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1.
J Cell Biol ; 221(1)2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747980

RESUMO

Mitochondria and peroxisomes are independent but functionally closely related organelles. A few proteins have been characterized as dual-organelle locating proteins with distinct or similar roles on mitochondria and peroxisomes. MARCH5 is a mitochondria-associated ubiquitin ligase best known for its regulatory role in mitochondria quality control, fission, and fusion. Here, we used a proximity tagging system, PUP-IT, and identified new interacting proteins of MARCH5. Our data uncover that MARCH5 is a dual-organelle locating protein that interacts with several peroxisomal proteins. PEX19 binds the transmembrane region on MARCH5 and targets it to peroxisomes. On peroxisomes, MARCH5 binds and mediates the ubiquitination of PMP70. Furthermore, we find PMP70 ubiquitination and pexophagy induced by mTOR inhibition are blocked in the absence of MARCH5. Our study suggests novel roles of MARCH5 on peroxisomes.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150326, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543795

RESUMO

This study investigated the degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on zerovalent iron-laden biochar (BC-ZVI) prepared by carbothermal reduction. Results show that over 99% PFOA can be removed by BC-ZVI in hydrothermal conditions under 240 °C within 6 h. The maximum defluorination rate of 63.2% was achieved after 192 h, and this outcome was significantly better than biochar (BC) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) alone. The short-chain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and perfluoroheptanal were detected in the liquid phase after degradation, suggesting that the degradation of PFOAs by BC-ZVI followed the Kobel decarboxylation process. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses strongly suggested that carbothermal reduction could avoid the agglomeration of ZVI loaded onto biochar, which helped make the PFOA degradation more efficient. The frontier molecular orbital theory calculated by density functional theory revealed there were two possibilities for ZVI loading on BC (edged or internal loading), while the edge loaded ZVI had a greater tendency to provide electrons for the defluorination of PFOA than internally loaded ZVI.


Assuntos
Ferro , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Caprilatos , Carvão Vegetal , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727357

RESUMO

China is undergoing great social changes, and its demographic makeup is shifting every year along with those changes. China released key indicators from the seventh national population census on 12 May 2021. The total population of China's mainland increased to 1.41178 billion in 2020 from 1.33972 billion in 2010 (sixth national population census) with an average annual growth rate of 0.53%. In the past 10 years, the share of the population aged above 60 and 65 years increased by 5.44% (from 13.26% in 2010 to 18.70% in 2020) and 4.6% (from 8.9 to 13.5%), respectively. The share of the population with a college education or above rose from 8.93% in 2010 to 15.47% in 2020, and the illiteracy rate dropped from 4.08% in 2010 to 2.67% in 2020. In the next decade, China is likely to face many changes, including the increasing proportion of older adults in the population, declining births, and economic transformation. In an effort to respond to the changed demographic landscape, the authorities should adopt new laws and strategies to improve government services for older adults and consider ways to support women and families and make childbearing more attractive to and feasible for women.

4.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 278, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) is listed as the most common secondary glomerular diseases among children. Approximately 15 to 20% of children eventually could develop into chronic renal failure. Chinese patent herbal medicine Huaiqihuang (HQH) has been widely used in children with HSPN. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of HQH for HSPN in children, so as to provide evidence for clinical use. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HQH for HSPN in children were searched in eight Chinese and English databases from their inception to December 2020. We included children with HSPN received HQH combined with conventional medicine. Cochrane "Risk of bias" tool was used to assess methodological quality, and "Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach" to summarize the certainty of evidence for main findings. Effect estimates were presented as risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in meta-analyses using RevMan 5.3. Data not suitable for statistical pooling were synthesized qualitatively. RESULTS: In total seven RCTs were identified. Compared with conventional medicine alone, HQH plus conventional medicine showed the better effect in improving clinical cure rate (RR 1.58; 95%CI 1.17 to 2.14; n = 6) and total effective rate (RR 1.34; 1.16 to 1.54; n = 6); reducing urine sediment erythrocyte count (MD -9.23; - 10.76 to - 7.69; n = 3) and urine ß2 micro-globulin level (MD -0.09; - 0.12 to - 0.06; n = 2). No serious adverse event was recorded in all included trials. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence showed HQH combined with conventional medicine had a beneficial effect for children with HSPN, and the side effects were mild. HQH may be a promising complementary therapy. However, long term follow-up, high quality and multicenter RCTs are required to confirm the findings.

