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1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(6): 3606-3614, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833282

RESUMO

Surface and underwater (S/U) acoustic targets recognition is an important application of passive sonar. It is difficult to distinguish them due to the mixture of underwater target radiation noise and marine environmental noise. In previous studies, although using a single hydrophone was able to identify S/U acoustic targets, there were still a few hydrophones that had poor accuracy. In this paper, S/U acoustic targets recognition using two hydrophones based on Gradient Boosting Decision Tree is proposed, and it is first found out as high as 100% accuracy could be achieved with the implementation of SACLANT 1993 data. The real experimental data are always rare and insufficient. The big training dataset is generated using environmental information by acoustic model named KRAKEN. Simulation and experimental data used in the model are heterogeneous, and the differences between these two kinds of data are assimilated by using vertical linear array feature extraction method. The model realizes the recognition of S/U acoustic targets based on channel information besides source spectrum information. By using the combination of two hydrophones, the surface and underwater targets recognition accuracy reached 1 and 0.9384, while they are only 0.4715 and 0.5620 using a single hydrophone, respectively.

2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1395134, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841671

RESUMO

Background: Sepsis is a complex syndrome characterized by physiological, pathological, and biochemical abnormalities caused by infection. Its development is influenced by factors such as inflammation, nutrition, and immune status. Therefore, we combined C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, and lymphocyte, which could reflect above status, to be the CRP-albumin-lymphocyte (CALLY) index, and investigated its association with clinical prognosis of critically ill patients with sepsis. Methods: This retrospective observational study enrolled critically ill patients with sepsis who had an initial CRP, albumin, and lymphocyte data on the first day of ICU admission. All data were obtained from the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University. The patients were divided into quartiles (Q1-Q4) based on their CALLY index. The outcomes included 30-/60-day mortality and acute kidney injury (AKI) occurrence. The association between the CALLY index and these clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 1,123 patients (63.0% male) were included in the study. The 30-day and 60-day mortality rates were found to be 28.1 and 33.4%, respectively, while the incidence of AKI was 45.6%. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant association between higher CALLY index and lower risk of 30-day and 60-day mortality (log-rank p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis indicated that the CALLY index was independently associated with 30-day mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.965 (0.935-0.997); p = 0.030] and 60-day mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.969 (0.941-0.997); p = 0.032]. Additionally, the multivariate logistic regression model showed that the CALLY index served as an independent risk predictor for AKI occurrence [OR (95%CI): 0.982 (0.962-0.998); p = 0.033]. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated a significant association between the CALLY index and both 30-day and 60-day mortality, as well as the occurrence of AKI, in critically ill patients with sepsis. These findings suggested that the CALLY index may be a valuable tool in identifying sepsis patients who were at high risk for unfavorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Estado Terminal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Linfócitos , Sepse , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Sepse/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Biomarcadores/sangue , Albumina Sérica/análise , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Impot Res ; 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858529

RESUMO

Erectile dysfunction is a common sexual disorder in men. Some studies have found a strong association between some serum metabolites and erectile dysfunction. To investigate this association further, we used bidirectional Mendelian randomisation to investigate causality and possible biological mechanisms.Firstly, this study screened the statistics of genome-wide association studies of serum metabolites and erectile dysfunction to obtain instrumental variables. Inverse variance weighting was used as the primary method for causal effect analysis of instrumental variables in forward or reverse Mendelian randomisation, and the results obtained by MR-Egger regression and the weighted median method were used as references. Subsequently, the metabolites causally associated with erectile dysfunction were subjected to replication analyses and meta-analyses, and the results of the meta-analyses were analysed by pathway analyses to find influential pathways. In this process, Mendelian randomisation results need to be assessed for stability and reliability using sensitivity analysis.It was found that a total of six serum metabolites were causally associated with erectile dysfunction in a forward Mendelian randomisation study. 1,3,7-trimethyluraten (0.85 (0.73-0.99), P = 0.0368), ergothioneine (0.65 (0.45-0.94), P = 0.0226) and gamma-glutamylglutamate (0.63 (0.46-0.88), P = 0.0059) were protective against the development of erectile dysfunction, whereas 2-hydroxyhippurate (1.10 (1.02-1.19), P = 0.0152), N2,N2-dimethylguanosine (1.57 (1.02-2.40), P = 0.0395) and octanoylcarnitine (1.38 (1.06-1.82), P = 0.0183) were able to induce the development of erectile dysfunction. In addition, metabolic pathway analysis showed that 1,3,7-trimethylurate was able to influence the development of erectile dysfunction via the caffeine metabolism pathway (P = 0.0454). On the other hand, reverse Mendelian randomisation analysis showed that erectile dysfunction reduced serum homocitrulline levels (0.99 (0.97-1.00), P = 0.0360). Sensitivity analyses, including heterogeneity tests and pleiotropy tests, confirmed the reliability of the results.In conclusion, this study demonstrated a bidirectional causal relationship between serum metabolites and erectile dysfunction using bidirectional Mendelian randomisation analysis and replication meta-analysis. On this basis, this study provides a new direction of thinking and strong evidence for the therapeutic application and adjunctive diagnosis of serum metabolites in erectile dysfunction, and provides a certain reference value for subsequent related studies.

