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1.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 12: 1338029, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357709

RESUMO

Repairing defects in alveolar bone is essential for regenerating periodontal tissue, but it is a formidable challenge. One promising therapeutic approach involves using a strategy that specifically recruits periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) with high regenerative potential to achieve in situ regeneration of alveolar bone. In this study, we have created a new type of microsphere conjugated with an antibody to target p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), which is made of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) and chitosan (CS). The goal of this design is to attract p75NTR+hPDLCs selectively and promote osteogenesis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the antibody-conjugated microspheres attracted significantly more PDLCs compared to non-conjugated microspheres. Incorporating nHA not only enhances cell adhesion and proliferation on the surface of the microsphere but also augments its osteoinductive properties. Microspheres effectively recruited p75NTR+ cells at bone defect sites in SD rats, as observed through immunofluorescent staining of p75NTR antibodies. This p75NTR antibody-conjugated nHA/CS microsphere presents a promising approach for selectively recruiting cells and repairing bone defects.

2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360375

RESUMO

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the occurrence and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In recent years, studies have increasingly explored microRNAs as biomarkers and treatment interventions for AD. This study identified a novel microRNA termed miR-25802 from our high-throughput sequencing dataset of an AD model and explored its role and the underlying mechanism. The results confirmed the miRNA properties of miR-25802 based on bioinformatics and experimental verification. Expression of miR-25802 was increased in the plasma of AD patients and in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 and 5 × FAD mice carrying two and five familial AD gene mutations. Functional studies suggested that overexpression or inhibition of miR-25802 respectively aggravated or ameliorated AD-related pathology, including cognitive disability, Aß deposition, microglial pro-inflammatory phenotype activation, and neuroinflammation, in 5 × FAD mice and homeostatic or LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated EOC20 microglia. Mechanistically, miR-25802 negatively regulates KLF4 by directly binding to KLF4 mRNA, thus stimulating microglia polarization toward the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype by promoting the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response. The results also showed that inhibition of miR-25802 increased microglial anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype activity and suppressed NF-κB-mediated inflammatory reactions in the brains of 5 × FAD mice, while overexpression of miR-25802 exacerbated microglial pro-inflammatory M1 activity by enhancing NF-κB pathways. Of note, AD-associated manifestations induced by inhibition or overexpression of miR-25802 via the NF-κB signaling pathway were reversed by KLF4 silencing or upregulation. Collectively, these results provide the first evidence that miR-25802 is a regulator of microglial activity and establish the role of miR-25802/KLF4/NF-κB signaling in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, suggesting potential therapeutic targets for AD.

3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1314, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351096

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has shown considerable promise for treating various malignancies, but only a subset of cancer patients benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy because of immune evasion and immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The mechanisms underlying how tumor cells regulate immune cell response remain largely unknown. Here we show that hexokinase domain component 1 (HKDC1) promotes tumor immune evasion in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner by activating STAT1/PD-L1 in tumor cells. Mechanistically, HKDC1 binds to and presents cytosolic STAT1 to IFNGR1 on the plasma membrane following IFNγ-stimulation by associating with cytoskeleton protein ACTA2, resulting in STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. HKDC1 inhibition in combination with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 enhances in vivo T cell antitumor response in liver cancer models in male mice. Clinical sample analysis indicates a correlation among HKDC1 expression, STAT1 phosphorylation, and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1). These findings reveal a role for HKDC1 in regulating immune evasion by coupling cytoskeleton with STAT1 activation, providing a potential combination strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1 , Evasão Tumoral , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 920: 170881, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360319

