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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 36, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present cohort study aims to examine the relationship between fibrinogen (Fib) levels and glucose metabolism [fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)] and investigate the impact of high Fib on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable CAD and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM) or diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: This study included 5237 patients from March 2011 to December 2015. Patients were distributed into three groups according to Fib levels (low Fib, median Fib, high Fib) and further categorized by glucose metabolism status [normal glucose regulation (NGR), Pre-DM, DM]. All patients were followed up for the occurrences of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal MI, stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization. RESULTS: Linear regression analyses showed that FBG and HbA1c levels were positively associated with Fib in overall CAD participants, either with or without DM (all P < 0.001). During an average of 18,820 patient-years of follow-up, 476 MACEs occurred. High Fib was independently associated with MACEs after adjusting for confounding factors [Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.97, P < 0.001]. Furthermore, DM but not pre-DM was a significant predictor of MACEs (P < 0.001 and P > 0.05, respectively). When patients were stratified by both glucose metabolism status and Fib levels, high Fib was associated with a higher risk of MACEs in pre-DM (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.02-2.71, P < 0.05). Medium and high Fib levels were associated with an even higher risk of MACEs in DM (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.14-3.05 and HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.42-3.66, all P < 0.05). After adding the combination of Fib and glucose status to the Cox model, the C-statistic was increased by 0.015 (0.001-0.026). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that Fib levels were associated with FBG and HbA1c in stable CAD patients. Moreover, elevated Fib was independently associated with MACEs in CAD patients, especially among those with pre-DM and DM, suggesting that Fib may provide incremental value in the cardiovascular risk stratification of pre-DM and DM patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular (RV) function is based largely on visual estimation of tricuspid annulus and motion of the free wall. Regional strain analysis has provided an objective measure of myocardial performance assessment, but is limited in use by vendor-specific software. The study was designed to investigate statistical correlation between RV region-specific strain and echocardiographic parameters of RV function using a vendor-neutral RV-specific strain assessment program. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred seven patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft, valve repair or replacement, or a combination of procedures. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred seven patients underwent comprehensive echocardiographic of RV function intraoperatively. Off-line analysis of global, longitudinal, and septal strain was performed using a vendor-neutral software. The 2 values were compared statistically. All pairs demonstrated strong statistical significance; the strongest relationships were between (1) RV fractional area change (FAC) (%)-RV longitudinal strain (r2 = 0.83, p < 0.001), and (2) tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (mm)-lateral S' velocity (cm/s) (r2 = 0.80, p < 0.001). The weakest correlations were (1) RV FAC (%)-lateral S' velocity (cm/s) (r2 = 0.37, p < 0.001), and (2) lateral S' velocity (cm/s)-RV longitudinal strain (r2 = 0.40, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: RV function can be assessed objectively by strain analyses across different platforms using the artificial intelligence-based vendor-neutral strain analysis software. There is a statistically significant correlation between strain values and conventional 2-dimensional echocardiographic parameters of RV function.

3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163661

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are found in humans and a wide variety of wild and domestic animals, and of substantial impact on human and animal health. In poultry, the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution and taxonomy of CoVs dominant in birds other than chickens remain enigmatic. In our previous study, we proposed that the CoVs dominant (i.e. mainly circulating) in ducks (DdCoVs) should represent a novel species, which was different from the one represented by the CoVs dominant in chickens (CdCoVs). In this study, we conducted a large-scale surveillance of CoVs in chickens, ducks, geese, pigeons and other birds (quails, sparrows and partridges) using a conserved RT-PCR assay. The surveillance demonstrated that CdCoVs, DdCoVs and the CoVs dominant in pigeons (PdCoVs) belong to different lineages, and they are all prevalent in live poultry markets and the backyard flocks in some regions of China. We further sequenced seven Coronaviridae-wide conserved domains in their replicase polyprotein pp1ab of seven PdCoVs and found that the genetic distances in these domains between PdCoVs and DdCoVs or CdCoVs are large enough to separate PdCoVs into a novel species, which were different from the ones represented by DdCoVs or CdCoVs within the genus Gammacoronavirus, per the species demarcation criterion of International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. This report shed novel insight into the genetic diversity, distribution, evolution and taxonomy of avian CoVs.

