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1.
Stem Cells ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662168

RESUMO

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are recognized as key controllers and effectors of type 2 inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to alleviate type 2 inflammation by modulating T lymphocyte subsets and decreasing TH 2 cytokine levels. However, the effects of MSCs on ILC2s have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the potential immunomodulatory effects of MSCs on ILC2s in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic rhinitis patients and healthy subjects. We further investigated the mechanisms involved in the MSC modulation using isolated lineage negative (Lin- ) cells. PBMCs and Lin- cells were cocultured with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) under the stimulation of epithelial cytokines IL-25 and IL-33. And the ILC2 levels and functions were examined and the possible mechanisms were investigated based on regulatory T (Treg) cells and ICOS-ICOSL pathway. iPSC-MSCs successfully decreased the high levels of IL-13, IL-9, and IL-5 in PBMCs in response to IL-25, IL-33, and the high percentages of IL-13+ ILC2s and IL-9+ ILC2s in response to epithelial cytokines were significantly reversed after the treatment of iPSC-MSCs. However, iPSC-MSCs were found directly to enhance ILC2 levels and functions via ICOS-ICOSL interaction in Lin- cells and pure ILC2s. iPSC-MSCs exerted their inhibitory effects on ILC2s via activating Treg cells through ICOS-ICOSL interaction. The MSC-induced Treg cells then suppressed ILC2s by secreting IL-10 in the coculture system. This study revealed that human MSCs suppressed ILC2s via Treg cells through ICOS-ICOSL interaction, which provides further insight to regulate ILC2s in inflammatory disorders.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1589, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452403

RESUMO

This study was performed to propose a method, the Feature Ambiguity Mitigate Operator (FAMO) model, to mitigate feature ambiguity in bone fracture detection on radiographs of various body parts. A total of 9040 radiographic studies were extracted. These images were classified into several body part types including 1651 hand, 1302 wrist, 406 elbow, 696 shoulder, 1580 pelvic, 948 knee, 1180 ankle, and 1277 foot images. Instance segmentation was annotated by radiologists. The ResNext-101+FPN was employed as the baseline network structure and the FAMO model for processing. The proposed FAMO model and other ablative models were tested on a test set of 20% total radiographs in a balanced body part distribution. To the per-fracture extent, an AP (average precision) analysis was performed. For per-image and per-case, the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) were analyzed. At the per-fracture level, the controlled experiment set the baseline AP to 76.8% (95% CI: 76.1%, 77.4%), and the major experiment using FAMO as a preprocessor improved the AP to 77.4% (95% CI: 76.6%, 78.2%). At the per-image level, the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 61.9% (95% CI: 58.7%, 65.0%), 91.5% (95% CI: 89.5%, 93.3%), and 74.9% (95% CI: 74.1%, 75.7%), respectively, for the controlled experiment, and 64.5% (95% CI: 61.3%, 67.5%), 92.9% (95% CI: 91.0%, 94.5%), and 77.5% (95% CI: 76.5%, 78.5%), respectively, for the experiment with FAMO. At the per-case level, the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 74.9% (95% CI: 70.6%, 78.7%), 91.7%% (95% CI: 88.8%, 93.9%), and 85.7% (95% CI: 84.8%, 86.5%), respectively, for the controlled experiment, and 77.5% (95% CI: 73.3%, 81.1%), 93.4% (95% CI: 90.7%, 95.4%), and 86.5% (95% CI: 85.6%, 87.4%), respectively, for the experiment with FAMO. In conclusion, in bone fracture detection, FAMO is an effective preprocessor to enhance model performance by mitigating feature ambiguity in the network.

4.
J Int Med Res ; 48(12): 300060520977634, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of a notched unipolar electrogram (N-uniEGM) in confirming the origin of premature ventricular contractions originating from the ventricular outflow tract (VOT-PVC) during mapping and ablation procedures. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with symptomatic idiopathic frequent VOT-PVCs that underwent radiofrequency ablation. The characteristics of the uniEGM of the successful ablation targets were analysed. N-uniEGM was defined as the uniEGM presenting a QS morphology with ≥1 steep notches on the downstroke deflection. All patients were followed-up for 3 months post-ablation. RESULTS: The study enrolled 190 patients with a mean ± SD age of 49.0 ± 15.3 years. N-uniEGMs were recorded in 124 of 190 (65.3%) patients. The N-uniEGM distribution area was limited to a mean ± SD of 0.8 ± 0.4 cm2. N-uniEGM showed consistency with the outcomes of activation mapping and pace mapping. Patients with an N-uniEGM had an ablation success rate of 98.4% (122 of 124) and their ablation times were significantly shorter than those without an N-uniEGM (7.6 ± 3.8 s versus 15.8 ± 8.8 s, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of N-uniEGM in predicting successful ablation of VOT-PVCs were 72.6% and 91.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: N-uniEGM was a highly specific and moderately sensitive predictor of successful radiofrequency ablation in patients with VOT-PVCs.