5.
Cent Eur J Immunol ; 46(2): 191-198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764787

RESUMO

Introduction: Adult immunoglobulin A vasculitis nephritis (IgAVN) was observed to be more severe than the disease in children because it tended to result in a poor prognosis. The present study analyzed the Th17/Treg cell axis in peripheral blood of adult IgAVN patients, aiming to provide new immunological viewpoints for the pathogenesis of adult IgAVN. Material and methods: Th17 cell and Treg cell frequencies in peripheral blood of healthy subjects (n = 13) and adult IgAVN patients (n = 12) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Foxp3 mRNA in peripheral blood of healthy subjects and adult IgAVN patients was detected by RT-PCR. Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-10 in peripheral blood serum of healthy subjects and adult IgAVN patients were examined by ELISA. Results: The percentages of CD4+ Th17+ cells in peripheral blood of healthy subjects and adult IgAVN patients were 2.65 ±1.55% and 4.37 ±1.68% respectively. The percentages of Treg cells in peripheral blood of healthy subjects and adult IgAVN patients were 6.44 ±2.90% and 3.91 ±1.94% respectively. The ratio of Th17/Treg in adult IgAVN patients was significantly higher than that of healthy subjects (p = 0.0030). Meanwhile, the Foxp3 mRNA expression of adult IgAVN patients was significantly lower than that of healthy subjects. There was a significant difference in the ratio of IL-17/IL-10 between healthy subjects and adult IgAVN patients (p < 0.0001). A significant correlation between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the ratio of Th17/Treg in adult IgAVN patients was observed in Spearman correlation analysis (r = 0.6970, p = 0.0145). Conclusions: Imbalanced Th17/Treg contributed to the complex pathogenesis of adult IgAVN.

6.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 7613-7623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754232

RESUMO

Background: Lipase member H (LIPH), a novel member of the mammalian triglyceride lipase family, is localized on human chromosome 3q27-q28. Exploration of the importance of the new cancer-related gene LIPH in several carcinomas has been reported in previous studies. Our study aims to systematically assess the expression pattern of LIPH in breast cancer. Methods: Our study explored 2994 breast cancer samples with transcriptome data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) datasets. We systematically evaluated the mRNA expression of LIPH in breast cancer and the overall survival (OS) of patients. The protein expression of LIPH in breast cancer was evaluated with the Human Protein Atlas. We also explored the relationship between LIPH and the immune microenvironment in pan-cancer. Results: Both mRNA and protein expression LIPH were found to be upregulated in breast cancer tumors. The overall survival rate of patients with high LIPH expression was lower than those of patients with low LIPH expression in both the TCGA dataset (p=0.0067) and METABRIC dataset (p<0.0001). Outcomes of the multivariate analysis found that the level of LIPH expression was an independent prognostic factor in both TCGA (p=0.001) and METABRIC (p=0.019) databases. The outcomes of the univariate analysis showed that LIPH was an important prognostic factor (p=0.01 in TCGA dataset, p=0.001 in METABRIC dataset). In the TCGA dataset, outcomes showed that LIPH expression was negatively correlated with the AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) stage (p=2.3e-05) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tissues (p=3.1e-10). High LIPH expression showed lower OS in the TNBC subtype (P=0.011). Conclusion: Compared to normal tissues, the expression of LIPH was higher in breast cancer tissues in both mRNA and protein levels. This study showed that the high level of LIPH expression might be related to the worse prognosis of breast cancer.