4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 185: 113228, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169788

RESUMO

Deep eutectic solvent (DES) combined with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was successfully developed and fully validated to simultaneously determine Icarrin, IcarisidⅡ, Epimcdin A, Epimcdin B and Epimcdin C for the quality evaluation of Herba Epimedii. Twelve kinds of DESs were initially screened, and then the effective extraction was achieved by the tailor-made DES consisting of the mixture of l-proline and ethylene glycol with the molar ratio of 1:4 in this study. The optimal conditions were further optimized by the orthogonal experimental design (OED). 0.2 g sample powder was ultrasonic extracted by using 4.00 mL of aqueous solution containing 70 % (v/v) the above DES for 45 min, resulting to the optimum extraction efficiency. The FT-IR and NMR spectra showed the chemical structural characteristic correlation between l-proline and ethylene glycol, and could infer the formation of hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl group of ethylene glycol and the nitrogen atom of l-proline. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was further processed for the quality evaluation of Herba Epimedii. Finally, DES could be used to distinguish different origins and different kinds of Herba Epimedii, and to evaluate the quality of Herba Epimedii. This method provided good linearity, precision and accuracy. The recoveries of the five main bioactive flavonoids in Herba Epimedii were within the range of 88.5-107.7 % (RSD less than 3.4 %). Compared to the traditional extraction method of Icarin in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 edition), the solvent consumption was decreased by 80 % and the extraction time was shortened by 25 %, leading to more efficient and more convenient of this DES-UAE method. This work indicated that DES would be a promising high effective solvent for the analytical sample preparations of plant herbs, and it might have a broad application in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicines.

5.
Mol Pharm ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159961

RESUMO

The therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy in many types of hematological malignancies and solid tumors is dramatically hindered by multidrug resistance (MDR). This work presents a combination strategy of pretreatment of MDA-MB-231/MDR1 cells with quercetin (QU) followed by doxorubicin (DOX) to overcome MDR, which can be delivered by mixed micelles composed of the reduction-sensitive hyaluronic acid-based conjugate and d-α-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol) 1000 succinate. The combination strategy can enhance the cytotoxicity of DOX on MDA-MB-231/MDR1 cells by increasing intracellular DOX accumulation and facilitating DOX-induced apoptosis. The probable MDR reversal mechanisms are that the pretreatment cells with QU-loaded mixed micelles downregulate P-glycoprotein expression to decrease DOX efflux as well as initiate mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways to accelerate DOX-induced apoptosis. In addition, this combination strategy can not only potentiate in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency but also enhance the antitumor effect in MDA-MB-231/MDR1-bearing nude mice without toxicity or side effects. This research suggests that the co-administration of natural compounds and chemotherapeutic drugs could be an effective strategy to overcome tumor MDR, which deserves further exploration.

6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 139: 105499, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199158

RESUMO

Previous studies have focused on the impact of visibility level on drivers' behavior and their safety in foggy weather. However, other important environmental factors such as road alignment have not been considered. This paper aims to propose a methodology in investigating rear-end collision avoidance behavior under varied foggy conditions, with focusing on changes in visibility and road alignment in this study. A driving simulator experiment with a mixed 2 × 4 × 6 factor design was conducted using an advanced high-fidelity driving simulator. The design matrix includes two safety-critical conditions, four visibility conditions, and six road alignment situations (in terms of the road curve and slope). Behavior variables from different dimensions were identified and compared under varied conditions. To estimate the safety of drivers, a time-based measurement, speed reduction time, is selected among the variables as a measure of safety. The survival analysis approach was introduced to model the relationship between environmental factors and driver safety, using speed reduction time as the survival time. Both the Kaplan-Meier method and the COX model were applied and compared. Results generally suggest that reduced visibility leads to more dangerous rear-end collision avoidance behavior from different aspects. Though findings are mixed regarding the road alignment, the impact of the road alignment was found to be significant. Interestingly, conditions of downward slope were found to be safer. Overall, the COX model outperformed the Kaplan-Meier method in understanding the impact of environmental factors, and it can be applied to investigate other contributing factors for freeway safety under foggy weather conditions.