4.
Opt Express ; 32(11): 20303-20315, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859144

RESUMO

Optical scatterometry, also referred to as optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, is a widely used technique for characterizing nanostructures in semiconductor industry. As a model-based optical metrology, the measurement in optical scatterometry is not straightforward but involves solving a complicated inverse problem. So far, the methods for solving the inverse scattering problem, whether traditional or deep-learning-based, necessitate a predefined geometric model, but they are also constrained by this model with poor applicability. Here, we demonstrate a sketch-guided neural network (SGNN) for nanostructure reconstruction in optical scatterometry. By learning from training data based on the designed generic profile model, the neural network acquires not only scattering knowledge but also sketching techniques, that allows it to draw the profiles corresponding to the input optical signature, regardless of whether the sample structure is the same as the generic profile model or not. The accuracy and strong generalizability of proposed approach is validated by using a series of one-dimensional gratings. Experiments have also demonstrated that it is comparable to nonlinear regression methods and outperforms traditional deep learning methods. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that the concept of sketching has been introduced into deep learning for solving the inverse scattering problem. We believe that our method will provide a novel solution for semiconductor metrology, enabling fast and accurate reconstruction of nanostructures.

6.
Appl Opt ; 63(15): 4165-4174, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856510

RESUMO

Currently, computer-generated holograms (CGHs) based on ray tracing technology are generated faster and faster, and the reconstructed scenes are getting bigger and bigger and contain more and more information. Based on this situation, there are also more applications of using CGHs to hide information, but there is a lack of research on the ability to hide information. To address this issue, this paper proposes a point-sampling CGH method based on ray tracing. Our method utilizes ray tracing techniques to rapidly sample text information at different depths in the scene and hides the depth-encoded text information in the carrier image using discrete cosine transform. The reconstructed image after embedding shows good results, with a peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of 29.56 dB between the hidden images before and after embedding. The PSNR value between the embedded carrier image and the original carrier image is 51.66 dB, making it difficult for the human eye to distinguish, thereby effectively protecting the generated CGH. We also analyzed the maximum information density and observed that computational holograms obtain the maximum information density at 200×200 resolution.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38066, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728485

RESUMO

CDCA3, a cell cycle regulator gene that plays a catalytic role in many tumors, was initially identified as a regulator of cell cycle progression, specifically facilitating the transition from the G2 phase to mitosis. However, its role in glioma remains unknown. In this study, bioinformatics analyses (TCGA, CGGA, Rembrandt) shed light on the upregulation and prognostic value of CDCA3 in gliomas. It can also be included in a column chart as a parameter predicting 3- and 5-year survival risk (C index = 0.86). According to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and gene ontology analysis, the biological processes of CDCA3 are mainly concentrated in the biological activities related to cell cycle such as DNA replication and nuclear division. CDCA3 is closely associated with many classic glioma biomarkers (CDK4, CDK6), and inhibitors of CDK4 and CDK6 have been shown to be effective in tumor therapy. We have demonstrated that high expression of CDCA3 indicates a higher malignancy and poorer prognosis in gliomas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Glioma , Humanos , Glioma/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Regulação para Cima , Biologia Computacional/métodos
8.
Soft Matter ; 20(20): 4052-4056, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738402

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAM)/DNA core-shell microgels with tunable sizes and programmable functions have been prepared. Thanks to the near-infrared (NIR)-responsive UCNP cores and thermosensitive polymeric shells, functional DNA-incorporated microgels with high DNA activity and loading efficiency are obtained, and the activity of the loaded DNA structures can be smartly regulated by NIR illumination and temperature simultaneously.

