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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156637, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697213

RESUMO

The intensity of cyanobacterial blooms that predominate in the world's lakes and reservoirs is variable, which may lead to differing effects on the freshwater ecosystem. Planktonic eukaryotes play key roles in the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems; however, little is known about the influence of cyanobacterial blooms on eukaryotic plankton communities and their function. Herein, the dynamics of eukaryotic plankton communities in Hongze Lake, which is the fourth largest freshwater lake in China, with a range of bloom levels occurred, from low to high, were studied to reveal the effect of cyanobacterial blooms' spatial heterogeneity on planktonic eukaryotes. Results showed that the diversity, richness, and evenness of eukaryotic plankton community were not affected by low level of bloom; however, they were decreased obviously by high level of bloom. Metazoa, Ochrophyta, Chloroplastida, Cryptomonadales, and Ciliophora were the main planktonic eukaryotes in this lake. Metazoa relative abundance declined 25.1% and relative abundance of eukaryotic phytoplankton (mainly Ochrophyta, Chloroplastida, and Cryptomonadales) and Ciliophora increased 17.4% and 2.0%, respectively, during the period with low level of bloom; conversely, the site with the high bloom level manifested the opposite changes. The linkage density of planktonic eukaryotic network was 0.188 and 0.138 with low and high level of bloom, respectively, indicating the stability of planktonic eukaryotes was lower when a high level of bloom occurred compared to that of a low bloom level. Our findings indicate that cyanobacterial blooms should be controlled at low level to avoid their obvious negative impact on microeukaryotes in lakes or reservoirs.

2.
Forensic Sci Int ; 337: 111350, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709589

RESUMO

Drug abuse/misuse is now a major global problem affecting public health as well as economic and social stability. This study presents a retrospective view of the prevalence of drugs in hair. Reasons for hair testing include the need for law enforcement to test suspicious individuals and the need for employers in specific industries to test their employees. Toxicology analysis results were reviewed for a total of 19,275 hair samples requested for drug abuse/misuse analysis at the Academy of Forensic Science over 29 months from February 2019 to June 2021. Drugs and their metabolites in hair samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. In the study, the 19,275 hair samples were screened for a total of 62 illegal drugs, which were divided into three categories: illegal-drugs (I), medication (II), and new psychoactive substances (III). These three categories contain 11, 29 and 22 drugs respectively. In these hair samples, 4852 (25.2 %) tested positive for one or more drugs. Among them, the positive rate of category I was the highest (48.7 %), followed by category II (28.5 %), and category III (22.7 %). Over all, the positive rate of male users (26.2 %) was higher than that of female users (23.7 %), and most of them were young people (25-44 years old). Illegal-drugs (morphine, etc.) had the highest positive rate. Under the influence of some certain factors, the drug abuse situation will also undergo corresponding changes. The results can provide a scientific knowledge database which can help in the prevention of drug abuse.

3.
Anal Chem ; 94(24): 8642-8650, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679593

RESUMO

Defect engineering is an effective strategy to improve the catalytic activity of metal oxides, and quantitative characterization of surface defects is thus vital to the understanding and application of metal oxide catalysts. Herein, we found that ZnO nanoparticles with oxygen vacancy could trigger the luminol-H2O2 system to emit a strong chemiluminescence (CL), and the CL intensity was strongly dependent on the oxygen vacancy of the ZnO nanoparticles. The mechanism of this CL reaction was discussed by means of the electron-spin resonance spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), and CL spectrum. The oxygen vacancy-dependent CL was attributed to the ability of the oxygen vacancy to readily adsorb and further dissociate H2O2 into active •OH radicals. Taking advantage of this oxygen vacancy-dependent CL, we presented one method for quantifying the oxygen defects in ZnO. Compared with the current evaluation techniques (XPS and Raman spectroscopy), this CL method is rapid, low-cost, and easy to operate. This work introduces the CL technique into the field of material structure-property evaluation, and provides a new approach for exploring the defect function in ZnO defect engineering.