RESUMO

Soil microbial functional genes play key roles in biogeochemical processes that are closely related to crop development. However, the regulation of crop growth by the composition and potential interactions of metagenomic-based functional genes is poorly understood. Therefore, in a long-term mulching experiment, the regulation of wheat growth by soil multifunctionality, microbial functional profiles driven by soil properties and microbial activity was studied. Soil properties and microbial activity were significantly separated into distinct mulching treatments, and were significantly declined by plastic film mulching treatment, similar to soil multifunctionality. Only carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) cycling gene compositions were divided significantly into distinct mulching treatments to varying degrees. Similarly, intra- and inter-connected sub-networks associated with C and P cycling genes were more complex and stable than the sub-networks containing nitrogen cycling genes. Despite core functional genes being located in the middle of each network, they were rarely observed in the metagenomic assembly genomes. Subsequently, the dominant soil properties and microbial activity had greater effects on C cycling gene composition and network, which played essential roles in wheat growth regulation. Overall, wheat yield and biomass were affected differently by straw and plastic film mulching treatments, and were mainly regulated by C cycling gene network and soil multifunctionality, respectively. The results of the present study provide novel insights into wheat growth regulation by soil microbial functional profiles, with potential implications for sustainable crop production in mulching conservation agroecosystems.

5.
Toxicol Sci ; 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366932

RESUMO

The exponential increase in global plastic usage has led to the emergence of nano- and microplastic (NMP) pollution as a pressing environmental issue due to its implications for human and other mammalian health. We have developed methodologies to extract solid materials from human tissue samples by saponification and ultracentrifugation, allowing for highly specific and quantitative analysis of plastics by pyrolysis-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). As a benchmark, placenta tissue samples were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and automated particle count, which demonstrated the presence of > 1-micron particles and fibers, but not nano-sized plastic particles. Analyses of the samples (n = 10) using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy indicating presence of rayon, polystyrene, polyethylene, and unclassified plastic particles. By contrast, among 62 placenta samples, Py-GC-MS revealed that microplastics were present in all participants placentae, with concentrations ranging widely from 6.5-685 µg NMPs per gram of placental tissue, averaging 126.8 ± 147.5 µg/g (mean ± SD). Polyethylene was the most prevalent polymer, accounting for 54% of total NMPs and consistently found in nearly all samples (mean 68.8 ± 93.2 µg/gram placenta). Polyvinyl chloride and nylon each represented approximately 10% of the NMPs by weight, with the remaining 26% of the composition represented by 9 other polymers. Together, these data demonstrate advancements in the unbiased quantitative resolution of Py-GC-MS applied to the identification and quantification of NMP species at the maternal-fetal interface. This method, paired with clinical metadata, will be pivotal to evaluating potential impacts of NMPs on adverse pregnancy outcomes.

6.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 55, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351016

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electrical injuries rarely result in fractures, such as long bone fractures and spinal fractures. A few articles have reported osteoporosis vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) caused by electrical injuries. Here, we present a rare case of 37-year-old male suffering from the 9th thoracic (T9) and 5th lumbar (L5) OVCFs after receiving a electric shock. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old Han male experienced an electric shock (480 V direct current) at the working time and felt immediately serious back pain. He did not fall and lose consciousness. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging showed acute OVCFs, as well as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry indicated osteoporosis. Normal laboratory tests can avoid secondary osteoporosis resulting from metabolic diseases and tumors. Finally, he was diagnosed with acute discontinuous OVCFs (T9 and L5). The patient denied having a history of back pain, whereas, he had a history of smoking, alcohol abuse, and congenital heart disease (tetralogy of Fallot) were associated with osteoporosis. Considering no local kyphosis and < 50% anterior body compression, we selected conservative treatment for this patient. At a 1-year and 3-year follow-up, the lateral thoracic and lumbar radiography demonstrated no instability of the spine, and the back pain has been relieved. CONCLUSIONS: This rare case reminds us the importance of consulting a detailed medical history when we encounter young patients receiving electrical injuries. Discontinuously OVCFs must not be overlooked, even though we encounter a young man.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão , Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Compressão/complicações , Fraturas por Compressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Osteoporose/complicações , Dor nas Costas/etiologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Mol Ther ; 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310354