9.
Research (Wash D C) ; 7: 0378, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766643

RESUMO

The accumulation of senescent cells in kidneys is considered to contribute to age-related diseases and organismal aging. Mitochondria are considered a regulator of cell senescence process. Atrazine as a triazine herbicide poses a threat to renal health by disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis. Melatonin plays a critical role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. The present study aims to explore the mechanism by which melatonin alleviates atrazine-induced renal injury and whether parkin-mediated mitophagy contributes to mitigating cell senescence. The study found that the level of parkin was decreased after atrazine exposure and negatively correlated with senescent markers. Melatonin treatment increased serum melatonin levels and mitigates atrazine-induced renal tubular epithelial cell senescence. Mechanistically, melatonin maintains the integrity of mitochondrial crista structure by increasing the levels of mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), adenosine triphosphatase family AAA domain-containing protein 3A (ATAD3A), and sorting and assembly machinery 50 (Sam50) to prevent mitochondrial DNA release and subsequent activation of cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate-adenosine 5'-monophosphate synthase pathway. Furthermore, melatonin activates Sirtuin 3-superoxide dismutase 2 axis to eliminate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the kidney. More importantly, the antisenescence role of melatonin is largely determined by the activation of parkin-dependent mitophagy. These results offer novel insights into measures against cell senescence. Parkin-mediated mitophagy is a promising drug target for alleviating renal tubular epithelial cell senescence.

10.
Mol Biotechnol ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744786

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BLCA) is a prevalent cancer type with an unmet need for new therapeutic strategies. Nucleoporin 93 (Nup93) is implicated in the pathophysiology of several cancers, but its relationship with bladder cancer remains unclear. Nup93 expression was analyzed in TCGA datasets and 88 BLCA patient samples. Survival analysis and Cox regression models evaluated the association between Nup93 levels and patient prognosis. BLCA cells were used to investigate the effects of Nup93 overexpression or knockdown on cell growth, invasion, stemness (sphere formation and ALDH2 + cancer stem cell marker), and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in vitro. The Wnt activator BML-284 was used to confirm the involvement of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. A xenograft mouse model validated the in vitro findings. Nup93 was highly expressed in BLCA tissues and cell lines, and high Nup93 expression correlated with poor prognosis in BLCA patients. Nup93 silencing inhibited BLCA cell proliferation, Wnt/ß-catenin activation, and cancer cell stemness. Conversely, Nup93 overexpression promoted these effects. BML-284 partially rescued the reduction in cell growth and stemness markers caused by Nup93 knockdown. Nup93 knockdown also suppressed the tumor formation of BLCA cells in vivo. Nup93 regulates BLCA cell growth and stemness via the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, suggesting its potential as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in BLCA.

11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1357260, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784230

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease whose clinical and imaging manifestations are non-specific, characterized by the deposition of microliths, which primarily consist of calcium and phosphorus, within the alveoli. In the cases of PAM, patients combined with calcification of other organs such as gastric mucosal calcification are less common. Case presentation: A 59-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to cough producing white, foamy sputum, accompanied by dyspnea and fever for 20 days. The CT scan showed diffuse ground-glass opacities and calcification of the gastric mucosa. Lung tissue biopsy revealed the presence of calcification and granulomatous foreign bodies in the interstitium and alveolar cavity. In the later stages, she developed painful skin petechiae. For this patient, the diagnosis of PAM, gastric mucosal calcification, and purpura fulminans was made. However, the genetic test results hinted that the patient and her son had a heterozygous mutation in the FBN1 gene, but her daughter's genetic test results were normal. Although the patient received anti-infection treatment, steroids, and oxygen therapy, her condition did not improve. Conclusion: We reported a rare case of PAM combined with calcification of other organs and purpura fulminans. Treatment of steroids did not show any benefit. The causative mechanism and effective treatment of this disease remain unclear. More treatments need to be explored.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731885

