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1.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; : 1-17, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319017

RESUMO

Objective: The prognostic factors of ICI-including combined therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma were analyzed by systematic review.Method: We searched Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang and other databases for randomized controlled trials and clinical trials of combination therapy including ICIs in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The search time was from the establishment of the database to September 2023. Data were extracted and evaluated with RevMan 5.4 software.Results: Six studies were included, including 4723 patients. The results showed that ① in terms of progression-free survival, the factors of age < 65 years old, male sex, Canada and Western Europe, nephrectomy, different IMDC class, number of organs with metastases and PD-L1 expression ≥ 1% significantly prolonged PFS in patients with metastatic cancer treated by combination therapy including ICIs; ② in terms of overall survival rate, the factors of age < 65 years old, female sex, nephrectomy, different IMDC class and PD-L1 expression ≥ 1% significantly prolonged the OS of patients with metastatic cancer treated by combination therapy including ICIs.Conclusions: Age, sex, region, nephrectomy, different IMDC class, number of organs with metastases and PD-L1 expression are independent factors influencing the efficacy of combination therapy including ICIs in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Systematic evaluation of baseline indicators of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma to predict clinical benefits can effectively improve the benefit rate of patients.

2.
J Med Virol ; 96(2): e29440, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299675

RESUMO

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in transplant recipients. Most of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from EBV-immortalized B cells or PTLDs are sensitive to CD95-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxic T cell (CTL) killing. CD95 ligand (CD95L) exists as a transmembrane ligand (mCD95L) or a soluble form (sCD95L). Using recombinant mCD95L and sCD95L, we observed that sCD95L does not affect LCLs. While high expression of mCD95L in CTLs promotes apoptosis of LCLs, low expression induces clathrin-dependent CD19 internalization, caspase-dependent CD19 cleavage, and proteasomal/lysosomal-dependent CD19 degradation. The CD95L/CD95-mediated CD19 degradation impairs B cell receptor (BCR) signaling and inhibits BCR-mediated EBV activation. Interestingly, although inhibition of the caspase activity restores CD19 expression and CD19-mediated BCR activation, it fails to rescue BCR-mediated EBV lytic gene expression. EBV-specific CTLs engineered to overexpress mCD95L exhibit a stronger killing activity against LCLs. This study highlights that engineering EBV-specific CTLs to express a higher level of mCD95L could represent an attractive therapeutic approach to improve T cell immunotherapy for PTLDs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Humanos , Proteína Ligante Fas , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Caspases , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 190, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305911

RESUMO

Metabolic engineering frequently makes use of point mutation and saturation mutation library creation. At present, sequencing is the only reliable and direct technique to detect point mutation and screen saturation mutation library. In this study, mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR was used to detect point mutation and screen saturation mutation library. In order to fine-tune the expression of odhA encoding 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 component, a saturating mutant library of the RBS of odhA was created in Corynebacterium glutamicum P12 based on the CRISPR-Cas2a genome editing system, which increased the L-proline production by 81.3%. MAMA PCR was used to filter out 42% of the non-mutant transformants in the mutant library, which effectively reduced the workload of the subsequent fermentation test and the number of sequenced samples. The rapid and sensitive MAMA-PCR method established in this study provides a general strategy for detecting point mutations and improving the efficiency of mutation library screening. KEY POINTS: • MAMA PCR was optimized and developed to detect point mutation. • MAMA PCR greatly improves the screening efficiency of point mutation. • Attenuation of odhA expression in P12 effectively improves proline production.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium glutamicum , Mutação Puntual , Mutação , Sequência de Bases , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
4.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 27, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seagrasses offer various ecosystem services and possess high levels of primary productivity. However, the development of mariculture has affected the homeostasis of seagrass meadow ecosystems. Plant-microbiome associations are essential for seagrasses health, but little is known about the role of environmental microbiomes and how they affect seagrass in a mariculture environment. In this study, we investigated the influence of mariculture on the rhizosphere and seawater microbiome surrounding Zostera marina and focused on the bacterial, eukaryotic, and fungal components in the composition, diversity, metabolism, and responses to mariculture-related environmental factors. RESULTS: Significant differences in the composition, richness, diversity, and internal relations of the bacterial community between the seawater and rhizosphere sediment surrounding Z. marina were observed, while differences in the eukaryotic and fungal communities were less significant. More complex bacterial and fungal co-occurrence networks were found in the seawater and rhizosphere sediment of the Saccharina japonica (SJ) and sea cucumber (SC) culture zones. The seawater in the SJ zone had higher levels of dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate reduction, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation processes than the other three zones. The assimilatory sulfate reduction enzymes were higher in the rhizosphere sediments of the SJ zone than in the other three zones. Tetracycline, sulfonamide, and diaminopyrimidine resistance genes were enriched in the mariculture SJ and SC zones. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings might contribute to a better understanding of the effects of mariculture on the seagrass and the meadow ecosystems and thus revealing their potential operating mechanisms. These insights may serve to raise awareness of the effects of human activities on natural ecosystems, regulation of antibiotic usage, and environmental restoration. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Laminaria , Microbiota , Zosteraceae , Humanos , Rizosfera , Zosteraceae/microbiologia , Zosteraceae/fisiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Bactérias/genética
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 920: 170948, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365036