RESUMO

The potent immunomodulatory function of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) elicited by proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α (IT) is critical to resolve inflammation and promote tissue repair. However, little is known about how the immunomodulatory capability of MSCs is related to their differentiation competency in the inflammatory microenvironment. In this study, we demonstrate that the adipocyte differentiation and immunomodulatory function of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (MSC(AD)s) are mutually exclusive. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), which promote adipocyte differentiation, were decreased in MSC(AD)s due to IT-induced upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Furthermore, knockdown of SOD2 led to enhanced adipogenic differentiation but reduced immunosuppression capability of MSC(AD)s. Interestingly, the adipogenic differentiation was associated with increased mitochondrial biogenesis and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PPARGC1A/PGC-1α) expression. IT inhibited PGC-1α expression and decreased mitochondrial mass but promoted glycolysis in an SOD2-dependent manner. MSC(AD)s lacking SOD2 were compromised in their therapeutic efficacy in DSS-induced colitis in mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that the adipogenic differentiation and immunomodulation of MSC(AD)s may compete for resources in fulfilling the respective biosynthetic needs. Blocking of adipogenic differentiation by mitochondrial antioxidant may represent a novel strategy to enhance the immunosuppressive activity of MSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 262(Pt 2): 130027, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340941

RESUMO

In this study, three acidic polysaccharides (OFPP-1, OFPP-2 and OFPP-3) were isolated from the pulps of Opuntia dillenii Haw. fruits, and their chain conformations, physicochemical and rheological properties were investigated. The molecular weight and conformational parameters (Mw, Mn, Mz, Rg and Rh) of OFPPs in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution were detected by HPSEC-MALLS-RI. In addition, based on the parameters ρ and v, it was concluded that these three polysaccharide chains exhibited sphere-like conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution, which was consistent with AFM and TEM observations. Furthermore, the Congo Red experiment showed that OFPP-2 had a triple-helix structure, which may be conducive to its biological activity. This study also found that OFPPs were semi-crystalline structures with high thermal and pH stability. The rheological analyses indicated that the apparent viscosity of OFPPs solutions exhibited concentration-, temperature-, and pH-dependence, and the viscoelasticity of them was affected by molecular characteristics and concentration. The results of this study are helpful to elucidate the structure-activity relationship of OFPPs. Moreover, this study can provide theoretical reference for the application of OFPPs as bioactive ingredients or functional materials in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries and the development and utilization of the O. dillenii Haw. fruits resource.

9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1294: 342272, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth (HMFD) disease caused by enterovirus 71 (EV 71), is closely associated with severe clinical manifestations and can be deadly. Early detection of EV 71 can be achieved by detecting the increment in miR296 and miR16 in the serum. Using HCR to amplify signals and convert biological signals into metal nanoparticle signals detectable by ICP-MS is a detection method that can collect more accurate and reliable information, compared with traditional methods, in the detection of biological samples. RESULTS: We described a strategy for the simultaneous detection of miR296 and miR16 by ICP-MS based on metal nanoparticles (NPs) labeling with HCR. Briefly, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and magnetic beads (MBs), as well as NPs and signal probes for miRNA (Sp-miR) were firstly conjugated via the streptavidin-biotin recognition system, constituting ssDNA-MBs and NPs-Sp-miR complex, respectively. The latter complex then hybridized with the former through HCR, generating the nanosensors for targets. Then, the targets were added and hybridized with ssDNA, and the HCR complex with NPs was released into the solution. Finally, the corresponding signals of the NPs were measured by ICP-MS. Results demonstrated that the developed method had good sensitivity and satisfactory selectivity and precision. Furthermore, when applied to biological samples with a complex matrix, the developed method also showed good recovery (88 % - 92 %) and reproducibility (RSD<10 %). SIGNIFICANCE: This method contributes to the early diagnosis of HFMD and opens up ideas for the further development of high-throughput biomarker detection. The strategy has practical potential for miR296 and miR16 detection in biological samples and provides a promising tool for multiple miRNA detection.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , MicroRNAs , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Análise Espectral , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Limite de Detecção
10.
Curr Res Food Sci ; 8: 100688, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38352628

RESUMO

The 3D printing (3DP) technology shows great potential in the food industry, but the development of edible ink is currently insufficient. Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus) emerges as a novel promising candidate. In this study, a mixed ink was obtained by incorporating butter into P. ostreatus. The effects of different ratios of P. ostreatus and butter, as well as the influence of ink steaming were investigated on 3D printed products. The results indicated that all inks of the P. ostreatus system exhibited positive shear-thinning behavior, and the system maintained stable intermolecular hydrogen bonding when P. ostreatus powder concentration was 40 % (w/v). Furthermore, the L* value of the system was elevated for butter adding. The system with steaming exhibited superior stabilized molecular structure compared to the native system, particularly with a steaming duration of 5 min, showcasing its outstanding supporting capacity. This study suggests that P. ostreatus is a promising candidate in 3DP for the development of an edible ink that promotes innovation and nutritional food.