5.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042801

RESUMO

Objective: This study investigated survival in selected Chinese patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma who received initial chemotherapy with pemetrexed. We also explored the relationship between genetic biomarkers and pemetrexed efficacy. Methods: We retrospectively collected patients (n = 1,047) enrolled in the Chinese Patient Assistance Program from multiple centers who received pemetrexed alone or combined with platinum as initial chemotherapy and continued pemetrexed maintenance therapy for advanced lung adenocarcinoma from November 2014 to June 2017. The outcomes were duration of treatment (DOT) and overall survival (OS). Clinical features were analyzed for their influence on the treatment effect and prognosis. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed to identify genetic biomarkers associated with the efficacy of pemetrexed. Results: The median DOT was 9.1 months (95% CI: 8.5-9.8), and the median OS was 26.2 months (95% CI: 24.2-28.1). OS was positively correlated with DOT (r = 0.403, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that smoking status and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) were independently associated with DOT; smoking status, ECOG PS, targeted therapy, and EGFR/ALK/ROS1 status were independently associated with OS. NGS in 22 patients with available samples showed genes with high mutation rates were: TP53 (54.5%), EGFR (50.0%), MYC (18.2%), and PIK3CA (13.6%). When grouped based on progression-free survival (PFS) reported in the PARAMOUNT study, the DOT > 6.9 months set was associated with PIK3CA, ALK, BRINP3, CDKN2A, CSMD3, EPHA3, KRAS, and RB1 mutations, while ERBB2 mutation was observed only in the DOT ≤ 6.9 months set. Conclusion: This study shows that initial chemotherapy with pemetrexed is an effective regimen for advanced lung adenocarcinoma in selected Chinese patients. There is no specific genetic profile predicting the benefit of pemetrexed found by NGS. Biomarkers predicting the efficacy of pemetrexed need further exploration.

6.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052556

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are recommended first-line treatments in EGFR-mutated (EGFRm) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance (e.g. MET amplification) is frequently observed. Savolitinib (volitinib, HMPL-504, AZD6094) is an oral, potent, and highly selective MET-TKI. In this phase Ib, open-label, multicenter study, we enrolled Chinese patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC, whose disease progressed following prior EGFR-TKI treatment. In the safety run-in, patients received savolitinib 600 or 800 mg plus gefitinib 250 mg orally once daily, and dose-limiting toxicities were recorded. In the expansion phase, patients with MET amplification received savolitinib plus gefitinib. The primary endpoint was safety/tolerability. Secondary endpoints included antitumor activity. Thirteen patients were enrolled in the safety phase (median age 52 years, 46% female) and 51 enrolled in the expansion phase (median age 61 years, 67% female). No dose-limiting toxicities were reported in either dose group during the safety run-in. Adverse events of grade ≥ 3 in the safety run-in and expansion phases (n = 57) were reported in 21 (37%) patients. The most frequently reported adverse events (all grades) were: vomiting (n = 26, 46%), nausea (n = 23, 40%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (n = 22, 39%). Of four deaths, none were treatment-related. The objective response rates in EGFR T790M-negative, -positive, and -unknown patients were 52% (12/23), 9% (2/23), and 40% (2/5), respectively. Savolitinib 600 mg plus gefitinib 250 mg once daily had an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated promising antitumor activity in EGFRm, MET-amplified advanced NSCLC patients who had disease progression on EGFR-TKIs. NCT02374645, Date of registration: March 2nd 2015.