Assuntos
Luminescência , Óxido de Zinco , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Luminol/química , Óxidos , Oxigênio
4.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 91: 62-68, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare reduced field of view technique diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV-DWI) and simultaneous multislice readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains diffusion-weighted imaging (SMS-RESOLVE-DWI) in terms of image quality and diagnostic performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for thyroid nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 27 benign thyroid nodules and 26 malignant thyroid nodules were enrolled. rFOV-DWI and SMS-RESOLVE-DWI were performed at b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2. Subjective image quality was evaluated in terms of sharpness, distortion and artifacts. Objective indices reflecting distortion, the contrast-to-noise ratio and the ADC were measured. Paired-samples t-tests or Wilcoxon U tests were applied to assess whether significant differences existed among different sequences. According to the pathological results, the nodules were divided into the benign and malignant groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the ADC values was used to predict malignant nodules. The DeLong test was used to compare the diagnostic effectiveness between rFOV-DWI and SMS-RESOLVE-DWI. RESULTS: The rFOV-DWI images exhibited better sharpness (P < 0.001) and fewer artifacts (P = 0.003) for the thyroid than the SMS-RESOLVE-DWI images. The overall image quality of nodules (P < 0.001) was better in rFOV-DWI images than in SMS-RESOLVE-DWI images. The rFOV-DWI images also showed less deformation than the SMS-RESOLVE-DWI images (P = 0.002, 0.006). The ADC values of both rFOV-DWI and SMS-RESOLVE-DWI revealed equivalent excellent diagnostic performance. The DeLong test revealed no statistically significant differences between rFOV-DWI and SMS-RESOLVE-DWI. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that rFOV-DWI exhibited better image quality than SMS-RESOLVE-DWI and similar performance in differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Artefatos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem Ecoplanar/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 213: 416-426, 2022 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661667

RESUMO

As a major component of extracellular matrixes (ECMs), collagen is an attractive biomaterial to fabricate porous scaffold for tissue engineering due to their similarity to the in vivo static microenvironment. However, the collagen-based porous scaffolds were difficult to mimic the dynamically remolded porous structure of ECM during the cell proliferation and tissue development, and always have poor mechanical property and not easy to handle. Here, natural collagen and partially denatured collagen was used to prepare the stepwise degradable hybrid bioscaffold with suitable mechanical property and dynamically remolded inner porous structure, which is desirable for the applications of tissue engineering. The collagen-based microporous scaffold was first prepared and used as physical support, then, the mechanical strength of which was reinforced by the import of the partially denatured collagen to give the hybrid bioscaffold. The fabrication conditions of the hybrid scaffolds were optimized, of which the thermal stability, mechanical property, and swelling property was explored. The stepwise enzymatic degradation process and the corresponding porous structure variation of the hybrid scaffold was confirmed by SEM and cell culture assays.


Assuntos
Colágeno , Tecidos Suporte , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Colágeno/química , Matriz Extracelular , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte/química
6.
Nanoscale ; 14(24): 8797-8805, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678526

RESUMO

7-Atomic-layer materials have attracted much attention recently because of their rich structures and more-abundant properties than 3- and 5-atomic-layer materials. However, the thermoelectric properties of the new monolayer materials have not been explored yet. Here, we investigate the thermoelectric conversion efficiency of a 7-atomic-layer structure ZrGe2N4, which is selected from a series of 7-atomic-layer structures according to their stabilities and thermoelectric properties. The results indicate that this material is an excellent candidate for high-performance thermoelectric materials. Its figure of merit ZT value is close to 4.0 at high temperature. The high efficiency originates from two factors: one is the lower thermal conductivity of ZrGe2N4 and the other is the decoupling of electron and phonon transport in the 7-atomic-layer structures.

7.
Biomaterials ; 287: 121615, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679644

RESUMO

The emerging field of cultured meat faces several technical hurdles, including the scale-up production of quality muscle and adipose progenitor cells, and the differentiation and bioengineering of these cellular materials into large, meat-like tissue. Here, we present edible, 3D porous gelatin micro-carriers (PoGelat-MCs), as efficient cell expansion scaffolds, as well as modular tissue-engineering building blocks for lab-grown meat. PoGelat-MC culture in spinner flasks, not only facilitated the scalable expansion of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells and murine myoblasts, but also triggered their spontaneous myogenesis, in the absence of myogenic reagents. Using 3D-printed mold and transglutaminase, we bio-assembled pork muscle micro-tissues into centimeter-scale meatballs, which exhibited similar mechanical property and higher protein content compared to conventional ground pork meatballs. PoGelat-MCs also supported the expansion and differentiation of 3T3L1 murine pre-adipocytes into mature adipose micro-tissues, which could be used as modular assembly unit for engineered fat-containing meat products. Together, our results highlight PoGelat-MCs, in combination with dynamic bioreactors, as a scalable culture system to produce large quantity of highly-viable muscle and fat micro-tissues, which could be further bio-assembled into ground meat analogues.