RESUMO

Lysine is an essential amino acid that cannot be synthesized in humans. Rice is a global staple food for humans but has a rather low lysine content. Identification of the quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) and genes underlying lysine content is crucial to increase lysine accumulation. In this study, five grain and three leaf lysine content datasets and 4,630,367 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 387 rice accessions were used to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) by ten statistical models. A total of 248 and 71 common QTNs associated with grain/leaf lysine content were identified. The accuracy of genomic selection/prediction RR-BLUP models was up to 0.85, and the significant correlation between the number of favorable alleles per accession and lysine content was up to 0.71, which validated the reliability and additive effects of these QTNs. Several key genes were uncovered for fine-tuning lysine accumulation. Additionally, 20 and 30 QTN-by-environment interactions (QEIs) were detected in grains/leaves. The QEI-sf0111954416 candidate gene LOC_Os01g21380 putatively accounted for gene-by-environment interaction was identified in grains. These findings suggested the application of multi-model GWAS facilitates a better understanding of lysine accumulation in rice. The identified QTNs and genes hold the potential for lysine-rich rice with a normal phenotype.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lisina , Oryza , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Fenótipo , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1396, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38789981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) is rising rapidly worldwide. However, there are few reports on these heterogeneous diseases in China. Our study aimed to explore the epidemiological characteristics of NENs in Beijing. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using population-based cancer surveillance data in Beijing, China. All data were extracted from the Beijing Cancer Registry with incidence dates from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2018; the follow-up period was through 31 December 2021. Segi's world standard population was used to estimate the age-standardized rate. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: From 1998 to 2018, the incidence of NENs in Beijing initially showed a significant increasing trend, from 1.07/100,000 to 3.53/100,000; this began to plateau after 2013. The age-specific incidence rate increased with age and peaked in the age group 70-74 years. The incidence in men was significantly higher than that in women (4.41/100,000 vs. 1.69/100,000). The most common sites of NENs were the lung (2.38/100,000) and rectum (0.14/100,000). Most NENs were diagnosed at a late stage. We found that NENs originating from the lung had worse overall survival than extrapulmonary NENs, and male patients had worse survival than female patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study retrospectively analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of NENs in Beijing from 1998 to 2018. Our findings provide a reference regarding the epidemiological statistics of NENs in Beijing to contribute to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of these specific tumors.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pequim/epidemiologia , Idoso , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Incidência , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Criança
14.
ACS Nano ; 18(22): 14764-14778, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776362

RESUMO

High-energy-density lithium-metal batteries (LMBs) coupling lithium-metal anodes and high-voltage cathodes are hindered by unstable electrode/electrolyte interphases (EEIs), which calls for the rational design of efficient additives. Herein, we analyze the effect of electron structure on the coordination ability and energy levels of the additive, from the aspects of intramolecular electron cloud density and electron delocalization, to reveal its mechanism on solvation structure, redox stability, as-formed EEI chemistry, and electrochemical performances. Furthermore, we propose an electron reconfiguration strategy for molecular engineering of additives, by taking sorbide nitrate (SN) additive as an example. The lone pair electron-rich group enables strong interaction with the Li ion to regulate solvation structure, and intramolecular electron delocalization yields further positive synergistic effects. The strong electron-withdrawing nitrate moiety decreases the electron cloud density of the ether-based backbone, improving the overall oxidation stability and cathode compatibility, anchoring it as a reliable cathode/electrolyte interface (CEI) framework for cathode integrity. In turn, the electron-donating bicyclic-ring-ether backbone breaks the inherent resonance structure of nitrate, facilitating its reducibility to form a N-contained and inorganic Li2O-rich solid electrolyte interface (SEI) for uniform Li deposition. Optimized physicochemical properties and interfacial biaffinity enable significantly improved electrochemical performance. High rate (10 C), low temperature (-25 °C), and long-term stability (2700 h) are achieved, and a 4.5 Ah level Li||NCM811 multilayer pouch cell under harsh conditions is realized with high energy density (462 W h/kg). The proof of concept of this work highlights that the rational ingenious molecular design based on electron structure regulation represents an energetic strategy to modulate the electrolyte and interphase stability, providing a realistic reference for electrolyte innovations and practical LMBs.

15.
Nanoscale ; 16(22): 10637-10644, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738309

RESUMO

The poor hydrostability of most reported metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has become a daunting challenge in their practical applications. Recently, MOFs combined with multifunctional polymers can act as a functional platform and exhibit unique catalytic performance; they can not only inherit the outstanding properties of the two components but also offer unique synergistic effects. Herein, an original porous polymer-confined strategy has been developed to prepare a superhydrophobic MOF composite to significantly enhance its moisture or water resistance. The selective nucleation and growth of MOF nanocrystals confined in the pore of PDVB-vim are closely related to the structure-directing and coordination-modulating properties of PDVB-vim. The resultant MOF/PDVB-vim composite not only produces superior superhydrophobicity without significantly disturbing the original features but also exhibits a novel catalytic activity in the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of indoles with trans-ß-nitrostyrene because of the accessible sites and synergistic effects.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 473: 134614, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761767

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its constituents (black carbon (BC), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), organic matter (OM), inorganic sulfate (SO42-)) and incident female breast cancer in Beijing, China. Data from a prospective cohort comprising 85,504 women enrolled in the National Urban Cancer Screening Program in Beijing (2013-2019) and the Tracking Air Pollution in China dataset are used. Monthly exposures were aggregated to calculate 5-year average concentrations to indicate long-term exposure. Cox models and mixture exposure models (weighted quantile sum, quantile-based g-computation, and explanatory machine learning model) were employed to analyze the associations. Findings indicated increased levels of PM2.5 and its constituents were associated with higher breast cancer risk, with hazard ratios per 1-µg/m3 increase of 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03), 1.39 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.65), 1.28 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.46), 1.15 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.24), 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08), and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.23) for PM2.5, BC, NH4+, NO3-, OM, and SO42-, respectively. Exposure-response curves demonstrated a monotonic risk increase without an evident threshold. Mixture exposure models highlighted BC and SO42- as key factors, underscoring the importance of reducing emissions of these pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Neoplasias da Mama , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Adulto , Incidência , Idoso , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/toxicidade
17.
J Cutan Pathol ; 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699948

