City, China, where the paddy fields were seriously infested with A. auriculata, and their resistance levels to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor bensulfuron-methyl were determined. The whole-plant response assays showed that nine A. auriculata biotypes were highly resistant (from 16.4- to 183.1-fold) to bensulfuron-methyl in comparison with a susceptible YZ-S biotype, and only one YZ-6 biotype was susceptible. ALS gene sequencing revealed that three ALS gene copies existed in A. auriculata, and four different amino acid substitutions (Pro197-Leu, -Ala, -Ser, and -His) at site 197 in the AaALS1 or 2 genes were found in eight resistant biotypes. In addition, no amino acid mutations in three ALS genes were found in the YZ-3 biotype. These results suggested that target-site mutations or non-target-site resistance mechanisms were involved in tested resistant A. auriculata biotypes. Finally, a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was identified to rapidly detect the Pro197 mutations in A. auriculata.

12.
APL Bioeng ; 6(1): 011502, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35071966

RESUMO

Despite its success in treating hematologic malignancies, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy faces two major challenges which hinder its broader applications: the limited effectiveness against solid tumors and the nonspecific toxicities. To address these concerns, researchers have used synthetic biology approaches to develop optimization strategies. In this review, we discuss recent improvements on the CAR and other non-CAR molecules aimed to enhance CAR T cell efficacy and safety. We also highlight the development of different types of inducible CAR T cells that can be controlled by environmental cues and/or external stimuli. These advancements are bringing CAR T therapy one step closer to safer and wider applications, especially for solid tumors.

13.
ACS Sens ; 6(12): 4369-4378, 2021 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878766

RESUMO

Histone methylations play a crucial role in chromatin remodeling and genome regulations. However, there is a lack of tools to visualize these histone modifications with high spatiotemporal resolutions in live cells. We have developed a biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and incorporated it into nucleosomes, capable of monitoring the trimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) in live cells. We also revealed that the performance of the FRET biosensor can be significantly improved by adjusting the linkers within the biosensor. An improved biosensor enables the live-cell imaging of different histone methylation status, induced by the suppressive H3.3K27M or existing in breast cancer cells with varying genetic backgrounds. We have further applied the biosensor to reveal the dynamic coupling between H3K27me3 changes and caspase activity representing the initiation of apoptosis in cancer cells by imaging both H3K27me3 and caspase activity simultaneously in the same live cells. Thus, this new FRET biosensor can provide a powerful tool to visualize the epigenetic regulation in live cells with high spatial temporal resolutions.


Assuntos
Histonas , Neoplasias , Epigênese Genética , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Genoma , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Metilação
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5031, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413312

RESUMO

The limited sensitivity of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) biosensors hinders their broader applications. Here, we develop an approach integrating high-throughput FRET sorting and next-generation sequencing (FRET-Seq) to identify sensitive biosensors with varying substrate sequences from large-scale libraries directly in mammalian cells, utilizing the design of self-activating FRET (saFRET) biosensor. The resulting biosensors of Fyn and ZAP70 kinases exhibit enhanced performance and enable the dynamic imaging of T-cell activation mediated by T cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), revealing a highly organized ZAP70 subcellular activity pattern upon TCR but not CAR engagement. The ZAP70 biosensor elucidates the role of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in affecting ZAP70 activation to regulate CAR functions. A saFRET biosensor-based high-throughput drug screening (saFRET-HTDS) assay further enables the identification of an FDA-approved cancer drug, Sunitinib, that can be repurposed to inhibit ZAP70 activity and autoimmune-disease-related T-cell activation.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fyn/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Proteína-Tirosina Quinase ZAP-70/metabolismo
15.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21705, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105826

RESUMO

Keloids are fibrotic lesions that grow unceasingly and invasively and are driven by local mechanical stimuli. Unlike other fibrotic diseases and normal wound healing, keloids exhibit little transformation of dermal fibroblasts into α-SMA+ myofibroblasts. This study showed that asporin is the most strongly expressed gene in keloids and its gene-ontology terms relate strongly to ECM metabolism/organization. Experiments with human dermal cells (HDFs) showed that asporin overexpression/treatment abrogated the HDF ability to adopt a perpendicular orientation when subjected to stretching tension. It also induced calcification of the surrounding 3D collagen matrix. Asporin overexpression/treatment also prevented the HDFs from remodeling the surrounding 3D collagen matrix, leading to a disorganized network of thick, wavy collagen fibers that resembled keloid collagen architecture. This in turn impaired the ability of the HDFs to contract the collagen matrix. Asporin treatment also made the fibroblasts impervious to the fibrous collagen contraction of α-SMA+ myofibroblasts, which normally activates fibroblasts. Thus, by calcifying collagen, asporin prevents fibroblasts from linearly rearranging the surrounding collagen; this reduces both their mechanosensitivity and mechanosignaling to each other through the collagen network. This blocks fibroblast activation and differentiation into the mature myofibroblasts that efficiently remodel the extracellular matrix. Consequently, the fibroblasts remain immature, highly proliferative, and continue laying down abundant extracellular matrix, causing keloid growth and invasion. Notably, dermal injection of asporin-overexpressing HDFs into murine wounds recapitulated keloid collagen histopathological characteristics. Thus, disrupted interfibroblast mechanocommunication may promote keloid progression. Asporin may be a new diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for keloids.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Queloide/prevenção & controle , Mecanotransdução Celular , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queloide/genética , Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pele/metabolismo
16.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 595497, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240867

RESUMO

Extensive studies have shown that cells can sense and modulate the biomechanical properties of the ECM within their resident microenvironment. Thus, targeting the mechanotransduction signaling pathways provides a promising way for disease intervention. However, how cells perceive these mechanical cues of the microenvironment and transduce them into biochemical signals remains to be answered. Förster or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based biosensors are a powerful tool that can be used in live-cell mechanotransduction imaging and mechanopharmacological drug screening. In this review, we will first introduce FRET principle and FRET biosensors, and then, recent advances on the integration of FRET biosensors and mechanobiology in normal and pathophysiological conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, we will summarize the current applications and limitations of FRET biosensors in high-throughput drug screening and the future improvement of FRET biosensors. In summary, FRET biosensors have provided a powerful tool for mechanobiology studies to advance our understanding of how cells and matrices interact, and the mechanopharmacological screening for disease intervention.