8.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(12)2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739914

RESUMO

Sparganosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larvae (spargana) of the genus Spirometra, which is widely distributed globally and threatens human health. More than 60 species of Spirometra have already been identified, and over 2000 cases have been reported. This review summarizes the prevalence of humans, frogs, snakes, and other animals with spargana. Furthermore, the infection mode, distribution, and site are summarized and analyzed. We also describe the epidemiology, molecular diagnosis, and other aspects which are of considerable significance to preventing sparganum.

9.
Front Psychol ; 13: 916306, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719511

RESUMO

One of the growing area of interest in the educational area is student engagement which is the major construct of positive psychology (PP) vital in growing energetic, innovative, and pleasurable learning, but unluckily, all students are not engaged in terms of cognition, emotion, and behavior in learning. Another concept in the PP literature is resilience which emphasizes institutes' and people's powers and self-constraint to conform to accidental conditions. Furthermore, mindfulness as a significant term in PP has critical benefits such as improving working memory, improving wellbeing, and lowering tension. Considering the importance of mindfulness and engagement in academic environments and that such a notion in foreign language learning is neglected, the current study attempts to inspect the effect of mindfulness and resilience on the engagement of Chinese foreign language students. To meet this objective, 1,693 EFL learners participated in this study. They responded to the mindfulness scale, resilience scale, and engagement questionnaire. Subsequently, the Spearman Rho test was exploited to shed light on probable relationships. The findings indicated that there was a significant correlation among the variable of the study. Moreover, a linear multiple regression analysis was run to examine the predictor roles of mindfulness and resilience in learners' engagement. The findings revealed that both mindfulness and resilience are positive and reliable predictors of engagement. In a nutshell, the central position of resilience and mindfulness in language learning was verified, and based on the findings; a few suggestions are made considering the results of the research.

10.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 928321, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720113

RESUMO

Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent non-apoptotic cell death characterized by lipid peroxidation, is a cell death pathway discovered in recent years. Ferroptosis plays an important role in tumors, ischemia-reperfusion injury, neurological diseases, blood diseases, etc. Recent studies have shown the importance of ferroptosis in chronic liver disease. This article summarizes the pathological mechanisms of ferroptosis involved in System Xc-, iron metabolism, lipid metabolism, and some GPX4-independent pathways, and the latest research on ferroptosis in chronic liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, liver fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, the current bottleneck issues that restrict the research on ferroptosis are proposed to provide ideas and strategies for exploring new therapeutic targets for chronic liver diseases.

11.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 904098, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720126

RESUMO

Background: This study was designed to explore the implications of ferroptosis-related alterations in glioblastoma patients. Method: After obtaining the data sets CGGA325, CGGA623, TCGA-GBM, and GSE83300 online, extensive analysis and mutual verification were performed using R language-based analytic technology, followed by further immunohistochemistry staining verification utilizing clinical pathological tissues. Results: The analysis revealed a substantial difference in the expression of ferroptosis-related genes between malignant and paracancerous samples, which was compatible with immunohistochemistry staining results from clinicopathological samples. Three distinct clustering studies were run sequentially on these data. All of the findings were consistent and had a high prediction value for glioblastoma. Then, the risk score predicting model containing 23 genes (CP, EMP1, AKR1C1, FMOD, MYBPH, IFI30, SRPX2, PDLIM1, MMP19, SPOCD1, FCGBP, NAMPT, SLC11A1, S100A10, TNC, CSMD3, ATP1A2, CUX2, GALNT9, TNFAIP6, C15orf48, WSCD2, and CBLN1) on the basis of "Ferroptosis.gene.cluster" was constructed. In the subsequent correlation analysis of clinical characteristics, tumor mutation burden, HRD, neoantigen burden and chromosomal instability, mRNAsi, TIDE, and GDSC, all the results indicated that the risk score model might have a better predictive efficiency. Conclusion: In glioblastoma, there were a large number of abnormal ferroptosis-related alterations, which were significant for the prognosis of patients. The risk score-predicting model integrating 23 genes would have a higher predictive value.

12.
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 10: 2050313X221104034, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720249

RESUMO

Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is a rare and serious type of ectopic pregnancy and is hard to diagnose due to a lack of typical clinical symptoms at the early stage. A 35-year-old woman who was17 weeks pregnant and had a complicated history of infertility came to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain without vaginal bleeding. Computed tomography scan after 12 hours showed that her pregnancy was in the small cavity of a rudimentary uterine horn, which had ruptured. Noncommunicating rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation, and its diagnosis and management remain challenging. Nevertheless, physician awareness of various forms of unicornuate uteri and rudimentary uterine horn can save lives.