7.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 1904-1909, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737452

RESUMO

Blockade of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 pathway has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer (ABC). We report the interim results of DAWNA-1 ( NCT03927456 ), a double-blind, randomized, phase 3 trial of dalpiciclib (a new cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor) plus fulvestrant in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative ABC with disease progression after endocrine therapy. A total of 361 patients were randomized 2:1 to receive dalpiciclib plus fulvestrant or placebo plus fulvestrant. The study met the primary end point, showing significantly prolonged investigator-assessed progression-free survival with dalpiciclib plus fulvestrant versus placebo plus fulvestrant (median = 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 11.1-not reached versus 7.2, 95% CI = 5.6-9.2 months; hazard ratio = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.31-0.58; one-sided P < 0.0001 (boundary was P ≤ 0.008)). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events with dalpiciclib plus fulvestrant were neutropenia (84.2%) and leukopenia (62.1%). The incidence of serious adverse events was 5.8% with dalpiciclib plus fulvestrant versus 6.7% with placebo plus fulvestrant. Our findings support dalpiciclib plus fulvestrant as a new treatment option for pretreated hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative ABC.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(46): e27912, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It's known that coronary heart disease (CHD) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was significantly associated with anxiety and depression symptoms. Several studies have showed that Xinkeshu tablet (XKS), a kind of Chinese herbal medicine, could effectively improve post-PCI postoperative mood disorders in CHD patients. However, the intensity of evidence has been poor, limiting the further clinical application of XKS to patients above. This systematic review and meta-analysis will assess the effectiveness and safety of studies of XKS in CHD patients with anxiety and depression symptoms after PCI. METHODS: A systematic literature search for articles up to December 2021 will be performed in following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journals Database Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System, and Wanfang Database. Inclusion criteria are randomized controlled trials of XKS applied on patients with CHD and depression. The primary outcome measures will be CHD-related clinical evaluation (frequency of acute attack angina, severity of angina pectoris, electrocardiographic changes, amount of nitroglycerin) and the scores or reducing fractions of depressive and anxiety measuring scales (the Hospital Anxiety/Depression Scale or other widely used anxiety/depression scale). The safety outcome measures will be adverse events, liver and kidney function. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for data synthesis, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, and risk of bias assessment. A funnel plot will be developed to evaluate reporting bias. Stata 12.0 will be used for meta-regression and Egger tests. We will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system to assess the quality of evidence. DISCUSSION: This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of the effects and safety of XKS for CHD patients with anxiety and depression symptoms after PCI. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review does not require ethics approval and will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42019131346.

10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 638237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804910

RESUMO

Giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) is an extremely rare tumor that is similar in morphology and immunohistochemistry to giant cell tumor of the bone. Almost 80% of these tumors occur in the upper and lower extremities, and the breast is a very rare location. Here, we report a case of a 65-year-old female patient with a small mobile palpable lump in the left breast. Although the left breast tumor was considered malignant on preoperative imaging, no evidence of malignant tumor was found by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB). Subsequently, the left breast tumor was confirmed as a malignant tumor by intraoperative rapid pathological examination. The initial treatment of the tumor was wide local excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy, and it was confirmed to be GCT-ST by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Despite surgical treatment achieving clear surgical margins, the patient experienced lung metastases within a year of her initial treatment. Fortunately, the patient underwent surgical treatment of lung metastases, and at the last follow-up, the patient was still alive. This is the first case of a primary soft tissue tumor of the breast that has undergone surgical intervention after lung metastasis. This case report highlights the complexity of the clinical diagnosis and treatment of GCT-ST arising from the breast. Surgery may be another good treatment when the patient develops lung metastases.

11.
Nanomedicine ; : 102477, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740868

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance is a key imaging tool for the detection of prostate cancer; however, better tools focusing on cancer specificity are required to distinguish benign from cancerous regions. We found higher expression of claudin-3 (CLDN-3) and -4 (CLDN-4) in higher grade than lower-grade human prostate cancer biopsies (n = 174), leading to the design of functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) with a non-toxic truncated version of the natural ligand clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) that has a strong binding affinity to Cldn-3 and Cldn-4 receptors. We developed a first-of-its-type, C-CPE-NP-based MRI detection tool in a prostate tumor-bearing mouse model. NPs with an average diameter of 152.9 ±â€¯15.7 nm (RS1) had a 2-fold enhancement of tumor specificity compared to larger (421.2 ±â€¯33.8 nm) NPs (RS4). There was a 1.8-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.6-fold (P < 0.01) upregulation of the tumor-to-liver signal intensities of C-RS1 and C-RS4 (functionalized NPs) to controls, respectively. Also, tumor specificity was 3.1-fold higher (P < 0.001) when comparing C-RS1 to C-RS4. This detection tool improved tumor localization of contrast-enhanced MRI, supporting potential clinical applicability.

