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1.
Meat Sci ; 160: 107968, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675517

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different forms of canola oil (pure liquid form or a pre-emulsified form that includes porcine plasma protein hydrolysates modified by oxidized tannic acid) used for pork back-fat substitutions on the physico-chemical characteristics of frankfurters. When compared to the control group, partial replacement of pork back-fat using a pre-emulsified canola oil system exhibited excellent water and fat binding capacities, quicker relaxation times and lower amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) (P < .05), as well as increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (P < .05) when verified by dynamic rheology analysis. Additionally, higher replacement ratio of pre-emulsified canola oil did significantly decrease the overall acceptability than the control group (P < .05). Our results indicate that pre-emulsified canola oil provided greater improvement with respect to the physical characteristics of partial pork back-fat replaced frankfurters, when compared to pure canola oil inclusion.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109310, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710895

RESUMO

Currently, there is no effective method to prevent renal interstitial fibrosis after acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we established and screened a new renal interstitial fibrosis rat model after cisplatin-induced AKI. Our results indicated that rats injected with 4 mg/kg cisplatin once a week for two weeks after firstly administrated with 6.5 mg/kg loading dose of cisplatin could set up a more accurate model reflecting AKI progression to renal interstitial fibrosis. Then, we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCBMNCs) on renal tubular interstitial fibrosis after cisplatin-induced AKI. In rats injected with hUCBMNCs for four times, level of matrix metalloproteinase 7(MMP-7)in serum and urine, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, tubular pathological scores, the relative collagen area of the tubulointerstitial region, endoplasmic reticulum dilation and the mitochondrial ultrastructural damage were significantly improved. The level of reactive oxygen species, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), [NOD]-like pyrin domain containing protein 3 and cleaved-Caspase 3 in renal tissue decreased significantly. However, in rats injected with hUCBMNCs for two times, no significant difference was discovered in MMP-7 levels and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Although expression of α-SMA and the percentage areas of collagen staining in tubulointerstitial tissues were ameliorated in rats injected with hUCBMNCs for two times, the effects were significantly weaker than those in rats injected with hUCBMNCs for four times. Taken together, our study constructed a highly efficient, duplicable novel rat model of renal fibrosis after cisplatin-induced AKI. Multiple injections of hUCBMNCs may prevent renal interstitial fibrosis after cisplatin-induced AKI.

3.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104588, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dental occlusion are frequently changed in clinic. Molecular responses in jaw muscles to aberrant dental occlusion are changes are attractive, yet remain are obscure. DESIGN: Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) prostheses were applied to Sprague-Dawley rats and then ceased after two weeks to detect the reactions of the masseter, a representative jaw elevator, and the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM), a representative jaw depressor. RESULTS: Two weeks of UAC elicited mild injury of the two muscles. Myogenesis and protective reactions were detected as increases in αB-crystallin expression in the masseter after 3 days and in the LPM after 2 weeks, and increases in desmin expression in both muscles after 2 weeks. A switch in fibre types from IIb to IIx occurred in the LPM but not in the masseter. Inflammatory responses, shown by the infiltration of inflammatory cells and increases in TNF-α mRNA expression, and fibrosis responses, shown by increased mRNA expression of Type I and III collagens, appeared very mild in the two muscles. These responses were partially recovered by the cessation of UAC. During the whole process, no obvious changes were observed in mitochondrial function, as indicated by the levels of proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, mitofusin-2 and voltage-dependent anion channel. CONCLUSIONS: UAC causes injury and very limited inflammatory and fibrosis adaption in the masseter and LPM. Both muscles respond with myogenesis and protective activity. The LPM responds also with muscle fibre isoform alternations. These alterations were partially recovered by the cessation of dental stimulation at an early stage.