RESUMO

Lichen myxedematosus (LM) is a chronic cutaneous mucinosis that can present as a localized skin lesion or as a generalized systemic disease termed scleromyxedema. The differential diagnosis is determined by a combination of clinical presentation, serological studies, and histopathological examination. Currently, well-established and accepted histopathological features to distinguish localized LM from scleromyxedema have not been elucidated. Our recent publication, together with a retrospective literature review, suggests that the presence of groups of light chain-restricted plasma cells represents a distinct histopathological clue for the diagnosis of localized LM. In this report, we provide two additional cases of localized LM with lambda light chain-restricted plasma cells, together with clinical and histopathological findings that are similar to our previous publication. These cases support our theory that the light chain-restricted plasmacytic microenvironment is primarily attributed to the pathogenesis of localized LM. Therefore, we consider these cases to constitute a clinically and pathologically new variant of localized LM and name it primary localized cutaneous LM with light chain-restricted plasma cells.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1392175, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736439

RESUMO

Wolfberry (Lycium, of the family Solanaceae) has special nutritional benefits due to its valuable metabolites. Here, 16 wolfberry-specific metabolites were identified by comparing the metabolome of wolfberry with those of six species, including maize, rice, wheat, soybean, tomato and grape. The copy numbers of the riboflavin and phenyllactate degradation genes riboflavin kinase (RFK) and phenyllactate UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT1) were lower in wolfberry than in other species, while the copy number of the phenyllactate synthesis gene hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate reductase (HPPR) was higher in wolfberry, suggesting that the copy number variation of these genes among species may be the main reason for the specific accumulation of riboflavin and phenyllactate in wolfberry. Moreover, the metabolome-based neighbor-joining tree revealed distinct clustering of monocots and dicots, suggesting that metabolites could reflect the evolutionary relationship among those species. Taken together, we identified 16 specific metabolites in wolfberry and provided new insight into the accumulation mechanism of species-specific metabolites at the genomic level.

19.
Small Methods ; : e2301778, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741551

RESUMO

With the rapid development and maturity of electrochemical CO2 conversion involving cathodic CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) and anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER), conventional ex situ characterizations gradually fall behind in detecting real-time products distribution, tracking intermediates, and monitoring structural evolution, etc. Nevertheless, advanced in situ techniques, with intriguing merits like good reproducibility, facile operability, high sensitivity, and short response time, can realize in situ detection and recording of dynamic data, and observe materials structural evolution in real time. As an emerging visual technique, scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) presents local electrochemical signals on various materials surface through capturing micro-current caused by reactants oxidation and reduction. Importantly, SECM holds particular potentials in visualizing reactive intermediates at active sites and obtaining instantaneous morphology evolution images to reveal the intrinsic reactivity of active sites. Therefore, this review focuses on SECM fundamentals and its specific applications toward CO2RR and OER, mainly including electrochemical behavior observation on local regions of various materials, target products and onset potentials identification in real-time, reaction pathways clarification, reaction kinetics exploration under steady-state conditions, electroactive materials screening and multi-techniques coupling for a joint utilization. This review undoubtedly provides a leading guidance to extend various SECM applications to other energy-related fields.

20.
Zookeys ; 1197: 197-213, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666072

RESUMO

A new species of gekkonid, Hemiphyllodactylusgengmaensissp. nov., is described based on six specimens from Gengma Dai and Wa Autonomous County, Yunnan, China. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by a significant genetic divergence of greater than 9.7% in the mitochondrial ND2 gene and a combination of the following characters: a maximum SVL of 43.24mm; 8 or 9 chin scales; six circumnasal scales; 2 or 3 internasal scales; 9-11 supralabial scales; 8 or 9 infralabial scales; 11-18 dorsal scales; 8-10 ventral scales; a manual lamellar formula of 5-5-5-4 or 5-6-5-4 and a pedal lamellar formula of 5-5-6-5; 20-25 precloacal and femoral pore-bearing scales contiguous in males; dark postorbital stripes or striping on body; dark dorsal transverse blotches present; and a brown postsacral mark bearing anteriorly projecting arms. The discovery of this new species brings the number of Hemiphyllodactylus species in China to 15.

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