7.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(8): 4292-4298, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944341

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the conversion ratio of tacrolimus switching from intravenous infusion to oral administration in patients after lung transplantation. Methods: We retrospectively recruited patients received lung transplantation in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical Hospital from January 2015 to June 2019. The blood concentration of tacrolimus administrated through intravenous infusion and oral administration were collected. The blood concentration, concentration/dose ratio (C/D), and (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) ratio were analyzed to explore the conversion ratio of tacrolimus switching from intravenous infusion to oral administration, as combined medication of tacrolimus and caspofungin were used. Results: The concentration of intravenously administered tacrolimus was significantly higher than that of oral administration; the C/D ratio of intravenously administrated tacrolimus (C/Div) was significantly higher than that of the oral administration (C/Dpo). There was a significant correlation between C/Dpo and C/Div (R2 =0.774, P<0.001). The conversion ratio of tacrolimus from intravenous administration to oral administration was 1:7.4, as combined medication of tacrolimus and caspofungin were used. Conclusions: The conversion ratio of tacrolimus switching from intravenous to oral administration is 1:7.4 in the combination treatment of tacrolimus and caspofungin after lung transplantation.

8.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 1326-1331, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics, laboratorial and bone marrow pathological features of primary thrombocytopenia (ET) patients with different mutations of CALR, JAK2 and MPL genes. METHODS: The chinical data of 120 cases of ET in Jiangsu provincial people's hospital/ The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2015 to December 2017 were collected and analyzed, including 76 cases with JAK2 gene mutation, 40 cases with CALR gene mutation, 2 cases with MPL gene mutations, 2 cases without gene mutation. RESULTS: Among the ET patients, compared with the JAK2 gene mutation, CALR gene mutation showed statistically significant deareament of white blood cells and hemoglobin (P=0.001, P=0.01) and the male platelets in CALR group showed significant increament (P=0.04). Fourthermore, the average number of megakaryocytes and its cluster numbers in each hight power field of vision showed statistically significant decreament in CALR group as compared with JAK2 group (P=0.001, P=0.001), and thrombotic events in CALR group were signicantly lower than those in JAK2 group (7.5% vs 18.4%) (P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Mutations of CALR, JAK2 have different clinical characteristics and blood pathological changes of Chinese ET patients, and their clinical significance is worth to explore.


Assuntos
Trombocitemia Essencial , Medula Óssea , Calreticulina/genética , China , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética
9.
BMC Immunol ; 21(1): 44, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocytes is an essential tool to evaluate the immune function of patients with immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. Predominately identified CD4+T cell subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17, as well as regulatory T (Treg) cells, play crucial roles in several immunological and pathological conditions. Considering the variations in cell counts among populations and ethnicities, specific CD4+T cell subset reference values need to be locally established to enable meaningful comparisons and accurate data interpretation in clinical and research settings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish distributions and reference ranges for blood CD4+T cell subpopulations in age- and sex-balanced healthy adults of a Han Chinese population in Shanxi Province, North China. METHODS: Peripheral blood CD4+T cell subsets were examined in 150 healthy volunteers (75 males, 75 females) aged 20-70 years with a four-color FACSCalibur flow cytometer. RESULTS: Reference value percentages (absolute counts, cells/µl) were defined as 95% of the population for cell types as follows: CD4+T, 23.78-51.07 (360-1127); Th1, 0.43-39.62 (2.64-276.21); Th2, 0.27-3.57 (1.80-27.14); Th17, 0.22-2.62 (1.10-19.54); and Treg, 2.17-7.94 (13.47-64.58). The ranges for the Th1:Th2 and Th17:Treg ratios were 0.59-52.37 and 0.04-0.76, respectively. Notably, a significant increase was observed in the values of Treg cells in older individuals, and the numbers of Treg cells in females also tended to decrease when compared to those in males. Therefore, we established the distribution and reference range of CD4+T cell subsets based on age and sex, demonstrating the lowest values of Treg cells in younger females. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data provide population-, age-, and sex-specific distributions and reference ranges of circulating CD4+T cell subpopulations, which can be adopted to guide clinical decisions and interpretation of immunophenotyping data in the Han Chinese population in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China. In addition, the low expression of peripheral Treg cells in younger females may be associated with the predisposition of females to autoimmune diseases.