12.
Light Sci Appl ; 10(1): 235, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811345

RESUMO

The growing maturity of nanofabrication has ushered massive sophisticated optical structures available on a photonic chip. The integration of subwavelength-structured metasurfaces and metamaterials on the canonical building block of optical waveguides is gradually reshaping the landscape of photonic integrated circuits, giving rise to numerous meta-waveguides with unprecedented strength in controlling guided electromagnetic waves. Here, we review recent advances in meta-structured waveguides that synergize various functional subwavelength photonic architectures with diverse waveguide platforms, such as dielectric or plasmonic waveguides and optical fibers. Foundational results and representative applications are comprehensively summarized. Brief physical models with explicit design tutorials, either physical intuition-based design methods or computer algorithms-based inverse designs, are cataloged as well. We highlight how meta-optics can infuse new degrees of freedom to waveguide-based devices and systems, by enhancing light-matter interaction strength to drastically boost device performance, or offering a versatile designer media for manipulating light in nanoscale to enable novel functionalities. We further discuss current challenges and outline emerging opportunities of this vibrant field for various applications in photonic integrated circuits, biomedical sensing, artificial intelligence and beyond.

13.
Opt Express ; 29(21): 34302-34313, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809224

RESUMO

Energy transfer is an essential light-matter interaction. The transfer efficiency is critical for various applications such as light-emitting, optical modulation, and the photoelectric effect. Two primary forms of light-matter energy transfer, including absorption and emission, can be enhanced in optical cavities. Both forms can reach an extremum inside the cavity according to the coupled-mode theory. Graphene conductivity at the terahertz frequency can be tuned from positive to negative, providing a suitable material to study switchable extremums of these two forms. We integrate graphene with a nested cavity where an infrared cavity is inserted in a terahertz cavity, thereby achieving terahertz perfect absorption at the static state and optimal gain under photoexcitation. Leveraging an inserted infrared cavity, we can elevate the working efficiency by strongly absorbing the infrared pump. We also numerically show the feasibility of electrically tunable extreme energy transfer. Our concept of the nested cavity can be extended to different materials and even to guided modes. A switchable synergy of loss and gain potentially enables high-contrast dynamic modulation and photonic devices with multiplexing functions.

14.
Opt Express ; 29(24): 39406-39418, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809306

RESUMO

Metasurface has achieved fruitful results in tailoring optical fields in free space. However, a systematic investigation on applying meta-optics to completely control waveguide modes is still elusive. Here we present a comprehensive catalog to selectively and exclusively couple free space light into arbitrary high-order waveguide modes of interest, leveraging silicon metasurface-patterned silicon nitride waveguides. By simultaneously engineering the matched phase gradient of the nanoantennas and the vectorial spatial modal overlap between the antenna near-field and target waveguide mode profile, either single or multiple high-order modes are successfully launched with high purity reaching 98%. Moreover, on-chip twisted light generators are theoretically proposed with configurable OAM topological charge ℓ from -3 to +2. This work may serve as a comprehensive framework for guided mode meta-optics and motivates further applications such as versatile integrated couplers, multiplexers, and mode-division multiplexing-based communication systems.

