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1.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(1)2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751416

RESUMO

Oxidative stress­induced neuronal cell death contributes significantly to the physiological processes of a number of neurological disorders. Polydatin (PD) has been reported to protect against Alzheimer's disease (AD), ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. However, the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The current study suggested that PD activates AKT/cAMP response element­binding protein (CREB) signaling and induces neuroglobin (Ngb) to protect neuronal cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in vitro. PD inhibited the H2O2­induced neuronal cell death of primary mouse cortical neurons and N2a cells. Functional studies showed that PD attenuated H2O2­induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Mechanistically, PD was verified to induce the phosphorylation of AKT and CREB and increase the protein level of Ngb. The luciferase assay results showed that Ngb transcriptional activity was activated by CREB, especially after PD treatment. It was further indicated that PD increased the transcription of Ngb by enhancing the binding of CREB to the promoter region of Ngb. Finally, Ngb knockdown largely attenuated the neuroprotective role of PD against H2O2. The results indicated that PD protected neuronal cells from H2O2 by activating CREB/Ngb signaling in neuronal cells, indicating that PD has a neuroprotective effect against neurodegenerative diseases.

2.
Microbiol Res ; 254: 126914, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749295

RESUMO

Potassium fulvic acid (BSFA) and potassium humate (KHM), as organic fertilizers, can improve soil structure, increase soil nutrient levels and prevent plant diseases. However, knowledge is limited regarding how BSFA and KHM influence soil microbial communities and the interrelationships between community members associated with Panax ginseng. Soil pH and nutrient content increased significantly as a result of the addition of BSFA and KHM. The pH, NH4+-N, NO3--N, AP and AK increased by 1.72 %-5.55 %, 70.09 %-108.39 %, 35.38 %-216.20 %, 1.21 %-14.19 % and 3.40 %-5.94 %, respectively, in the BSFA and KHM treatments. The soil nutrient increase may be related to Micrococcaceae and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The structure of the microbial community also changed radically from that of the control group, and Chloroflexi (2.69 %-3.15 %), Actinobacteria (4.33 %-7.53 %) and Acidobacteria (9.44 %-11.62 %) were the dominant microorganisms at the phylum level in bacteria. In contrast, the dominant fungi at the phylum level were Ascomycota (77.39 %-78.08 %), Glomeromycota (0.36 %-2.68), Olpidiomycota (0.02 %-3.78 %) and Basidiomycota (0.80 %-1.17 %). Fusarium oxysporum and Ascomycota were biomarkers for BSFA and KHM, which may be related to pathogenic bacteria. Network analysis revealed that the association among members of the soil microbial community was more positive than negative following application of KHM, and more positive (62.5 %) than negative (37.5 %) correlations were observed between bacteria, whereas the fungal community exhibited more positive (97.3 %) than negative (2.7 %) correlations. PICRUST predicted the microbial function of adding KHM and BSFA to the soil, and these pathways mainly belong to the degradation and metabolism of organic matter, saprophytic organisms and plant pathogens. In summary, our study demonstrated that the addition of BSFA and KHM increased the nutrients in the ginseng soil and reshaped the microbial function in soils, providing a theoretical foundation for soil improvement and biological control of ginseng diseases. However, due to the limitations of greenhouse cultivation, additional long-term experiments on farmland with different climate changes are recommended.

3.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132305, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metal exposures are suspected to associate with the risk of hyperuricemia (HUA), but the current results are still conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between multiple plasma metal exposures and HUA risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1406 Chinese Han adults who underwent routine physical examination in the Eighth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University in Shenzhen. The plasma levels of 13 metals were measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariable logistic, linear regression models, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) penalized regression analysis, and restricted cubic spline (RCS) models were applied to assess the associations. RESULTS: The median plasma uric acid concentration in HUA group (434 µmol/L) was significantly higher than that in non-HUA group (305 µmol/L). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of HUA were 1.62(1.08-2.43) for magnesium, 1.61(1.05-2.47) for copper, 1.62(1.06-2.49) for zinc, 1.87(1.26-2.81) for arsenic, 1.50(1.01-2.23) for selenium, and 1.70(1.16-2.49) for thallium based on the single-metal logistic regression models, comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile of metal levels. Further multi-metal logistic, linear regression models and the LASSO analysis all indicated positive associations of zinc, arsenic with HUA risk or uric acid levels. RCS model indicated an inverted V-shaped positive association between zinc levels and HUA risk (p for non-linearity = 0.048, p for overall association = 0.022), while arsenic levels showed a positive and linear dose-response relationship with HUA risk (p for non-linearity = 0.892, p for overall association<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma levels of zinc and arsenic might increase HUA risk and showed positive dose-response relationships. Further cohort studies in larger population are required to testify our findings.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Metais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Úrico
4.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851343