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) can adsorb and desorb organic pollutants, which may alter their biotoxicities. Although the toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its alternative 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B) to organisms has been reported, the comparative study of their combined toxic effects with MPs on aquatic organisms is limited. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 10 µg/L PFOS/F-53B and 50 µg/L MPs alone or in combination for 14 days to investigate their single and combined toxicities. The results showed that the presence of MPs reduced the concentration of freely dissolved PFOS and F-53B in the exposure solution but did not affect their bioaccumulation in the zebrafish liver and gut. The combined exposure to PFOS and MPs had the greatest impact on liver oxidative stress, immunoinflammatory, and energy metabolism disorders. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed that the combined exposure to F-53B and MPs had the greatest impact on gut microbiota. Functional enrichment analysis predicted that the alternations in the gut microbiome could interfere with signaling pathways related to immune and energy metabolic processes. Moreover, significant correlations were observed between changes in gut microbiota and immune and energy metabolism indicators, highlighting the role of gut microbiota in host health. Together, our findings demonstrate that combined exposure to PFOS/F-53B and MPs exacerbates liver immunotoxicity and disturbances in energy metabolism in adult zebrafish compared to single exposure, potentially through dysregulation of gut microbiota.

6.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377343

RESUMO

Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) have an important role in human adaptation to the living environment. However, the lag in population genomic cohort studies and epigenomic studies, hinders the research in the adaptive analysis of CREs in human populations. In this study, we collected 4,013 unrelated individuals and performed a comprehensive analysis of adaptive selection of genome-wide CREs in the Han Chinese. In total, 12.34% of genomic regions are under the influence of adaptive selection, where 1.00% of enhancers and 2.06% of promoters are under positive selection, and 0.06% of enhancers and 0.02% of promoters are under balancing selection. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these CREs under adaptive selection reveals that many positive selections in the Han Chinese occur in pathways involved in cell-cell adhesion processes, and many balancing selections are related to immune processes. Two classes of adaptive CREs related to cell adhesion were in-depth analysed, one is the adaptive enhancers derived from neanderthal introgression, leads to lower hyaluronidase level in skin, and brings better performance on UV-radiation resistance to the Han Chinese. Another one is the CREs regulating wound healing, and the results suggest the positive selection inhibits coagulation and promotes angiogenesis and wound healing in the Han Chinese. Finally, we found that many pathogenic alleles, such as risky alleles of type 2 diabetes or schizophrenia, remain in the population due to the hitchhiking effect of positive selections. Our findings will help deepen our understanding of the adaptive evolution of genome regulation in the Han Chinese.