4.
Lung Cancer ; 139: 133-139, 2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring non-resistant uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have stepped into the era of targeted therapy. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of acquired T790M mutation and their outcome to subsequent osimertinib in patients of advanced NSCLC harboring uncommon EGFR mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with EGFR mutation and performed re-biopsy after progression on prior EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were reviewed and analyzed. Those with T790M mutation and received subsequent osimertinib treatment were further collected for survival analysis. RESULTS: Finally, 754 patients, including 48 with uncommon mutation, 362 with 19del and 344 with L858R were enrolled. T790M mutation was identified in 341 patients (341/754, 45.2 %). The incidence of T790M mutation was 27.1 % in patients harboring uncommon mutations, significantly lower than 55.2 % and 37.2 % of 19del and L858R (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis further found uncommon mutation associated with significantly lower probability of developing T790M (odds ratio [OR] = 0.32, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.64). Among 236 patients received subsequent osimertinib treatment (including 12 uncommon mutation, 145 19del and 79 L858R), patients harboring uncommon mutations showed significantly shorter progression free survival (PFS) (median: 4.6 vs. 11.6 vs. 12.1 months, p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (median: 8.1 vs. 35.4 vs. 24.9 months, p = 0.001) compared with 19del and L858R, also associated with numerically lower objective response rate (ORR) (p = 0.085) and lower disease control rate (DCR) (p = 0.074). Multivariate analysis further found that uncommon mutation was the only one significantly associated with both PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.44, 95 %CI 1.79-6.58) and OS (HR = 3.64, 95 %CI 1.66-7.99). CONCLUSIONS: Uncommon EGFR mutation showed a significantly lower incidence of acquired T790M mutation and benefited significantly less from subsequent osimertinib treatment than common EGFR mutations in patients with advanced NSCLC.

5.
Future Oncol ; 15(36): 4181-4195, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789057

RESUMO

Aim: We mainly explored the effect of SOX2, ß-catenin and survivin on prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Materials & methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of SOX2, ß-catenin and survivin. χ2 test was used to analyze the relationship between proteins and clinicopathological parameters. Survival analysis was used to investigate the effect of three proteins on prognosis. Results: SOX2 was related to lymph node metastasis (p = 0.004) and vascular invasion (p = 0.041). ß-catenin was associated with depth of invasion (p = 0.014), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.032) and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.001). Survivin was related to gender (p = 0.022) and nerve invasion (p = 0.014). There was a positive correlation between SOX2 and ß-catenin. Patients with SOX2 and ß-catenin overexpression had poor prognosis. Survivin-positive patients who received postoperative chemoradiotherapy had a short time. Conclusion: SOX2, ß-catenin and survivin can be used as prognostic markers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797005

RESUMO

Lipopeptides are important non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) products with broad therapeutic potential in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical applications. Fatty acyl modifications in N-terminal of lipopeptides have attracted wide interest in the engineering processes of altered fatty acyl selectivity. In this study, we focused on the starter condensation domain of antibiotic A54145 (lptC1) and its indiscriminate selectivity of fatty acyl substrates, which results in multi-component products. Using in silico analysis, five site-directed mutations at protein-protein interface were identified with altered activity and selectivity towards wild type lptC1. The variants Y149W and A330T exhibited changed substrate selectivity to prefer longer branched chain fatty acyl substrate, while T16A and A350D showed improved selectivity for shorter linear chain fatty acyl substrates. Subsequently, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to analyze the impact of these residues on the changes of catalytic activity and conformation. Through in silico analysis, the altered binding free energy were coincident with the corresponding activity performance of the variants, and surface forces indicated that other factors or processes may influence the activity and selectivity. Moreover, the MD results revealed even altered active center conformations, implying the importance of these interface residues affected on distant active center thus reflected to catalysis activity. Based on the biochemistry and computational results, our work provides detailed insights from molecular and dynamics aspects into the role of C1's interface residues during complex NRPS biosynthesis machinery, prompting further rational engineering for lipopeptide catalysis.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e1903882, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797456

RESUMO

In recent times, fused aromatic diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based functional semiconductors have attracted considerable attention in the developing field of organic electronics. Over the past few years, DPP-based semiconductors have demonstrated remarkable improvements in the performance of both organic field-effect transistor (OFET) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices due to the favorable features of the DPP unit, such as excellent planarity and better electron-withdrawing ability. Driven by this success, DPP-based materials are now being exploited in various other electronic devices including complementary circuits, memory devices, chemical sensors, photodetectors, perovskite solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and more. Recent developments in the use of DPP-based materials for a wide range of electronic devices are summarized, focusing on OFET, OPV, and newly developed devices with a discussion of device performance in terms of molecular engineering. Useful guidance for the design of future DPP-based materials and the exploration of more advanced applications is provided.