15.
Plant Divers ; 43(5): 362-378, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816062

RESUMO

Eight new species from China, Cheirostylis chuxiongensis, C. yei, Myrmechis lingulata, M. longii, Bulbophyllum ximaense, B. xizangense, B. retusum and B. pulcherissimum, are described and illustrated. Cheirostylis chuxiongensis differs from C. thailandica by having 5-9 irregular and papillae-like calli on each side in the sac of the lip, epichile with entire lobes, petals narrowly obliquely obovate and an apex that is not recurved. Cheirostylis yei is easily distinguished from its relatives similar by having a long stem, pubescent ovary and sepals, epichile lobes with irregular and undulate margins, a subquadrate callus without teeth in the saccate hypochile. Myrmechis lingulata differs from M. chinensis by having a simple and lanceolate to ligulate lip, glabrous bracts and ovary, oblique and narrowly ovate petals. Myrmechis longii differs from M. pumila by having white-veined leaves, oblong-lanceolate epichile lobes, and viscidium attached to the middle of the caudicle. Bulbophyllum ximaense is easily distinguished from its relatives similar by having distant pseudobulbs, shorter scape, an inflorescence with 9-16 orange-red flowers, shorter lateral sepals with a long acuminate apex, incurved and tubular apical margins, a papillate lip disk and triangular-subulate stelidia. Bulbophyllum xizangense is easily distinguished from its relatives similar by having narrow lanceolate leaves, shorter inflorescence with 1-3 greenish-yellow flowers, falcate-ovoid lateral sepals, a lip with small lateral lobes and 3 keels at the base. Bulbophyllum retusum differs from B. spathulatum by having shorter inflorescence, peduncles with 2 tubular sheaths, dorsal sepals with a retuse apex, lateral sepals with lower edges that are connate to each other and free and divergent toward the apex, obovate petals with an acute or slightly retuse apex. Bulbophyllum pulcherissimum differs from B. lopalanthum by its 5-veined dorsal sepal, ovate-lanceolate lateral sepals, obliquely ovate-oblong petal, erose-toothed margins and obovate lip with a large, oblong basal callus, and an obtuse base. In addition, three species (Bulbophyllum frostii, B. raskotii and B. nematocaulon) are reported for the first time in China.

16.
Plant Divers ; 43(5): 379-389, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816063

RESUMO

Five new species (Gastrochilus yei, Gastrochilus minimus, Luisia simaoensis, Taeniophyllum xizangense, Tuberolabium subulatum) and two newly recorded species (Cleisostoma tricornutum, Luisia inconspicua) of Vandeae (Orchidaceae) from China are described and illustrated. Gastrochilus yei is similar to G. affinis and G. nepalensis, but differs from them by having an epichile not lobed, the apex of the hypochile not bilobed, and a tine on the apex of the leaf. Gastrochilus minimus is similar to G. acinacifolius, but can be distinguished from the latter by having a flabellate epichile that is densely hirsute on the adaxial surface and an inconspicuous central cushion; in addition, the hypochile of G. minimus has a keel that extends to the apex of the epichile. Taeniophyllum xizangense is similar to T. stella and T. radiatum, but it is distinguished from them by having much bigger flowers, inflorescences densely covered with short-bristly hairs, papillae on the external surface of sepals, and bigger triangular-ovate viscidium. Luisia simaoensis is similar to L. magniflora and L. ramosii, but can be easily distinguished from them by having lateral sepals longer than dorsal sepals and petals, lip with irregular and waved margins, and lip with bilobed apex. Luisia inconspicua is moved from Gastrochilus to Luisia based on phylogenetic analyses of plastid matK sequence data. Tuberolabium subulatum is similar to T. carnosum, but it can be easily distinguished from the latter by having an inflorescence much shorter than the leaves, yellow sepals and petals, and many small papillae outside the lip lobes.

17.
Plant Divers ; 43(5): 420-425, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816067

RESUMO

Gastrodia longistyla, a new species of Orchidaceae from Yunnan Province, China, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to Gastrodia peichatieniana, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by having a rhombic epichile, long column (6.0-7.5 mm long), and a needle-shaped appendage (1.8-3.2 mm in length) at the base of the stigma. Identification key and colour photographs are provided. A preliminary risk-of-extinction assessment, according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, is given for the new species. The plastome of G. longistyla is 30464 bp in length with GC content approximately 24.8%, and the plastome does not contain some housekeeping genes, such as matK, rpl16, or all photosynthesis genes. In addition, the G. longistyla plastome lacks an IR region. This indicates that the plastome is in the last stage of degradation.