RESUMO

Different functions can be directly realized by silicon (Si) in integrated electronic circuits. Although Si and silicon nitride (Si3N4) photonics have shown great potential in integrated optoelectronic devices, different functions, such as light generation, transparency for guided light, and light detection, cannot be simultaneously achieved only by Si or Si3N4. Second-order nonlinearity is another optical property they do not possess due to their centrosymmetric properties. Several kinds of 2D materials emerged recently and were transferred to specified photonic devices aimed at improving their nonlinear performance. However, the transferring methods are time-consuming, unable to achieve large-scale production, and will inevitably cause materials damage and introduce impurities at the interface. Herein, we demonstrate the direct growth of large-area homogeneous monolayer WS2via a physical vapor deposition method onto Si3N4 waveguides. The WS2 growth can be controlled mainly along the Si3N4 waveguides and the waveguides show an obvious enhancement of second-harmonic generation with the elongated WS2 coverage. The direct growth of WS2 endows Si3N4 integrated photonics with new nonlinear optical properties. As an alternative method of transferring 2D materials, the method we present here is compatible with large-scale integrated photonic fabrication, which lays the foundation for on-chip integrated optical fabrication and applications.

5.
Plant Commun ; 2(5): 100214, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746760

RESUMO

Sphingolipids, which comprise membrane systems together with other lipids, are ubiquitous in cellular organisms. They show a high degree of diversity across plant species and vary in their structures, properties, and functions. Benefiting from the development of lipidomic techniques, over 300 plant sphingolipids have been identified. Generally divided into free long-chain bases (LCBs), ceramides, glycosylceramides (GlcCers) and glycosyl inositol phosphoceramides (GIPCs), plant sphingolipids exhibit organized aggregation within lipid membranes to form raft domains with sterols. Accumulating evidence has revealed that sphingolipids obey certain trafficking and distribution rules and confer unique properties to membranes. Functional studies using sphingolipid biosynthetic mutants demonstrate that sphingolipids participate in plant developmental regulation, stimulus sensing, and stress responses. Here, we present an updated metabolism/degradation map and summarize the structures of plant sphingolipids, review recent progress in understanding the functions of sphingolipids in plant development and stress responses, and review sphingolipid distribution and trafficking in plant cells. We also highlight some important challenges and issues that we may face during the process of studying sphingolipids.

6.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753394

RESUMO

Various studies have manifested that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the modulation of the occurrence and development of osteosarcoma (OS). However, whether miR-22-3p is associated with OS growth remains unclear. In the study, the potential molecular mechanisms of miR-22-3p in OS was explored. It was affirmed that miR-22-3p was associated with distant metastasis and tumor size in OS patients, and reduced in OS tissues and cells while transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) was elevated. Elevated miR-22-3p repressed OS cell progression, and the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, while elevated TCF7L2 was opposite. MiR-22-3p targeted TCF7L2 in OS. In functional rescue experiments, knockdown of miR-22-3p on OS progression and promotion of Wnt/ß-catenin were reversed by simultaneous knockdown of TCF7L2. Transplantation experiments in nude mice showed that elevated miR-22-3p repressed OS tumor growth and decreased TCF7L2, Wnt and ß-catenin. Shortly, this study suggest that miR-22-3p refrains the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway by targeting TCF7L2 and thereby preventing OS deterioration. MiR-22-3p/TCF7L2 axis is supposed to be a candidate molecular target for future OS treatment.