8.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797760

RESUMO

Pyrola (Pyrolaceae), also known as Luxiancao/in China, was recorded in Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic listed in top grade. Pyrola herbs were used as medicinal plants for a long history with wide-ranging activities of nourishing kidney-yang, strengthening muscles and bones, activating blood, stopping bleeding, dispelling rheumatism, eliminating dampness. Currently, the research on Pyrola plants is increasing year by year but there is no comprehensive and detailed review concerning genus Pyrola. This review aims to sum up updated and comprehensive information about botany and traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and safety by analyzing the information available on Pyrola plants via internationally accepted scientific databases. Collectively, more than 100 compounds have been isolated from the Pyrola plants. What's more, a total of 33 prescriptions containing Pyrola plants are compiled in this review. Pyrola plants are used as indispensable agents in traditional Chinese medicine due to its activities of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, lipid-lowering, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection, proliferation of osteoblasts promoting, antineoplastic and etc. Further work should be developed on the elucidation of structure-function relationship, understanding of multi-target pharmacological effects, as well as developing its application both in clinical usage and functional food for research and development of Pyrola plants.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786299

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to fabricate and characterize food-grade pea protein isolate (PPI) and carbohydrate polymer pullulan (PUL) nanofiber films by using green electrospinning technology. The effect of the blend ratios on the PPI/PUL solution properties (e.g. viscosity, surface tension and electrical conductivity) and morphology of the resulting electrospun nanofibers was investigated. The presence of PUL in the blends resulted in decreased apparent viscosity (P < 0.05), stable surface tension (42.09-46.26 mN/m) (P < 0.05) and lower conductivity of the solutions (P < 0.05), which were due to a better chain entanglement and decrease in the polyelectrolyte protein character, respectively, both factors were needed for uniform nanofiber (around 203 nm) formation. Rheological evaluation indicated a pseudoplastic behavior for all formulations. The Fourier transform infrared spectral changes and XRD patterns indicated that the protein and polysaccharide were well tangled in nanofibers. The results of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicate that thermal stability of the electrospun nanofiber films were improved in comparison to pure PUL. Finally, in order to expand the application range of the electrospun nanofiber films in future, thermal crosslinking method was conducted and water contact angles (WCAs) of the thermal treated nanofiber films exhibited better hydrophobic properties compared to the un-crosslinking samples.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the risk factors and prognostic factors related to the acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) occurrence and adverse outcome after withdrawal of nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: Hospitalized CHB patients with relapse after NAs withdrawal at our medical center were retrospectively included in the present study from January 2011 to May 2018. Logistic regression, Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier log-rank test, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were used. RESULTS: A total of 389 CHB patients (including 46 ACLF patients) were included. Their median age was 48.0 years; 315 patients were male and 74 were female. The age ≥30 years and HBVDNA ≤1000 copies at admission in logistic regression were the independent risk factors for ACLF after NAs withdrawal in CHB patients. In patients who developed ACLF, only the model of end-stage liver disease combining serum natrium concentration (MELD-Na) score and relapse after Lamivudine (LAM) cessation in the Cox multivariate regression analysis were independent predictors for 12-week mortality. The artificial liver support system (ALSS) showed no improvement in the 12-week survival of ACLF patients. We further defined 22.35 as the optimal cutoff value of MELD-Na score to predict 12-week mortality for ACLF patients, with the AUROC of 0.817, a sensitivity of 76.5%, and a specificity of 75.9%. CONCLUSION: The age ≥30 years and HBVDNA ≤1000 copies at admission strongly correlate with occurrence of ACLF, and higher MELD-Na score and relapse after LAM withdrawal are closely related with 12-week mortality among patients with ACLF after NAs withdrawal.