7.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297029, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363764

RESUMO

Affected by global warming, the permafrost in Northeast China (NEC) has been continuously degrading in recent years. Many researchers have focused on the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of permafrost in NEC, however, few studies have delved into the field scale. In this study, based on the Optimal Parameters-based Geographical Detector (OPGD) model and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) test, the spatial stratified heterogeneity of permafrost distribution and the indicating performance of environmental variables on permafrost in NEC at the field scale were analyzed. Permafrost spatial distribution data were obtained from the Engineering Geological Investigation Reports (EGIR) of six highways located in NEC and a total of 19 environmental variables related to heat transfer, vegetation, soil, topography, moisture, and ecology were selected. The H-factors (variables with the highest contribution in factor detector results and interaction detector results): slope position (γ), surface frost number (SFN), elevation (DEM), topographic diversity (TD), and annual snow cover days (ASCD) were found to be the major contributors to the distribution of permafrost at the field scale. Among them, γ has the highest contribution and is a special explanatory variable for permafrost. In most cases, interaction can improve the impact of variables, especially the interaction between H-factors. The risk of permafrost decreases with the increase of TD, RN, and SBD, and increases with the increase of SFN. The performance of SFN to indicate permafrost distribution was found to be the best among all variables (AUC = 0.7063). There is spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of permafrost on highways in different spatial locations. This study summarized the numerical and spatial location between permafrost and different environmental variables at the field scale, and many results were found to be informative for environmental studies and engineering construction in NEC.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Solo , Geografia , Análise Espacial , China
8.
Heliyon ; 10(4): e25879, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38380014

RESUMO

From the perspective of the world agricultural development law, agricultural economic development and ecological environmental protection usually fall into a dichotomy paradox, according to the history of agricultural development in developed countries, they also experienced the rapid development of agriculture led to the destruction of the agro-ecological environment, which has become a key element hindering the sustainability of agriculture. Subsequently, developed countries rely on modern technology to achieve the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture, crossing the paradoxical trap of economic development and ecological construction. At the present stage, China also shows the sharp contradiction between agricultural development and ecological construction, the traditional agricultural production methods of agricultural output has basically reached the limit, however, the established production methods of the ecological environment caused by the negative effects of the more and more serious, so that the agricultural environmental technology efficiency is not optimistic, so there is an urgent need to have a clear understanding of the main grain-producing areas of China's agricultural environmental technology efficiency and the factors affecting it. As an important grain producing area in China, Jilin Province's agricultural development level is in the forefront of the country, and it is also facing the contradiction between agricultural development and ecological environmental protection at the present stage. In order to realize the green transformation of agriculture and improve the technical efficiency of agricultural environment, it is necessary to rely on the optimisation of multi-dimensional factors such as technology and system. The study of agricultural environmental technical efficiency in Jilin Province has important theoretical significance and practical value for guiding other agricultural areas to realize the green transformation of production mode.

9.
Bioorg Chem ; 145: 107236, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402796

RESUMO

In this study, 16 new compounds, six bibenzyls (1-6) and 10 naphthalenes (7-13), including three pairs of naphthalene enantiomers and three known compounds (14-16), were isolated from Dendrobium chrysanthum. Structurally, compounds 1-5 are previously undescribed dimeric bibenzyls, uniquely linked by unusual carbon bonds. The structures of the compounds were determined using spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The screening results indicated that 1, 2, and 5 showed remarkable lipid-lowering activities in FFA-induced HepG2 cells, with EC50 values ranging from 3.13 to 6.57 µM. Moreover, 1, 2, and 5 significantly decreased both the mRNA and protein levels of the target SREBP-1c, and 5 also reduced PPARα mRNA and protein levels. Therefore, 1, 2, and 5 are potential drugs against hepatic steatosis by targeting PPARα or SREBP-1c.

10.
Biomedicines ; 12(2)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397901

RESUMO

Liver disease-related mortality is a major cause of death worldwide. Hepatic innate and adaptive immune cells play diverse roles in liver homeostasis and disease. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells. MDSCs can be broadly divided into monocytic MDSCs and polymorphonuclear or granulocytic MDSCs, and they functionally interact with both liver parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells, such as hepatocytes and regulatory T cells, to impact liver disease progression. The infiltration and activation of MDSCs in liver disease can be regulated by inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, tumor-associated fibroblasts, epigenetic regulation factors, and gut microbiota during liver injury and cancer. Given the pivotal roles of MDSCs in advanced liver diseases, they can be targeted to treat primary and metastatic liver cancer, liver generation, alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease, and autoimmune hepatitis. Currently, several treatments such as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent berberine are under preclinical and clinical investigation to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy on liver disease and their effect on MDSC infiltration and function. Phenotypic alteration of MDSCs in different liver diseases that are in a model-dependent manner and lack special markers for distinct MDSCs are challenges for targeting MDSCs to treat liver disease. Multi-omics study is an option to uncover the features of disease-specific MDSCs and potential gene or protein targets for liver disease treatment. In summary, MDSCs play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of liver disease by regulating both intrahepatic innate and adaptive immune responses.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202400086, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329002