7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065513

RESUMO

In recent decades, multiple subtypes (i.e. H9N2, H5N1 and H7N9) of avian influenza virus (AIV) have become widespread in China, which has caused enormous economic losses and posed considerable threats to public health. In this review, with the aim to provide insights into and guidelines for the control of AIV spread in China and globally in the future, we analysed the reasons why AIV has persisted in China based on socio-economic features, including poultry biosecurity, live bird markets, live bird transportation, wild birds, poultry waterfowl, poultry density, poultry population and infected birds. We also described the present status of the AIV subtypes H9, H5 and H7 in China to elucidate the effectiveness of the strategies currently employed in China (i.e. culling, mass vaccination and biosecurity improvement) to control the disease based on a literature review and our unpublished surveillance data collected over a 12-year period from 2007 to 2018. We then summarized the lessons to be learned from the control experience in China, including whether culling of infected birds is of limited value for disease control and whether improved biosecurity is a better option than culling and vaccination for the long-term control of AIV, and when the vaccine strain should be updated.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091192

RESUMO

Nowadays, the flourishing exploitation of multifunction luminescent materials with fast self-healing and superior mechanical features greatly broadens the scope for wide applications in optical and display devices, but this is still a formidably challenging task. Herein, we realize color-tunable luminescent materials functionalized with lanthanide ions (Ln3+) and terpyridine ligand coordination complexes that show highly stretchable and rapid self-healing performance, simultaneously broadening their application prospects both optically and mechanically. The multiple color emission, including visible and near-infrared luminescence, can be achieved by energy transfer from the coordinating terpyridine unit to Ln3+ via the so-called "antenna effect". The dynamic Ln-N coordination exhibits extreme stretchability and fast self-healing under ambient conditions. Of particular interest is that the healing process is not significantly affected by surface aging and atmospheric moisture. The multifunction materials open up a new pathway for future development of the next-generation wearable electronics including flexible and self-healable conductors.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19062, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for functional independence and depression prevention in early stage of post-stroke (within 1 month after stroke onset) are still unclear. METHODS: Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing early SSRIs therapy with placebo were sought from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, and Embase. Primary outcomes were functional independence and depression occurrence. Secondary outcomes contained the improvement of Fugl-Meyer motor scale (FMMS) score and adverse events. We used fixed or random effects model to pooled effect estimates. And we chose risk ratio (RR) or mean differences (MDs) with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for data analysis. RESULTS: We included 10 RCTs with total 5370 patients. The outcome of functional independence showed no significant difference between SSRIs and placebo group (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.96-1.72; P = .10; I = 92%). However, depression occurrence differed significantly between these 2 groups, which favored SSRIs group (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.90; P = .001; I = 23%). In addition, we observed that the side effects of SSRIs were seizure and nausea. Except psychiatric disorders/insanity rate was less in SSRIs group than placebo group (RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48-0.90; P = .009) (I = 0%), other adverse events were revealed non-significant in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis revealed that early SSRIs therapy were effective to prevent post-stroke depression. However, SSRIs did not improve patient's post-stroke functional independence. In addition to increase the occurrence of seizure and nausea, SSRIs were relatively safe.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos
10.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To extrapolate the infiltration levels of immune cells in patients with lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomic features. METHODS: A retrospective dataset of 516 patients with LGGs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was analysed for the infiltration levels of six types of immune cells using Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) based on RNA sequencing data. Radiomic features were extracted from 107 patients whose pre-operative MRI data are available in The Cancer Imaging Archive; 85 and 22 of these patients were assigned to the training and testing cohort, respectively. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was applied to select optimal radiomic features to build the radiomic signatures for extrapolating the infiltration levels of immune cells in the training cohort. The developed radiomic signatures were examined in the testing cohort using Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: The infiltration levels of B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells negatively correlated with overall survival in the 516 patient cohort when using univariate Cox's regression. Age, Karnofsky Performance Scale, WHO grade, isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant status and the infiltration of neutrophils correlated with survival using multivariate Cox's regression analysis. The infiltration levels of the 6 cell types could be estimated by radiomic features in the training cohort, and their corresponding radiomic signatures were built. The infiltration levels of B cells, CD8+ T cells, neutrophils and macrophages estimated by radiomics correlated with those estimated by TIMER in the testing cohort. Combining clinical/genomic features with the radiomic signatures only slightly improved the prediction of immune cell infiltrations. CONCLUSION: We developed MRI-based radiomic models for extrapolating the infiltration levels of immune cells in LGGs. Our results may have implications for treatment planning.