11.
Int J Legal Med ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802193

RESUMO

Custodial deaths refer to the death of an individual who is in prison, a detention center, or a police station. The present study aims to retrospectively analyze cases of custodial deaths examined at Tongji Medico Legal Expertise Center in Hubei (TMECH). A total of 172 out of 5853 cases were screened at TMECH from January 1999 to December 2016. Male preponderance was observed in 172 cases (male-female ratio: 5:1). Natural deaths accounted for the majority (70.93%), followed by suicide (16.28%), accidents (3.49%), homicides (4.65%), and undetermined causes (4.65%). The most common natural cause was cardiovascular disease. Custodial deaths occurred more frequently in prisons and detention houses than in police cells (63%, 63%, and 46%, respectively). Among the 172 cases, 105 deaths occurred after resuscitation failure despite the individual being sent to the hospital. The average age across cases was 36.3 years, and 90% of the deceased were aged under 50 years. Since there is no officially reported data regarding the prevalence of causes and manners of custodial deaths in China, our analysis contributes to enhancing the understanding of such deaths in central China and serves as a reference for law enforcement to develop a prevention program to reduce incidents of mortality in custody.

12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify main protease genes for the proteolytic degradation of cellulases in M. thermophila and generate a lower-proteases fungal host that can be used for further metabolic engineering to increase cellulase production and heterologous protein expression. RESULTS: Systematic transcriptomic analysis were conducted on the expression of proteases genes in M. thermophila genome and five highly expressed genes encoding extracellular proteases were selected for mutation analyses. A series of single- and multi-gene mutants of these five selected genes was constructed using the CRISPR-Cas9 technique. Compared with WT, the ΔMtalp1 and the quintuple mutant showed significantly lower protease activity (decreased 52.7% and 58.4%, respectively) and at least double enhanced cellulase production. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that Mtalp1 is a critical protease gene in cellulase degradation in M. thermophila and disruption of protease genes showed significantly decreased protease activity and obviously enhanced cellulase production in the fermentation broth of ΔMtalp1 and the quintuple mutant.

14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1182: 201-215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777020

RESUMO

As extracts from Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Lingzhi) have been reported to be an alternative adjuvant treatment for diabetes, numerous of work have been carried out on it. Among the many biologically active constituents of Ganoderma, polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins, and triterpenoids have been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. Based on our research and other references, this article discusses the antidiabetic effect of Ganoderma mediated by protecting pancreas islet; inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, a promising therapeutic target of diabetes; decreasing lymphocyte infiltration; and increasing the antibody detection of insulin in diabetic mice. This review summarizes researches about the hypoglycemic action effects of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins, and triterpenoids from Ganoderma as a guide for future research on diabetes and its complications. In addition, clinical studies with diabetic indexes are reviewed.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Animais , Camundongos
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; : 110931, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678486

RESUMO

This study evaluated the heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) contents and quality characteristics of seven kinds of traditional smoked and roasted poultry products on the northern Chinese market. Harbin smoked chicken had the most abundant total HAAs, followed by Haroulian roasted chicken and Yishou smoked chicken. The contents of Norharman and Harman were much higher than those of other kinds of HAAs (P < 0.05). The water content of samples varied from 59.01% to 69.98% and the water activity varied from 0.953 to 0.976. The carbonyl content and TBARS values of the Beijing roasted duck and the Duiqing roasted goose were much higher than those of the other samples (P < 0.05). The sensory evaluation result of the Beijing roasted chicken was higher than that of the other samples (P < 0.05). Overall, the levels of HAAs in the industrial smoked and roasted products were lower than those in non-industrial products, which may provide a theoretical basis for the industrial production of smoked and roasted poultry products.

16.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711232

RESUMO

Glaucocalyxin A, a novel potent negative Akt regulator, is a major active constituent of Rabdosia japonica. A simple, specific and sensitive ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of glaucocalyxin A in rat plasma, lung and brain tissues after intravenous administration. Sample preparation was carried out through a simple liqiud-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate using bullatine A as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (3.0 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 µm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid in a gradient elution. Mass spectrometry analysis was conducted in positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring transitions at m/z 333.2 â†’ 157.1 for glaucocalyxin A and m/z 344.2 â†’ 128.1 for IS. Calibration curves were linear over the ranges of 20.0-4000 ng/mL for both plasma and tissue samples (r2 > 0.99). The Lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.284 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision relative standard deviation (RSD%) were <14.9%, while the accuracy ranged from -12.5 to 17.0% for LLOQ and quality control samples. This UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics, lung and brain tissue distributions of glaucocalyxin A after intravenous administration.