11.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1342669, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327749

RESUMO

Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plays an irreplaceable role in the treatment of brain metastases (BMs), but cognitive decline after WBRT seriously affects patients' quality of life. The development of cognitive dysfunction is closely related to hippocampal injury, but standardized criteria for predicting hippocampal injury and dose limits for hippocampal protection have not yet been developed. This review systematically reviews the clinical efficacy of hippocampal avoidance - WBRT (HA-WBRT), the controversy over dose limits, common methods and characteristics of hippocampal imaging and segmentation, differences in hippocampal protection by common radiotherapy (RT) techniques, and the application of artificial intelligence (AI) and radiomic techniques for hippocampal protection. In the future, the application of new techniques and methods can improve the consistency of hippocampal dose limit determination and the prediction of the occurrence of cognitive dysfunction in WBRT patients, avoiding the occurrence of cognitive dysfunction in patients and thus benefiting more patients with BMs.

12.
Pharm Res ; 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the local administration methods for treating eye diseases, the application of microneedles has great potential due to the shortcomings of low efficacy and significant side effects of local administration preparations. This article provides ideas for the research on the application of ophthalmic microneedle in the treatment of eye diseases. RESULTS: This article analyzes the physiological structures of the eyes, ocular diseases and its existing ocular preparations in sequence. Finally, this article reviews the development and trends of ocular microneedles in recent years, and summarizes and discusses the drugs of ocular microneedles as well as the future directions of development. At the same time, according to the inspiration of previous work, the concept of "microneedle with spinule" is proposed for the first time, and its advantages and limitations are discussed in the article. CONCLUSIONS: At present, the application of ocular microneedles still faces multiple challenges. The aspects of auxiliary devices, appearance, the properties of the matrix materials, and preparation technology of ophthalmic microneedle are crucial for their application in the treatment of eye diseases.

13.
Food Chem ; 445: 138723, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350201

RESUMO

Oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) double emulsions are considered an advanced oil-structuring technology that can accomplish multi-functions to improve food quality and nutrition. However, this special structure is thermodynamically unstable. This study formulated a model O/W/O double emulsion with standard surfactants, Tween 80 (4 %) and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR, 5 %), using a traditional two-step method with different homogenization parameters. Cryo-SEM and GC-FID results show that O/W/O emulsions were successfully formulated, and the release rate (RR) of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil from the inner oil to the outer oil phase increased significantly with 2nd homogenization speed increasing, respectively. Interestingly, the RR of all samples reached about 75 % after 2 months of storage, suggesting that O/W/O emulsions were highly unstable. To explain the observed instability, dynamic interfacial tension and interfacial rheology were performed using a drop shape tensiometer. Results demonstrated that unadsorbed Tween 80 in the intermediate aqueous phase was a key factor in markedly decreasing the interfacial properties of the outer PGPR-assembled film by affecting the interfacial rearrangement. Additionally, it was found that the MCT release showed a positive correlation with the Tween 80 concentration, demonstrating that the formed Tween 80 micelles could transport oil molecules to strengthen the emulsion instability. Taken together, this study reveals the destabilization mechanism of model O/W/O surfactants-stabilized emulsions from bulk to interface, providing highly relevant insights for the design of stable O/W/O double emulsions.

14.
Nature ; 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355798

RESUMO

Phagocyte NADPH oxidase, a protein complex with a core made up of NOX2 and p22 subunits, is responsible for transferring electrons from intracellular NADPH to extracellular oxygen1. This process generates superoxide anions that are vital for killing pathogens1. The activation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase requires membrane translocation and the binding of several cytosolic factors2. However, the exact mechanism by which cytosolic factors bind to and activate NOX2 is not well understood. Here we present the structure of the human NOX2-p22 complex activated by fragments of three cytosolic factors: p47, p67 and Rac1. The structure reveals that the p67-Rac1 complex clamps onto the dehydrogenase domain of NOX2 and induces its contraction, which stabilizes the binding of NADPH and results in a reduction of the distance between the NADPH-binding domain and the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain. Furthermore, the dehydrogenase domain docks onto the bottom of the transmembrane domain of NOX2, which reduces the distance between FAD and the inner haem. These structural rearrangements might facilitate the efficient transfer of electrons between the redox centres in NOX2 and lead to the activation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase.