13.
Adv Mater ; : e2200430, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643987

RESUMO

Long processing time and high temperatures are often required in sintering ceramic electrolytes, which lead to volatile element loss and high cost. Here, we report an ultrafast sintering method of microwave-induced carbothermal shock to fabricate various ceramic electrolytes in seconds. Furthermore, it is also able to integrate electrode and electrolyte in one step by simultaneous co-sintering. Based on this ultrafast co-sintering technique, an all-solid-state lithium-metal battery with a high areal capacity is successfully achieved, realizing a promising electrochemical performance at room temperature. This method can extend to other various ceramic multilayer based solid devices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 851554, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645820

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for 85% of lung cancer cases, calls for better therapy. Yi-Fei-San-Jie-pill (YFSJ), a well-applicated traditional Chinese medicine formula, was reported to be effective in the treatment of NSCLC. However, its anti-tumor mechanism still needs to be fully elucidated. Herein, a reliable preclinical orthotopic but not subcutaneous model of NSCLC in mice was established to evaluate the anti-cancer properties and further validate the mechanisms of YFSJ. A bioinformatic analysis was executed to identify the potential targets and key pathways of YFSJ on NSCLC. In detail, the anti-tumor effect of YFSJ and the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA was evaluated according to the tumor fluorescence value and comparison of different groups' survival times. As a result, YFSJ markedly decreased tumor size and prolonged survival time in contrast with those in the orthotopic model group (p < 0.05), and it also significantly regulated the protein expression levels of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins. In conclusion, this study provides convincing evidence that YFSJ could inhibit the growth of tumors and prolong the survival time of tumor-bearing mice based on the NSCLC orthotopic model, and its anti-tumor effect was closely associated with the promotion of apoptosis and interference of autophagy coupled with regulation of immune infiltration.

15.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 912589, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646019

RESUMO

Powdery mildew of wheat, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a devastating disease that seriously reduces yield and quality worldwide. Utilization of plant resistance genes is an attractive and effective strategy for controlling this disease. Among the reported powdery mildew (Pm) resistance genes, Pm2 exhibits a diverse resistance spectrum among its multiple alleles. It has been widely used in China for resistance breeding for powdery mildew. To mine more Pm2 alleles and clarify their distribution, we screened 33 wheat cultivars/breeding lines carrying Pm2 alleles from 641 wheat genotypes using diagnostic and Pm2-linked markers. To further investigate the relationships within the Pm2 alleles, we compared their resistance spectra, polymorphism of marker alleles and gene sequences, and found that they have identical marker alleles and gene sequences but diverse resistance spectra. In addition, the diagnostic kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) marker, YTU-KASP-Pm2, was developed and was shown to detect all the Pm2 alleles in the different genetic backgrounds. These findings provide valuable information for the distribution and rational use of Pm2 alleles, push forward their marker-assisted breeding (MAS), and hence improve the control of wheat powdery mildew.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 881356, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646994

RESUMO

Parasitic co-infection is commonly observed in natural populations, yet rare in the laboratory. Multiparasitism can have negative effects on the host, ranging from the atypical manifestations to increased mortality, consequently, it may be misdiagnosed and treated with unsuitable anthelmintic medicines. Therefore, reliable diagnosis is critical for appropriate treatment of parasitic co-infection. Herein, we report a case of a 31-year-old woman with persistent eosinophilia and hypoechoic liver lesion on ultrasound. The microscopic examination of multiple stool specimens did not find any pathogens. The patient had serum specific anti-Trichinella IgG antibody by Dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA). After treatment with albendazole, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed more lesions in the liver. Subsequently, liver biopsy was performed in this patient and Fasciola hepatica was identified using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) as well as polymerase chain reaction. After treatment with triclabendazole, which is the only anthelmintic drug specifically available against this fluke, her eosinophil count returned normal, and the liver lesions were significantly regressed. This case highlights the diagnostic challenge posed by parasitic co-infection, which merits more in-depth evaluation to confirm the diagnosis.

17.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(10): 3222-3231, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cases of severe pneumonia complicated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with good prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are rare, especially those with postoperative pericarditis and intestinal obstruction. CASE SUMMARY: A 53-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department of our hospital because of paroxysmal chest tightness for 4 d, aggravated with chest pain for 12 h. The symptoms, electrocardiography, biochemical parameters, echocardiography and chest computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of severe pneumonia complicated with AMI. The patient was treated with antiplatelet aggregation, anticoagulation, lipid regulation, vasodilation, anti-infective agents and direct PCI. The patient was discharged after 3 wk of treatment. Follow-up showed that the patient was asymptomatic without recurrence. CONCLUSION: For patients with severe pneumonia complicated with AMI, PCI and antibiotic therapy is a life-saving strategy.