7.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 114, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is defined by translocation of the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene located on chromosome Xp11.2. Due to the high incidence in women, 17ß-estradiol (E2) may be a factor influencing TFE3 breaks, and the topoisomerase II (TOP2) poison is considered one of the important risk factors in mediating DNA breaks. In this study, we investigated the potential pathogenesis of Xp11.2 tRCC using the renal epithelial cell line HK-2. METHODS: Immunofluorescence assay was performed to analyze DNA breaks by quantifying phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX), and the micronuclei (MN) assay was designed for monitoring chromosome breaks. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) was used to detect whether proteins bound to specific DNA site, and the co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) was used to confirm whether proteins bound to other proteins. In some experiments, siRNA and shRNA were transfected to knockdown target genes. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that DNA double-strand breaks were mediated by TOP2ß in HK-2 cells, and this process could be amplified through estrogen receptor α (ERα)-dependent pathway induced by E2. After performing translocation site analysis using target region sequencing data in two Xp11.2 tRCC cell lines and ten Xp11.2 tRCC patients, we confirmed that TOP2ß and ERα could both bind to TFE3 translocation sites directly to mediate DNA breaks in a E2-dependent manner. However, TOP2ß and ERα were not observed to have direct interaction, indicating that their collaborative may be implemented in other ways. Besides, TFE3 was found to be upregulated through NRF1 with increasing E2 concentration, which could increase the risk of TFE3 breaks. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that E2 amplifies TOP2ß-mediated TFE3 breaks by ERα-dependent pathway, and E2 upregulates TFE3 by NRF1 to increase the risk of TFE3 breaks. This suggests that E2 is an important pathogenic factor for Xp11.2 tRCC pathogenesis. Video Abstract.

8.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 714053, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790698

RESUMO

Within the endocrine system, thyroid cancer (THCA) is the most typical malignant tumor. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells play vital roles in tumor progression, recurrence, metastasis as well as response to immunotherapy. However, THCA's immune infiltrative landscape is still not clarified. Therefore, we utilized two statistical algorithms to investigate the immune cell infiltration (ICI) landscape of 505 THCA samples and defined three ICI immune subtypes. The ICI scores were calculated using principal-component analysis. Increased tumor mutation burden (TMB) and immune-related signaling pathways were associated to a high ICI score. The high ICI score group indicated a relatively longer overall survival (OS) than the low ICI score group. Most immune checkpoint-related and immune activation-related genes were considerably upregulated in the ICI high group, which indicates stronger immunogenicity and a greater likelihood of benefiting from immunotherapy. In two cohort studies of patients receiving immunotherapy, high-ICI-score group showed notable therapeutic effects and clinical advantages compared to those with lower ICI scores. These results demonstrate that ICI score acts as an effective prognostic indicator and predictor of response to immunotherapy.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053859, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite firearms contributing to significant morbidity and mortality globally, firearm injury epidemiology is seldom described outside of the USA. We examined firearm injuries among youth in Canada, including weapon type, and intent. DESIGN: Population-based, pooled cross-sectional study using linked health administrative and demographic databases. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All children and youth from birth to 24 years, residing in Ontario from 1 April 2003 to 31 March 2018. EXPOSURE: Firearm injury intent and weapon type using the International Classification of Disease-10 CM codes with Canadian enhancements. Secondary exposures were sociodemographics including age, sex, rurality and income. MAIN OUTCOMES: Any hospital or death record of a firearm injury with counts and rates of firearm injuries described overall and stratified by weapon type and injury intent. Multivariable Poisson regression stratified by injury intent was used to calculate rate ratios of firearm injuries by weapon type. RESULTS: Of 5486 children and youth with a firearm injury (annual rate: 8.8/100 000 population), 90.7% survived. Most injuries occurred in males (90.1%, 15.5/100 000 population). 62.3% (3416) of injuries were unintentional (5.5/100 000 population) of which 1.9% were deaths, whereas 26.5% (1452) were assault related (2.3/100 00 population) of which 18.7% were deaths. Self-injury accounted for 3.7% (204) of cases of which 72.0% were deaths. Across all intents, adjusted regression models showed males were at an increased risk of injury. Non-powdered firearms accounted for half (48.6%, 3.9/100 000 population) of all injuries. Compared with handguns, non-powdered firearms had a higher risk of causing unintentional injuries (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 14.75, 95% CI 12.01 to 18.12) but not assault (aRR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Firearm injuries are a preventable public health problem among youth in Ontario, Canada. Unintentional injuries and those caused by non-powdered firearms were most common and assault and self-injury contributed to substantial firearm-related deaths and should be a focus of prevention efforts.