11.
J Med Chem ; 63(4): 1597-1611, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977207

RESUMO

Herein we detail the discovery of a series of parthenolide dimers as activators of PKM2 and evaluation of their anti-GBM activities. The most promising compound 5 showed high potency to activate PKM2 with an AC50 value of 15 nM, inhibited proliferation and metastasis, and induced apoptosis of GBM cells. Compound 5 could promote tetramer formation of PKM2 and reduce nucleus translocation of PKM2 in GBM cells without influence on the expression of total PKM2, thereby inhibiting the STAT3 signal pathway in vitro and in vivo. PKM2 knockdown assay demonstrated that the anti-GBM effect of 5 mainly depended on the expression of PKM2 in vitro and in vivo. Compound 16, a prodrug of 5, markedly suppressed U118 tumor xenograft growth and reduced the weight of tumor. On the basis of these investigations, we propose that 16 might be considered as a promising lead compound for discovery of anti-GBM drugs.

12.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994000

RESUMO

Sertoli cells are important for spermatogenesis not only by directly interacting with germ line cells in the seminiferous epithelium but also by constituting the blood-testis barrier (BTB) structure to create a favorable environment for spermatogenesis. Blind sterile (bs) male mice are infertile, with excessive germ cell apoptosis and spermatogenesis arrest. TBC1D20 (TBC1 domain family member 20) deficiency has been identified as the causative mutation in bs mice. However, whether TBC1D20 loss of function also impairs BTB integrity, which further contributes to the failed spermatogenesis of bs male mice, remains unclear. In the present study, biotin tracer assay and transmission electron microscopy showed severely disrupted BTB integrity in bs testes. Compared to the wild-type Sertoli cells, BTB components of cultured bs Sertoli cells in vitro was perturbed with downregulation of E-cadherin, ZO-1, ß-catenin, and Claudin 11. The obvious rearrangement of F-actin indicated disrupted epithelial-mesenchymal balance in TBC1D20-deficient Sertoli cells. The ability of bs Sertoli cells to maintain the clone formation of spermatogonia stem cells was also obviously limited. Furthermore, the decreasing of SOX9 (sex-determining region Y box 9) and WT1 (Wilms' tumor 1) and increasing of vimentin in bs Sertoli cells indicated that TBC1D20 loss of function attenuated the differentiation progression of bs Sertoli cells. In summary, TBC1D20 loss of function impedes the maturation of adult Sertoli cells and resulted in impaired BTB integrity, which is further implicated in the infertile phenotype of bs male mice.

13.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 15, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the patterns of species richness across elevational gradients is a key concept for contemporary research in ecology and evolution, and critical to understanding large-scale trends in biodiversity, global change and conservation. However, patterns of elevational species richness between taxonomic groups, regions and latitudes are inconsistent, so that various, sometimes conflicting hypotheses exist. Several scholars have pointed out that research on elevational distribution patterns is often biased by the sampling design employed. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed species richness of Nematode-Trapping Fungi (NTF) across an elevation gradient at two mountainous sites in western Yunnan Province, P.R. China. We tested for potential differences in the results when using different sampling designs. RESULTS: A total of 3 genera, 17 species, 222 strains of NTF were isolated and identified from Gaoligongshan and Cangshan. Species accumulation curves for both sites and sampling modes had acceptable leveling, demonstrating sufficient sampling effort. At Gaoligongshan, the elevation distribution patterns of NTF were different under two sampling patterns. When reducing the analyzed altitude range in Gaoligongshan, the elevation distribution pattern of the NTF changed. A similar elevation distribution pattern was observed in Cangshan when testing the same altitude range. In general, when treating the same dataset using different sampling designs, the resulting distribution patterns of species richness and occurrence frequencies were clearly different. Moreover, after removal of the samples located within lower-altitude zones affected by anthropogenic interferences, the distribution pattern of NTF in the two sites tended to become uniform. CONCLUSION: The sampling design, and in particular the elevation interval between plots, has a significant effect on the assessment of species distribution in mountainous regions. Other factors such as human activities and the multi-dimensionality of biodiversity also contribute to result biases. It is recommended that sampling design is given careful consideration in future studies on the elevational gradients of species richness, using stratified approaches according to the most relevant factors.