15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 967: 176383, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311281

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7, a transmembrane signal transduction receptor expressed on the surface of endosomes, has become an attractive target for antiviral and cancer immunotherapies. TLR7 can induce signal transduction by recognizing single-stranded RNA or its analogs, leading to the release of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and type-I IFN. Activation of TLR7 helps to enhance immunogenicity and immune memory by stimulating immune cells. Herein, we identified a novel selective TLR7 agonist, GY101, and determined its ability to activate TLR7. In summary, in vitro, compound GY101 significantly induced the secretion of IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ in mouse splenic lymphocytes; in vivo, peritumoral injection of GY101 significantly suppressed colon cancer CT26, as well as poorly immunogenic B16-F10 and 4T1 cancer cell-derived tumor growth by activating the infiltration of lymphocytes and polarization of M2-like macrophages into M1-like macrophages. These results demonstrate that GY101, as a potent TLR7 agonist, holds great potential for cancer immunotherapy.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329860

RESUMO

Graph neural networks (GNNs) have attracted extensive research attention in recent years due to their capability to progress with graph data and have been widely used in practical applications. As societies become increasingly concerned with the need for data privacy protection, GNNs face the need to adapt to this new normal. Besides, as clients in federated learning (FL) may have relationships, more powerful tools are required to utilize such implicit information to boost performance. This has led to the rapid development of the emerging research field of federated GNNs (FedGNNs). This promising interdisciplinary field is highly challenging for interested researchers to grasp. The lack of an insightful survey on this topic further exacerbates the entry difficulty. In this article, we bridge this gap by offering a comprehensive survey of this emerging field. We propose a 2-D taxonomy of the FedGNN literature: 1) the main taxonomy provides a clear perspective on the integration of GNNs and FL by analyzing how GNNs enhance FL training as well as how FL assists GNN training and 2) the auxiliary taxonomy provides a view on how FedGNNs deal with heterogeneity across FL clients. Through discussions of key ideas, challenges, and limitations of existing works, we envision future research directions that can help build more robust, explainable, efficient, fair, inductive, and comprehensive FedGNNs.

18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2767, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307957

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and deadliest illnesses all around the world. Growing proofs demonstrate that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are of critical importance in CRC pathogenesis, but their mechanisms remain yet unknown. The current research was designed to recognize underlying biomarkers associated with TAMs in CRC. We screened macrophage-related gene modules through WGCNA, selected hub genes utilizing the LASSO algorithm and COX regression, and established a model. External validation was performed by expression analysis using datasets GSE14333, GSE74602, and GSE87211. After validating the bioinformatics results using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we identified SPP1, C5AR1, MMP3, TIMP1, ADAM8 as potential biomarkers associated with macrophages in CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Genes Reguladores , Humanos , Prognóstico , Macrófagos , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas ADAM
20.
Foods ; 13(3)2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338526

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pork oxidation through modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on gel characteristics of myofibrillar proteins (MP) during the heat-induced gelation process. The pork longissimus thoracis (LT) was treated by MAP at varying oxygen concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% O2) with a 5-day storage at 4 °C for the detection of MP oxidation and gel properties. The findings showed the rise of O2 concentration resulted in a significant increase of carbonyl content, disulfide bond, and particle size, and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and MP solubility (p < 0.05). The gel textural properties and water retention ability were significantly improved in MAP treatments of 0-60% O2 (p < 0.05), but deteriorated at 80% O2 level. As the concentration of O2 increased, there was a marked decrease in the α-helix content within the gel, accompanied by a simultaneous increase in ß-sheet content (p < 0.05). Additionally, a judicious oxidation treatment (60% O2 in MAP) proved beneficial for crafting dense and uniform gel networks. Our data suggest that the oxidation treatment of pork mediated by O2 concentration in MAP is capable of reinforcing protein hydrophobic interaction and disulfide bond formation, thus contributing to the construction of superior gel structures and properties.

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