10.
Cancer ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with leukemia and Down syndrome (DS) are at higher risk of acute treatment toxicities than those without DS. Whether late toxicity risks are also elevated is unknown. METHODS: The authors identified all patients diagnosed with leukemia before the age of 18 years in Ontario, Canada between 1987 and 2013 and who survived greater than 5 years since their last pediatric cancer event. Survivors were divided into those with and without DS, matched by birth year, sex, leukemia type, and receipt of radiation. DS survivors were matched to individuals with DS without childhood cancer (DS controls) in a 1:10 ratio. Outcomes were identified through linkage to population-based health services databases. RESULTS: DS survivors (n = 79) experienced inferior overall survival compared to non-DS survivors (n = 231) (20-year overall survival, 81.7% ± 6.8% vs 98.3% ± 1.2%; hazard ratio [HR], 12.8; P < .0001) and to DS controls (n = 790; 96.3% ± 1.2%; HR, 5.4 P < .0001). Pulmonary and infectious deaths were noted among DS survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of congestive heart failure between DS survivors and either control cohort, nor of hearing loss or dementia between DS survivors and DS controls. CONCLUSIONS: DS survivors were at substantially higher risk of late mortality than non-DS survivors or DS controls. This excess risk was not attributable to cardiac- or subsequent malignant neoplasm-related late effects, historically main causes of premature death among non-DS survivors. Chronic morbidities associated with DS were not increased compared to DS controls. DS-specific surveillance guidelines may be warranted.

11.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10913-10921, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) is a serious health threat in elderly individuals, and a prospective, observational study was conducted to explore the prognostic factors. METHODS: Patients (≥65 years old) with SCAP that had an intensive care unit (ICU) stay >24 h were recruited at our center. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and various assessment scores were calculated. The follow-up period was censored at the date of death or at hospital discharge, whichever came first. RESULTS: A total of 120 elderly patients with SCAP were included. Among them, 61 were cured (survival group) and 59 died due to SCAP (mortality group). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD, ß=2.061, P=0.008) and CD3+CD4+ T cell count (ß=-0.019, P=0.017) were independent prognostic factors for death in elderly patients with SCAP. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUROC) for the age- and gender-adjusted model was estimated to be 0.915 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.858-0.972] for mortality, and the sensitivity and specificity of the model were 91.53% and 86.89%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that COPD and the CD3+CD4+ T cell count are independent prognostic factors for mortality, and the constructed model was moderately accurate in the prediction of mortality for elderly patients with SCAP.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Idoso , Humanos , Laboratórios , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 757909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804044

RESUMO

Salmonella Infantis has emerged as a major clinical pathogen causing gastroenteritis worldwide in recent years. As an intracellular pathogen, Salmonella has evolved to manipulate and benefit from the cell death signaling pathway. In this study, we discovered that S. Infantis inhibited apoptosis of infected Caco-2 cells by phosphorylating Akt. Notably, Akt phosphorylation was observed in a discontinuous manner: immediately 0.5 h after the invasion, then before peak cytosolic replication. Single-cell analysis revealed that the second phase was only induced by cytosolic hyper-replicating bacteria at 3-4 hpi. Next, Akt-mediated apoptosis inhibition was found to be initiated by Salmonella SopB. Furthermore, Akt phosphorylation increased mitochondrial localization of Bcl-2 to prevent Bax oligomerization on the mitochondrial membrane, maintaining the mitochondrial network homeostasis to resist apoptosis. In addition, S. Infantis induced pyroptosis, as evidenced by increased caspase-1 (p10) and GSDMS-N levels. In contrast, cells infected with the ΔSopB strain displayed faster but less severe pyroptosis and had less bacterial load. The results indicated that S. Infantis SopB-mediated Akt phosphorylation delayed pyroptosis, but aggravated its severity. The wild-type strain also caused more severe diarrhea and intestinal inflammatory damage than the ΔSopB strain in mice. These findings revealed that S. Infantis delayed the cells' death by intermittent activation of Akt, allowing sufficient time for replication, thereby causing more severe inflammation.