17.
Acta Biomater ; 114: 170-182, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771588

RESUMO

Tissue engineering using traditional size fixed scaffolds and injectable biomaterials are faced with many limitations due to the difficulties of producing macroscopic functional tissues. In this study, 3D functional tissue constructs were developed by inducing self-assembly of microniches, which were cell-laden gelatin microcryogels. During self-assembly, the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components was found to strengthen cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, leading to the construction of a 'native' microenvironment that better preserved cell viability and functions. MSCs grown in self-assembled constructs showed increased maintenance of stemness, reduced senescence and improved paracrine activity compared with cells grown in individual microniches without self-assembly. As an example of applying the self-assembled constructs in tissue regeneration, the constructs were used to induce in vivo articular cartilage repair and successfully regenerated hyaline-like cartilage tissue in the absence of other extrinsic factors. This unique approach of developing self-assembled 3D functional constructs holds great promise for the generation of tissue engineered organoids and repair of challenging tissue defects. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: We developed 3D functional tissue constructs using a unique gelatin-based microscopic hydrogel (microcryogels). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were loaded into gelatin microcryogels to form microscopic cell-laden units (microniches), which were induced to undergo self-assembly using a specially designed 3D printed frame. Extracellular matrix accumulation among the microniches resulted in self-assembled macroscopic constructs with superior ability to maintain the phenotypic characteristics and stemness of MSCs, together with the suppression of senescence and enhanced paracrine function. As an example of application in tissue regeneration, the self-assembled constructs were shown to successfully repair articular cartilage defects without any other supplements. This unique strategy for developing 3D functional tissue constructs allows the optimisation of stem cell functions and construction of biomimetic tissue organoids.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Condrogênese , Matriz Extracelular , Hidrogéis , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10832-10838, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358190

RESUMO

While the concept of intercellular mechanical communication has been revealed, the mechanistic insights have been poorly evidenced in the context of myofibroblast-fibroblast interaction during fibrosis expansion. Here we report and systematically investigate the mechanical force-mediated myofibroblast-fibroblast cross talk via the fibrous matrix, which we termed paratensile signaling. Paratensile signaling enables instantaneous and long-range mechanotransduction via collagen fibers (less than 1 s over 70 µm) to activate a single fibroblast, which is intracellularly mediated by DDR2 and integrin signaling pathways in a calcium-dependent manner through the mechanosensitive Piezo1 ion channel. By correlating in vitro fibroblast foci growth models with mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that the single-cell-level spatiotemporal feature of paratensile signaling can be applied to elucidate the tissue-level fibrosis expansion and that blocking paratensile signaling can effectively attenuate the fibroblast to myofibroblast transition at the border of fibrotic and normal tissue. Our comprehensive investigation of paratensile signaling in fibrosis expansion broadens the understanding of cellular dynamics during fibrogenesis and inspires antifibrotic intervention strategies targeting paratensile signaling.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrinas , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular
19.
Int Wound J ; 16(3): 852-859, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864269

RESUMO

The aetiology of keloids is becoming clearer, but many questions remain, including about the most optimal treatment. Current therapies include surgical excision, radiotherapy, and various pharmaceutical drugs. However, none of these drugs are keloid-specific. Moreover, all current interventions are associated with high recurrence rates. Here, we review the pharmaceutical interventions that are currently available. All are based on the fact that keloids are an expanding solid mass with intense chronic inflammation at its advancing edges. Consequently, current pharmaceuticals aim to reduce the mass and/or symptoms of keloids, similar to surgery and radiotherapy. They include chemotherapies, immunotherapies, volume-reducing therapies, and anti-inflammatory therapies. We also describe new advances in keloid pharmaceuticals. They include drugs that were designed to treat systemic diseases such as hypertension or breast cancer but were found to also treat keloids. Furthermore, recent progress in genetic, epigenetic, and stem cell therapies suggests that they could become useful in the keloid field. This review of pharmaceutical advances will hopefully promote additional research and the development of effective and specific pharmaceuticals for keloids.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica/terapia , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Queloide/terapia , Radioterapia/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Nat Mater ; 16(12): 1252-1261, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170554

RESUMO

The role of pathological angiogenesis on liver fibrogenesis is still unknown. Here, we developed fibrotic microniches (FµNs) that recapitulate the interaction of liver sinusoid endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We investigated how the mechanical properties of their substrates affect the formation of capillary-like structures and how they relate to the progression of angiogenesis during liver fibrosis. Differences in cell response in the FµNs were synonymous of the early and late stages of liver fibrosis. The stiffness of the early-stage FµNs was significantly elevated due to condensation of collagen fibrils induced by angiogenesis, and led to activation of HSCs by LSECs. We utilized these FµNs to understand the response to anti-angiogenic drugs, and it was evident that these drugs were effective only for early-stage liver fibrosis in vitro and in an in vivo mouse model of liver fibrosis. Late-stage liver fibrosis was not reversed following treatment with anti-angiogenic drugs but rather with inhibitors of collagen condensation. Our work reveals stage-specific angiogenesis-induced liver fibrogenesis via a previously unrevealed mechanotransduction mechanism which may offer precise intervention strategies targeting stage-specific disease progression.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia
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