14.
Hum Cell ; 33(1): 185-194, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605287

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BCa) is identified as the most common malignant solid cancer in the urogenital tract. Recently, dysregulation of miRNAs has received more attention because of its extensive role in the carcinogenesis of BCa. This research was designed to verify how miR-125b-5p be involved in BCa development. The expression of miR-125b-5p was detected in 52 pairs of BCa specimens and adjacent normal bladder specimens. The effects of miR-125b-5p on BCa viability, migration, and apoptosis in vitro were examined. We then examined directly target gene(s) of miR-125b-5p in BCa cells. Our data demonstrated that miR-125b-5p was decreased in BCa tissues and cell lines. Patients with low miR-125b-5p expression had obviously shorter 5-year survival time. Lower miR-125b-5p expression was significant correlated with distant metastasis, tumor size and lymph node metastasis. Ectopic expression of miR-125b-5p inhibited the BCa cell viability and migration and induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, HK2 was confirmed regulated by miR-125b-5p. HK2 recovered miR-125b-5p-mediated suppression of BCa cell viability and migration. In addition, miR-125b-5p also exhibited suppressive effect on PI3K/AKT pathway. Overall, these data indicate that miR-125b-5p played a role in the suppressive effect on BCa by targeting HK2 through suppressing PI3K/AKT pathway and offer a potential therapeutic target for BCa.

15.
J Hazard Mater ; 384: 121347, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606254

RESUMO

Deodorizing materials are often restricted from large-scale industrial production due to the high preparation cost. By utilizing the simple acid leaching technology, this study made use of the coal gasification fine slag (FS) as raw material to prepare a cost effective FS-based deodorant (FSD) with a specific surface area of 393 m2 g-1 and a pore volume of 0.405 cm3 g-1. The propane adsorption test on FSD showed the maximum adsorption capacity to be as high as 121.61 mg g-1 at 273 K. The partition coefficient values at 10% and 100% breakthrough (BT) for FSD to adsorb propane were 1.5 × 10-3 and 3.2 × 10-4 mol kg-1 Pa-1, respectively. Furthermore, the FSD was applied in the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutants from polypropylene resin (PP). It showed that the deodorizing effect of the FSD was nearly three times as good as the commonly used zeolite deodorants, which was able to decrease 50 percent of the VOCs volatilization amount in PP resin. Moreover, the FSD can better strengthen the mechanical properties of PP resin. This work provides a new method for the industrial production of deodorants as well as a new direction for the recycle of coal gasification wastes.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 55(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619475

RESUMO

Shorter peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) telomere length (TL) has been associated with poor outcomes in various chronic lung diseases. Whether PBL-TL is associated with survival from critical illness was tested in this study.We analysed data from a prospective observational cohort study of 937 critically ill patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). PBL-TL was measured using quantitative PCR of DNA isolated from PBLs. Findings were validated in an independent cohort of 394 critically ill patients with sepsis admitted to the University of California San Francisco (UCSF).In the VUMC cohort, shorter PBL-TL was associated with worse 90-day survival (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.004); in subgroup analyses, shorter PBL-TL was associated with worse 90-day survival for patients with sepsis (aHR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.001), but not trauma. Although not associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), among ARDS subjects, shorter PBL-TL was associated with more severe ARDS (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.006). The associations of PBL-TL with survival (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.003) and risk for developing severe ARDS (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-6.3 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.044) were validated in the UCSF cohort.Short PBL-TL is strongly associated with worse survival and more severe ARDS in critically ill patients, especially patients with sepsis. These findings suggest that telomere dysfunction may contribute to outcomes from critical illness.

17.
Adv Mater ; 32(3): e1806538, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379017

RESUMO

DNA hydrogels, which take advantage of the unique properties of functional DNA motifs, such as specific molecular recognition, programmable and high-precision assembly, multifunctionality, and excellent biocompatibility, have attracted increasing research interest in the past two decades in diverse fields, especially in biosensing and biomedical applications. The responsiveness of smart DNA hydrogels to external stimuli by changing their swelling volume, crosslinking density, and optical or mechanical properties has facilitated the development of DNA-hydrogel-based in vitro biosensing systems and actuators. Furthermore, reducing the sizes of DNA hydrogels to the micro- and nanoscale leads to better responsiveness and delivery capacity, thereby making them excellent candidates for rapid detection, in vivo real-time sensing, and drug release applications. Here, the recent progress in the development of smart DNA hydrogels and DNA microgels for biosensing and biomedical applications is summarized, and the current challenges as well as future prospects are also discussed.