13.
Food Chem ; : 131567, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802803

RESUMO

Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. polysaccharide (ASKP) was found to be crosslinked with ferric ions to form hydrogels in the previous study. In this work, it was demonstrated that ASKP-Fe3+ hydrogel complexed with pullulan or gelatin contributed to a significantly enhanced gel strength at 1.5% ASKP, 60 mM Fe2+, pH 4.0, and the mixing ratio of 9: 1. The complexed hydrogels presented a dense semi-interpenetrating network along with the delay of gelation time and the increase of water retention. ASKP based complexes exhibited good compatibility, probably because pullulan and gelatin could be entangled with ASKP chain under hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction, respectively. The interaction between ASKP and pullulan or gelatin contributed to the formation of complexed hydrogels with dense network and significantly enhanced gel strength. It is inferred that ASKP would have great potential to be a new gelling material as well as for the ferric ions delivery.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769466

RESUMO

Thaxtomin A (TA) is a phytotoxin secreted by Streptomyces scabies that causes common scab in potatoes. However, the mechanism of potato proteomic changes in response to TA is barely known. In this study, the proteomic changes in potato leaves treated with TA were determined using the Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) technique. A total of 693 proteins were considered as differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) following a comparison of leaves treated with TA and sterile water (as a control). Among the identified DEPs, 460 and 233 were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses, many DEPs were found to be involved in defense and stress responses. Most DEPs were grouped in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and secondary metabolism including oxidation-reduction process, response to stress, plant-pathogen interaction, and plant hormone signal transduction. In this study, we analyzed the changes in proteins to elucidate the mechanism of potato response to TA, and we provided a molecular basis to further study the interaction between plant and TA. These results also offer the option for potato breeding through analysis of the resistant common scab.

15.
Microorganisms ; 9(11)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835313

RESUMO

Our previous research has demonstrated a promising capacity of streptomycetes isolated from red soils to produce novel secondary metabolites, most of which, however, remain to be explored. Co-culturing with mycolic acid-containing bacteria (MACB) has been used successfully in activating the secondary metabolism in Streptomyces. Here, we co-cultured 44 strains of red soil-derived streptomycetes with four MACB of different species in a pairwise manner and analyzed the secondary metabolites. The results revealed that each of the MACB strains induced changes in the metabolite profiles of 35-40 streptomycetes tested, of which 12-14 streptomycetes produced "new" metabolites that were not detected in the pure cultures. Moreover, some of the co-cultures showed additional or enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to the pure cultures, indicating that co-culture may activate the production of bioactive compounds. From the co-culture-induced metabolites, we identified 49 putative new compounds. Taking the co-culture of Streptomyces sp. FXJ1.264 and Mycobacterium sp. HX09-1 as a case, we further explored the underlying mechanism of co-culture activation and found that it most likely relied on direct physical contact between the two living bacteria. Overall, our results verify co-culture with MACB as an effective approach to discover novel natural products from red soil-derived streptomycetes.

16.
Clin Chim Acta ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) refers to a group of lysosomal storage disorders for which seven types and 11 subtypes are currently recognized. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) offers an important method of disease typing, diagnosis, prenatal diagnosis, and treatment. METHODS: Gene variations in 48 Chinese MPS patients were evaluated using NGS, and the pathogenicity of the DNA alterations was evaluated using PolyPhen2, SIFT, and Mutation Taster. The effect of amino acid substitution on protein structure was also assessed. RESULTS: Four pedigrees with MPS I (8.3%), 28 with MPS II (58.3%), two with MPS IIIA (4.2%), two with MPS IIIB (4.2%), six with MPS IVA (12.5%), one with MPS IVB (2.1%), and five with MPS VI (10.4%) were identified. Of the 69 variations identified, 11 were novel variants (three in IDUA, five in IDS, and three in GALNS), all of which were predicted to be disease-causing except for one, and were associated with impaired protein structure and function. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted NGS technology is effective for the gene-based testing of MPS disorders, which show high allelic heterogeneity. MPS II was the predominant form in Chinese. Our study expands the existing variation spectrum of MPS, which is important for disease management and genetic counseling.