RESUMO

Fluorine side chain functionalization of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) represents an effective strategy for enhancing the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, a knowledge gap persists regarding the relationship between structural changes induced by fluorine functionalization and the resultant impact on device performance. In this work, varying amounts of fluorine atoms were introduced into the outer side chains of Y-series NFAs to construct two acceptors named BTP-F0 and BTP-F5. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that side-chain fluorination significantly increase the overall average electrostatic potential (ESP) and charge balance factor, thereby effectively improving the ESP-induced intermolecular electrostatic interaction, and thus precisely tuning the molecular packing and bulk-heterojunction morphology. Therefore, the BTP-F5-based OSC exhibited enhanced crystallinity, domain purity, reduced domain spacing, and optimized phase distribution in the vertical direction. This facilitates exciton diffusion, suppresses charge recombination, and improves charge extraction. Consequently, the promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.3 % and 19.2 % were achieved in BTP-F5-based binary and ternary devices, respectively, surpassing the PCE of 16.1 % for BTP-F0-based OSCs. This work establishes a structure-performance relationship and demonstrates that fluorine functionalization of the outer side chains of Y-series NFAs is a compelling strategy for achieving ideal phase separation for highly efficient OSCs.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 661: 671-680, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310773

RESUMO

Metallic sulfides are currently considered as ideal anode materials for potassium-ion batteries by virtue of their high specific capacities. However, their low intrinsic electronic conductivity, large volume variation and dissolution of polysulfides in electrochemical reactions hinder their further development toward practical applications. Here, we propose an effective structural design strategy by encapsulating CoS2/SnS2 in sulfur-doped carbon layers, in which internal voids are created to relieve the strain in the CoS2/SnS2 core, while the sulfur-doped carbon layer serves to improve the electron transport and inhibit the dissolution of polysulfides. These features enable the as-designed anode to deliver a high specific capacity (520 mAh/g at 0.1 A/g), a high rate capability (185 mA h g-1 at 10 A/g) and lifespan (0.016 % capacity loss per cycle up to 1500 cycles). Our comprehensive electrochemical characterization reveals that the heterostructure of CoS2/SnS2 not only promotes charge transfer at its interfaces, but also enhances the rate of K+ diffusion. Additionally, potassium-ion capacitors based on this novel anode are able to attain an energy density up to 162 Wh kg-1 and âˆ¼ 96 % capacity retention after 3000 cycles at 10 A/g.The demonstrated design rule combining morphological and structural engineering strategies sheds light on the development of advanced electrodes for high performance potassium-based energy storage devices.

14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332253

RESUMO

The Gongxin River is one of the main rivers in the Dashan Region of Anhui Province in China, which is a Se-rich and high-Cd area, but no research has focused on the concentration, source, antagonism, and health risks of Se and TMs in fish. In this study, 120 fish samples (14 species), 24 sediment samples, and 24 water samples were collected to investigate the antagonistic effects, sources, and health risks of TMs and Se in fish from a typical selenium-rich and high cadmium region. Zn and Se in fish from the Gongxin River were higher than in the background, which might be attributed to the different feeding habits of different fish species. The apparent antagonism between Se and Cu, Pb, and Cd was explored, and the results showed that 30%, 75%, and 100% of the Se/Cu, Se/Pb, and Se/Cd ratios were greater than one, indicating that Cu, Pb, and Cd in fish might be combined with or detoxicated by Se. The source analysis of the elements showed that the geological background was the source of TMs and Se in fish samples. The amounts of Se and TMs were all within China's acceptable level guidelines, signifying no harm to citizens from eating fish.