18.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820729

RESUMO

Fertilizers and microbial communities that determine fertilizer efficiency are key to sustainable agricultural development. Sugarcane is an important sugar cash crop in China, and using bio-fertilizers is important for the sustainable development of China's sugar industry. However, information on the effects of bio-fertilizers on sugarcane soil microbiota has rarely been studied. In this study, the effects of bio-fertilizer application on rhizosphere soil physicochemical indicators, microbial community composition, function, and network patterns of sugarcane were discussed using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The experimental design is as follows: CK: urea application (57 kg/ha), CF: compound fertilizer (450 kg/ha), BF1: bio-fertilizer (1500 kg/ha of bio-fertilizer + 57 kg/ha of urea), and BF2: bio-fertilizer (2250 kg/ha of bio-fertilizer + 57 kg/ha of urea). The results showed that the bio-fertilizer was effective in increasing sugarcane yield by 3-12% compared to the CF treatment group, while reducing soil acidification, changing the diversity of fungi and bacteria, and greatly altering the composition and structure of the inter-root microbial community. Variance partitioning canonical correspondence (VPA) analysis showed that soil physicochemical variables explained 80.09% and 73.31% of the variation in bacteria and fungi, respectively. Redundancy analysis and correlation heatmap showed that soil pH, total nitrogen, and available potassium were the main factors influencing bacterial community composition, while total soil phosphorus, available phosphorus, pH, and available nitrogen were the main drivers of fungal communities. Volcano plots showed that using bio-fertilizers contributed to the accumulation of more beneficial bacteria in the sugarcane rhizosphere level and the decline of pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Leifsonia), which may slow down or suppress the occurrence of diseases. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and effect size analysis (LEfSe) searched for biomarkers under different fertilizer treatments. Meanwhile, support vector machine (SVM) assessed the importance of the microbial genera contributing to the variability between fertilizers, of interest were the bacteria Anaerolineace, Vulgatibacter, and Paenibacillus and the fungi Cochliobolus, Sordariales, and Dothideomycetes between CF and BF2, compared to the other genera contributing to the variability. Network analysis (co-occurrence network) showed that the network structure of bio-fertilizers was closer to the network characteristics of healthy soils, indicating that bio-fertilizers can improve soil health to some extent, and therefore if bio-fertilizers can be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers in the future alternative, it is important to achieve green soil development and improve the climate.

19.
NMR Biomed ; : e4652, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820933

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two-dimensional (2D) navigated, interleaved multishot echo-planar imaging (EPI) to enhance kidney diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in rats at 7.0 T. Fully sampled interleaved four-shot EPI with 2D navigators was tailored for kidney DWI (Sprague-Dawley rats, n = 7) on a 7.0-T small bore preclinical scanner. The image quality of four-shot EPI was compared with T2 -weighted rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) (reference) and single-shot EPI (ss-EPI) without and with parallel imaging (PI). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was examined to assess the image quality for the EPI approaches. The Dice similarity coefficient and the Hausdorff distance were used for evaluation of image distortion. Mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated for renal cortex and medulla for all DWI approaches. The corticomedullary difference of MD and FA were assessed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Four-shot EPI showed the highest CNR among the three EPI variants and lowest geometric distortion versus T2 -weighted RARE (mean Dice: 0.77 for ss-EPI without PI, 0.88 for ss-EPI with twofold undersampling, and 0.92 for four-shot EPI). The FA map derived from four-shot EPI clearly identified a highly anisotropic region corresponding to the inner stripe of the outer medulla. Four-shot EPI successfully discerned differences in both MD and FA between renal cortex and medulla. In conclusion, 2D navigated, interleaved multishot EPI facilitates high-quality rat kidney DWI with clearly depicted intralayer and interlayer structure and substantially reduced image distortion. This approach enables the anatomic integrity of DWI-MRI in small rodents and has the potential to benefit the characterization of renal microstructure in preclinical studies.

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