18.
Sci Adv ; 8(22): eabm3779, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648856

RESUMO

Anion exchange membrane fuel cells are limited by the slow kinetics of alkaline hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Here, we establish HOR catalytic activities of single-atom and diatomic sites as a function of *H and *OH binding energies to screen the optimal active sites for the HOR. As a result, the Ru-Ni diatomic one is identified as the best active center. Guided by the theoretical finding, we subsequently synthesize a catalyst with Ru-Ni diatomic sites supported on N-doped porous carbon, which exhibits excellent catalytic activity, CO tolerance, and stability for alkaline HOR and is also superior to single-site counterparts. In situ scanning electrochemical microscopy study validates the HOR activity resulting from the Ru-Ni diatomic sites. Furthermore, in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy and computational studies unveil a synergistic interaction between Ru and Ni to promote the molecular H2 dissociation and strengthen OH adsorption at the diatomic sites, and thus enhance the kinetics of HOR.

19.
Front Psychol ; 13: 823682, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651565

RESUMO

Metro driver is the prime person who is responsible for metro operation safety. The mental health of a metro driver is very important for the operation of the subway and requires the driver to keep high mental alertness to monitor the surrounding environment and also handle emergencies under uncertain or dangerous conditions. After a long-term occupational strain, a metro driver is likely to suffer from some mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, that ultimately threaten the lives of passengers. Therefore, in this study, we focus on the psychological symptoms of metro drivers from the angle of occupational strain and neuroticism. A total of 396 metro drivers from Kunming Rail Transit Operation Co., Ltd. in China were investigated through a questionnaire survey. Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory-Neuroticism Subscale (NEO-FFI-N) were applied to evaluate the psychological symptoms, occupational strain, and neuroticism in metro drivers, respectively. The surveyed data were analyzed by SPSS software. Based on the data, a path structural equation model was established to explore the correlation among occupational strain, psychological symptoms, and neuroticism. The results show that the scores for psychological symptoms and occupational strain are higher than the Chinese adult norm among metro drivers. The occupational strain, neuroticism, and psychological symptoms are all positively correlated in the metro drivers. Occupational stress has a direct influence on the psychological symptom, while neuroticism plays a partial mediation role between occupational strain and psychological symptoms. The results of this study can be applied to optimize the employee selection system and training system for metro operation companies.

20.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 864192, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651769

RESUMO

Effective strategies to reduce the occurrence of wheat powdery mildew include the use of resistant varieties and application of fungicides. However, most studies rarely focus on the quantitative value of fungicide reduction using resistant varieties. To explore how the fungicides performed on different resistant wheat varieties to powdery mildew, field experiments were conducted during wheat growing seasons in 2018/19 and 2019/20 to investigate the control efficacies of enostroburin⋅epoxiconazole 18% SC and triadimefon 20% EC to wheat powdery mildew on a highly resistant wheat variety ("Baofeng104") and a highly susceptible wheat variety ("Jingshuang16"). The analyses of variance on control efficacies showed that the control efficacies of enostroburin⋅epoxiconazole 18% SC to wheat powdery mildew were mostly significantly higher than triadimefon 20% EC under the same conditions (i.e., varieties, dosages). However, both fungicide and variety resistance made variabilities in the mildew disease index and played a significant role in mildew management. Particularly, the variety resistance made the greatest contribution in mildew-reducing, and the disease index could significantly be reduced on the highly resistant variety even in the absence of fungicide treatment. The control efficacies to mildew on the highly susceptible variety mainly depended on the high efficiency of fungicides whereas the highly resistant variety were mainly by virtue of variety resistance through the comparative analyses of linear regression models. Furthermore, the random-coefficient regression models and quantile models quantificationally expounded that the relationships between active ingredient dosage and disease index or control efficacy varied from the effects of variety, fungicide, and year, particular from variety. Thus, a dosage reference table of enostroburin⋅epoxiconazole 18% SC or triadimefon 20% EC for different resistant wheat varieties were provided; it would be helpful for users to formulate an appropriate dosage of fungicide on mildew management in the field and avoid overusing or superfluous application. Further study needs to consider the effects of fungicide reduction on wheat yields, only then the maximum-economic benefits on mildew management can be determined.

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