15.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1321486, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362303

RESUMO

Introduction: This study was carried out to investigate the effects of mixed meal (rapeseed meal, cotton meal, and sunflower meal) replacement soybean meal on growth performance, nutrient apparent digestibility, serum inflammatory factors and immunoglobulins, serum biochemical parameters, intestinal permeability, short-chain fatty acid content, and gut microbiota of finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 54 pigs with an average initial weight of 97.60 ± 0.30 kg were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups according to their initial weight, with 6 replicates in each group and 3 pigs in each replicate. The trial period was 26 days. The groups were as follows: control group (CON), fed corn-soybean meal type basal diet; Corn-soybean-mixed meal group (CSM), fed corn-soybean meal-mixed meal diet with a ratio of rapeseed meal, cotton meal, and sunflower meal of 1:1:1 to replace 9.06% soybean meal in the basal diet; Corn-mixed meal group (CMM), fed a corn-mixed meal diet with a ratio of Rapeseed meal, Cotton meal and Sunflower meal of 1:1:1 to replace soybean meal in the basal diet completely. The crude protein level of the three diets was maintained at 12.5%. Results: Our findings revealed no significant impact of replacing soybean meal with the mixed meal (rapeseed meal, cotton meal, and sunflower meal) on the ADG (Average daily gain), ADFI (Average daily feed intake), and F/G (Feed gain ratio) (P > 0.05), or crude protein, crude fat, and gross energy (P > 0.05) in the diet of finishing pigs. Compared with the CON group, the serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) concentrations were significantly decreased in the CMM group (P < 0.05). However, there is no significant effect of the mixed meal (rapeseed meal, cotton meal, and sunflower meal) replacing soybean meal in the diet on the serum interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentrations (P > 0.05). Concordantly, there is no significant effect of mixed meal (rapeseed meal, cotton meal, and sunflower meal) replacing soybean meal in the diet on the serum antioxidant capacity, such as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of finishing pigs. Moreover, compared with the CON group, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels were significantly lower in the CSM group (P < 0.05) and their total bilirubin (TBIL) levels were significantly lower in the CMM group (P < 0.05). There is not a significant effect on serum D-lactate and diamine oxidase (DAO) concentrations (P > 0.05). The next section of the survey showed that the replacement of soybean meal with a mixed meal (rapeseed meal, cotton meal, and sunflower meal) in the diet did not significantly influence the acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isobutyric acid, and isovaleric acid in the colon contents (P > 0.05). Furthermore, compared with the CON group, the CMM group diet significantly increased the abundance of Actinobacteria at the phylum level (P < 0.05), U_Actinobacteria at the class level (P < 0.05), and U_Bacteria at the class level (P < 0.05). The result also showed that the CMM group significantly reduced the abundance of Oscillospirales at the order level (P < 0.05) and Streptococcaceae at the family level (P < 0.05) compared with the CON group. The Spearman correlation analysis depicted a statistically significant positive correlation identified at the class level between the relative abundance of U_Bacteria and the serum T. BILI concentrations (P < 0.05). Moreover, a significant negative correlation was detected at the order level between the relative abundance of Oscillospirales and the levels of acetic and propionic acids in the colonic contents (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a significant positive correlation between the serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 and the relative abundance of the family Streptococcaceae (P < 0.05). Discussion: This study demonstrated that the mixed meal (rapeseed meal, cotton meal, and sunflower meal) as a substitute for soybean meal in the diet had no significant negative effects on the growth performance, nutrient apparent digestibility, serum immunoglobulins, serum antioxidant capacity, intestinal permeability, short-chain fatty acid content, and diversity of gut microbiota of finishing pigs. These results can help develop further mixed meals (rapeseed meal, cotton meal, and sunflower meal) as a functional alternative feed ingredient for soybean meals in pig diets.