17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 494-502, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768071

RESUMO

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique with the potential to enable the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) brain biomarkers in an affordable and portable manner. Consistent with biological models of PTSD, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fNIRS studies of adults with trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms suggest increased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC) in response to negative emotion stimuli. We tested this theory with fNIRS assessment among youth exposed to traumatic stress and experiencing PTSD symptoms (PTSS). A portable fNIRS system collected hemodynamic responses from (N = 57) youth with PTSS when engaging in a classic emotion expression task that included fearful and neutral faces stimuli. The General Linear Model was applied to identify cortical activations associated with the facial stimuli. Subsequently, a prediction model was established via a Support Vector Regression to determine whether PTSS severity could be predicted based on fNIRS-derived cortical response measures and individual demographic information. Results were consistent with findings from adult fMRI and fNIRS studies of PTSS showing increased activation in the dlPFC and vlPFC in response to negative emotion stimuli. Subsequent prediction analysis revealed ten features (i.e., cortical responses from eight frontocortical fNIRS channels, age and sex) strongly correlated with PTSS severity (r = 0.65, p < .001). Our findings suggest the potential utility of fNIRS as a portable tool for the detection of putative PTSS brain biomarkers.

18.
Microorganisms ; 9(11)2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835488

RESUMO

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common zoonotic pathogen that causes acute infectious diarrhea. Probiotics like Bifidobacterium are known to help prevent pathogen infections. The protective effects of Bifidobacterium are closely associated with its secretory products exopolysaccharides (EPS). We explored the effects of the EPS from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) on ameliorating the damage of an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) during EPEC infection. Pretreatment with EPS alleviated EPEC-induced apoptosis through the restoration of cell morphology and the downregulation of protein expressions of cleaved-caspase 8, cleaved-caspase 3, and cleaved-PARP. EPS-mediated remission of apoptosis significantly improved cell viability during EPEC infection. EPEC infection also resulted in impaired autophagy, as demonstrated by decreased expressions of autophagy-related proteins Beclin 1, ATG5, and microtubule-binding protein light chain-3B (LC3B) and the increased expression of p62 through western blot analysis. However, EPS reversed these effects which indicated that EPS promoted autophagosome formation. Furthermore, EPS prevented the lysosome damage induced by EPEC as it enhanced lysosomal acidification and raised lysosome-associated protein levels, thus promoted autophagosome degradation. Our findings suggest that the amelioration of EPEC-induced cell damages by EPS is associated with the limitation of detrimental apoptosis and the promotion of autophagy flux.

19.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(11)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829180

RESUMO

Phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU, rpb2, tub2 and ITS sequence data of representative Xylariales taxa indicated that Diabolocovidia, Didymobotryum and Vamsapriya cluster together and form a distinct clade in Xylariales. Morphological comparison also shows their distinctiveness from other families of Xylariales. Therefore, we introduce it as a novel family, Vamsapriyaceae. Based on morphological characteristics, Podosporium and Tretophragmia, which were previously classified in Ascomycota genera incertae sedis, are now included in the Vamsapriyaceae. In addition, three Vamsapriya species, V. chiangmaiensis sp. nov, V. uniseptata sp. nov, and V. indica are described and illustrated in this paper.

20.
Clin Epidemiol ; 13: 883-892, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616183

RESUMO

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) management strategies, involving treatment and post-care, are much more difficult for patients with dementia. This study investigated the factors influencing the use of invasive procedures and long-term care in the management strategies for AMI patients with dementia and the factors associated with these patients' survival. Methods: This multilevel study combined information from two databases, namely later-stage elderly healthcare insurance and long-term care insurance claims, from 2013 to 2019. Of 214,963 individuals with dementia, we identified 13,593 patients with AMI. The primary outcomes were the use of invasive procedures for treatment and long-term care for post-care management. Survival outcomes were also measured over a 6-year period, adjusting for individual- and regional-level characteristics in multilevel models. Results: A total of 1954 (14.38%) individuals received an invasive procedure during treatment, and 7850 (87.18%) used long-term care for post-care management after AMI. After multivariate adjustment, patients aged ≥ 85 years and women were less likely to receive invasive procedures and more likely to use long-term care. Patients undergoing invasive procedures had a lower use of long-term care. Better survival outcome was significantly associated with invasive management and long-term care, regardless of the type of care. Conclusion: Age and sex determine the use of invasive procedures and long-term care after AMI among patients with dementia. AMI patients with dementia receiving invasive procedures and long-term care had better survival outcomes.

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