18.
Biol Reprod ; 102(1): 116-132, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435642

RESUMO

As the follicle develops, the thickening of the granulosa compartment leads to progressively deficient supply of oxygen in granulosa cells (GCs) due to the growing distances from the follicular vessels. These conditions are believed to cause hypoxia in GCs during folliculogenesis. Upon hypoxic conditions, several types of mammalian cells have been reported to undergo cell cycle arrest. However, it remains unclear whether hypoxia exerts any impact on cell cycle progression of GCs. On the other hand, although the GCs may live in a hypoxic environment, their mitotic capability appears to be unaffected in growing follicles. It thus raises the question whether there are certain intraovarian factors that might overcome the inhibitory effects of hypoxia. The present study provides the first evidence suggesting that cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-mimicked hypoxia prevented G1-to-S cell cycle progression in porcine GCs. In addition, we demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of CoCl2 on GCs cell cycle are mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha/FOXO1/Cdkn1b pathway. Moreover, we identified insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) as an intrafollicular factor required for cell cycle recovery by binding to IGF-I receptor in GCs suffering CoCl2 stimulation. Further investigations confirmed a role of IGF-I in preserving G1/S progression of CoCl2-treated GCs via activating the cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase2 complex through the phoshatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B (AKT)/FOXO1/Cdkn1b axis. Although the present findings were based on a hypoxia mimicking model by using CoCl2, our study might shed new light on the regulatory mechanism of GCs cell cycle upon hypoxic stimulation.

19.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(3): 574-581, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wound healing has always been an intractable medical problem for both clinicians and researchers and a burden for patients both physically and financially. Poor wound healing at the injury site, especially in an exposed site, is associated with an unappealing esthetic appearance in patients and also results in a bad skin barrier, tissue infection and necrosis, loss of main function in extreme cases and other serious local and systemic consequences. There is a crucial and urgent need for newer, more efficacious methods for enhancing the healing process to achieve optimal outcomes morphologically and functionally. Recent advances have focused on developing therapies that promote tissue regeneration through positively activating the mechanism of tissue repair. Given the increasing high-quality studies concerning exosomes derived from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs-Exos), their potential use in accelerating or supporting the wound healing process has gained increasing attention in recent years. AIMS: In this review, we present an overview of the recent advances in the field of ADSCs-Exos and investigate their benefit in wound healing for skin regeneration with the expectation of providing a perspective on how to best utilize this powerful cell-free therapy in the future. METHODS: A retrospective review of the published data was conducted. RESULTS: Most studies have shown the possible roles of ASCs-derived exosomes (ADSCs-Exos) in cutaneous wound healing through regulation of the inflammatory response and promotion of cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis and matrix reconstruction to provide a new perspective strategy for the use of ASCs-Exos in skin wound healing. CONCLUSION: ADSCs-Exos are likely to achieve the best functionally and cosmetic skin wound healing while avoiding undesirable consequences. ADSCs-Exos represent a novel therapeutic tool in soft tissue repair; however, further randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical trials must be performed to determine the specific mechanisms, safety and other relevant cosmetic concerns.

20.
Small ; 16(1): e1905977, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814281

RESUMO

Refractory periapical periodontitis, which is a persistent infection after root canal treatment, still has no effective treatment. Its most common pathogen is Enterococcus faecalis. Here, the precursor of phytosteroids, dioscin, is introduced to fight against the inflammation induced by Enterococcus faecalis. The findings suggest that dioscin inhibits the nuclear transport of NF-κB and the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by lipoteichoic acid from the Enterococcus faecalis. The decrease in mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, Caspase-1, and IL-1ß is observed in dioscin treated mouse macrophages. In the MC3T3-E1 cells, dioscin also promotes the expression of osteogenic-related factors, ALP, Runx2, and OCN. The increased formation of mineralized nodules after the application of dioscin further indicates that dioscin has the potential to promote osteogenesis. The above results suggest dioscin can be a potential root canal irrigation or root canal sealant for the treatment of refractory apical periodontitis.

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