16.
Anim Nutr ; 16: 326-337, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362513

RESUMO

This study was to investigate growth performance, rumination development, rumen fermentation and feed digestion in young calves provided high volumes (about 20% of calf birth weight) of milk with or without forage inclusion and how these parameters correlate with each other. Immediately after birth, 160 newborn Holstein female calves (41.6 ± 4.2 kg of initial BW) were randomly divided into 2 treatments: 1) starter (CON, only starter) and 2) starter and hay (HAY, both starter and hay). The calves were fed their respective experimental diets from d 4 to 84, after which they were all introduced to similar diets until the end of the experiment on d 196. Treatment had no effect on growth and structural measurements throughout the experimental period. However, treatment had an effect on the other parameters, mainly during the post-weaning period. Forage supplementation tended to reduce starter dry matter intake (P = 0.05), while increasing the forage intake (P < 0.01) and the feed-to-gain ratio (P < 0.01). HAY calves had increased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and physically effective NDF (peNDF) intakes (P < 0.05) and tended to lower (P < 0.01) starch intake compared to CON calves. The HAY calves had a higher rumination time (P < 0.01), ruminal pH (P < 0.01), and acetate-to-propionate ratio (P = 0.05) compared to the CON calves. Spearman correlation analysis showed that rumination time was positively related to the ruminal pH at d 84 (P = 0.01) and 196 (P = 0.02). The HAY calves had similar apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), NDF and ether extract (EE), but lower digestibility of organic matter (OM, P = 0.03), crude protein (CP, P < 0.01) and starch (P < 0.01) compared to those of the CON calves at week 12. Furthermore, there were no positive relationships between rumination time and nutrient digestibility or between rumination time per kilogram DM and nutrient digestibility. In conclusion, feeding hay to calves fed a high milk level improved rumination during the post-weaning period only, without a concomitant effect on growth performance throughout the experimental period, suggesting no detrimental effect of feeding forage in calves fed high milk level.

18.
ACS Omega ; 9(6): 7269, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371812

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.3c04101.].

19.
Cell Death Discov ; 10(1): 92, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378809

RESUMO

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multifunctional protein that has been linked to fibrosis and inflammation in the cardiovascular system. In this study, we examined the impact of Gal-3 on inflammation and fibrosis in patients with arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (A-ED) and the underlying mechanisms involved. To induce arterial injury, we utilized cuffs on the periaqueductal common iliac arteries of Sprague‒Dawley (SD) rats and administered a high-fat diet to co-induce local atherosclerosis. Our results showed that we successfully developed a novel A-ED model that was validated based on histological evidence. In vivo, the vascular lumen of rats subjected to a high-fat diet and cuff placement exhibited significant narrowing, accompanied by the upregulation of Gal-3, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) expression in the penile cavernosa. This led to the activation of nuclear factor kappa B 65 (NF-κB-p65), resulting in reduced intracavernosal pressure, endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, and smooth muscle content, promoting inflammation and fibrosis. However, treatment with Gal-3 inhibitor-modified citrus pectin (MCP) significantly normalized those effects. In vitro, knocking down Gal-3 led to a significant reduction in TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB-p65 expression in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs), decreasing inflammation levels. In conclusion, inhibiting Gal-3 may improve A-ED by reducing inflammation, endothelial injury, and fibrosis in the penile corpus cavernosum through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. These findings highlight the potential therapeutic target of Gal-3 in A-ED.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413455

RESUMO

Apathy represents a significant manifestation of negative symptoms within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ) and exerts a profound impact on their social relationships. However, the specific implications of this motivational deficit in social scenarios have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to examine effort-based decision-making in social scenarios and its relation to apathy symptoms in SCZ patients. We initially recruited a group of 50 healthy participants (16 males) to assess the validity of the paradigm. Subsequently, we recruited 45 individuals diagnosed with SCZ (24 males) and 49 demographically-matched healthy controls (HC, 25 males) for the main study. The Mock Job Interview Task was developed to measure effort-based decision-making in social scenarios. The proportion of hard-task choice and a range of subjective ratings were obtained to examine potential between-group differences. SCZ patients were less likely than HC to choose the hard task with strict interviewers, and this group difference was significant when the hard-task reward value was medium and high. More severe apathy symptoms were significantly correlated with an overall reduced likelihood of making a hard-task choice. When dividing the jobs into two categories based on the levels of social engagement needed, SCZ patients were less willing to expend effort to pursue a potential offer for jobs requiring higher social engagement. Our findings indicated impaired effort-based decision-making in SCZ can be generalized from the monetary/nonsocial to a more ecologically social dimension. Our findings affirm the critical role of aberrant effort allocation on negative symptoms, and may facilitate the development of targeted clinical interventions.

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