17.
Hum Genet ; 138(11-12): 1301-1311, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686214

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency of FOXF1 causes alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV), a lethal neonatal lung developmental disorder. We describe two similar heterozygous CNV deletions involving the FOXF1 enhancer and re-analyze FOXF1 missense mutation, all associated with an unexpectedly mitigated disease phenotype. In one case, the deletion of the maternal allele of the FOXF1 enhancer caused pulmonary hypertension and histopathologically diagnosed MPV without the typical ACD features. In the second case, the deletion of the paternal enhancer resulted in ACDMPV rather than the expected neonatal lethality. In both cases, FOXF1 expression in lung tissue was higher than usually seen or expected in patients with similar deletions, suggesting an increased activity of the remaining allele of the enhancer. Sequencing of these alleles revealed two rare SNVs, rs150502618-A and rs79301423-T, mapping to the partially overlapping binding sites for TFAP2s and CTCF in the core region of the enhancer. Moreover, in a family with three histopathologically-diagnosed ACDMPV siblings whose missense FOXF1 mutation was inherited from the healthy non-mosaic carrier mother, we have identified a rare SNV rs28571077-A within 2-kb of the above-mentioned non-coding SNVs in the FOXF1 enhancer in the mother, that was absent in the affected newborns and 13 unrelated ACDMPV patients with CNV deletions of this genomic region. Based on the low population frequencies of these three variants, their absence in ACDMPV patients, the results of reporter assay, RNAi and EMSA experiments, and in silico predictions, we propose that the described SNVs might have acted on FOXF1 enhancer as hypermorphs.

18.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(5): 390-398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666475

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common in tuberculosis (TB) and may be implicated in the etiology of the disease and in its clinical course. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leptin, inflammatory markers and VD status in TB patients, stratified for presence or absence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Two hundred ninety-nine TB patients were recruited from October 2015 to August 2016. Also, 91 normal controls were included. The information including socio-demographics, dietary intake and living habits was obtained by face-to-face interview. Serum concentrations of leptin and TNF-α, CRP and IL-6 were compared between TB patients with and without severe VDD (SVDD). Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the association between TNF-α, leptin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). A significantly higher prevalence of VDD and SVDD was observed in TB patients compared with normal controls (93.0% vs 70.3%, 65.9% vs 3.3% respectively). Concentration of leptin was significantly lower, while TNF-α higher in TB patients with SVDD compared to those without (p<0.05). After adjustment for confounders, leptin was positively associated with 25(OH)D (r=0.210, p=0.002) with similar correlation in TB patients with DM (r=0.240, p=0.020). A negative association between TNF-α and 25(OH)D was observed (r=-0.197, p=0.003), which was significant only in the subgroup without DM (r=-0.304, p=0.001). Our findings indicate that a higher VD status in TB patients may be related to higher immune activity and less serious tissue damage, and that this relation is different according to presence or absence of DM co-morbidity.

20.
Neurochem Int ; : 104610, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778727

RESUMO

Our previous data indicated that tanshinone IIA (tan IIA) improves learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced by streptozotocin via restoring cholinergic function, attenuating oxidative stress and blocking p38 MAPK signal pathway activation. This study aims to estimate whether tan IIA inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis to prevent cognitive decline in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Tan IIA (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to the six-month-old APP/PS1 mice for 30 consecutive days. ß-amyloid (Aß) plaques were measured by immunohistochemisty and Thioflavin S staining, apoptotic cells were observed by TUNEL, ER stress markers and apoptosis signaling proteins were investigated by western blotting and RT-PCR. Our results showed that tan IIA significantly ameliorates cognitive deficits and improves spatial learning ability of APP/PS1 mice in the nest-building test, novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test. Furthermore, tan IIA significantly reduced the deposition of Aß plaques and neuronal apoptosis, and markedly prevented abnormal expression of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), as well as suppressed the activation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways in the parietal cortex and hippocampus. Moreover, tan IIA induced an up-regulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and down-regulation of caspase-3 protein activity. Taken together, the above findings indicated that tan IIA improves learning and memory through attenuating Aß plaques deposition and inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that tan IIA might become a promising therapeutic candidate drug against AD.

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