10.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6429-6442, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853182

RESUMO

After over 3 decades of research, an effective anti-HIV vaccine remains elusive. The recently halted HVTN702 clinical trial not only further stresses the challenge to develop an effective HIV vaccine but also emphasizes that unconventional and novel vaccine strategies are urgently needed. Here, we report that a vaccine focusing the immune response on the sequences surrounding the 12 viral protease cleavage sites (PCSs) provided greater than 80% protection to Mauritian cynomolgus macaques against repeated intravaginal SIVmac251 challenges. The PCS-specific T cell responses correlated with vaccine efficacy. The PCS vaccine did not induce immune activation or inflammation known to be associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Machine learning analyses revealed that the immune microenvironment generated by the PCS vaccine was predictive of vaccine efficacy. Our study demonstrates, for the first time to our knowledge, that a vaccine which targets only viral maturation, but lacks full-length Env and Gag immunogens, can prevent intravaginal infection in a stringent macaque/SIV challenge model. Targeting HIV maturation thus offers a potentially novel approach to developing an effective HIV vaccine.

11.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(10): 1144-1154, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of milk intake with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cause-specific mortality remained controversial and evidence among the Chinese population was limited. We aimed to study the relationship between milk intake and CVDs among general Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 104,957 participants received questionnaire survey. Results of physical examination such as anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during 2007 to 2008, demographic data and their information on milk intake were collected through standardized questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CVD incidence, cause-specific mortality and all-cause mortality related to milk intake. Restricted cubic splines (RCSs) were applied to examine dose-response associations. RESULTS: Among the 91,757 participants with a median follow-up period of 5.8 years, we documented 3877 CVD cases and 4091 all-cause deaths. Compared with participants who never consumed milk, the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of CVD incidence for 1 to 150 g/day, 151 to 299 g/day, and ≥300 g/day were 0.94 (0.86-1.03) (P > 0.05), 0.77 (0.66-0.89) (P < 0.05), and 0.59 (0.40-0.89) (P < 0.05), respectively; each 100 g increase of daily milk intake was associated with 11% lower risk of CVD incidence (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.94; P < 0.001), and 11% lower risk of CVD mortality (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82-0.97; P = 0.008) after adjustment for age, sex, residential area, geographic region, education level, family history of CVD, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity level, body mass index, and healthy diet status (ideal or not). RCS analyses also showed a linear dose-response relationship with CVD (P for overall significance of the curve <0.001; P for non-linearity = 0.979; P for linearity <0.001) and stroke (P for overall significance of the curve = 0.010; P for non-linearity = 0.998; P for linearity = 0.002) incidence, and CVD mortality (P for overall significance of the curve = 0.045; P for non-linearity = 0.768; P for linearity = 0.014) within the current range of daily milk intake. CONCLUSIONS: Daily milk intake was associated with lower risk of CVD incidence and mortality in a linear inverse relationship. The findings provide new evidence for dietary recommendations in CVD prevention among Chinese adults and people with similar dietary pattern in other countries.

12.
iScience ; 23(5): 101107, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408173

RESUMO

Plasmon-assisted chemical transformation holds great potential for solar energy conversion. However, simultaneous enhancement of reactivity and selectivity is still challenging and the mechanism remains mysterious. Herein, we elucidate the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-induced principles underlying the enhanced activity (∼70%) and selectivity of photoelectrocatalytic redox of nitrobenzene (NB) on Au nanoparticles. Hot carriers selectively accelerate the conversion rate from NB to phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) by ∼14% but suppress the transformation rate from PHA to nitrosobenzene (NSB) by ∼13%. By adding an electron accepter, the as-observed suppression ratio is substantially enlarged up to 43%. Our experiments, supported by in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory simulations, reveal such particular hot-carrier-induced selectivity is conjointly contributed by the accelerated hot electron transfer and the corresponding residual hot holes. This work will help expand the applications of renewable sunlight in the directional production of value-added chemicals under mild conditions.

13.
Toxicology ; 439: 152443, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278789

RESUMO

Stavudine is an anti-AIDS drug widely used to prevent HIV transmission from pregnant mothers to the fetuses in underdeveloped countries for its low price. However, there is still a controversy on whether stavudine affects embryo development. In the current study, embryotoxicity of stavudine was evaluated using cultured mouse embryos with the concentrations: 5, 10, 15 µM and vehicle control. The data indicated that the effect of stavudine was dose-dependent at early neurogenesis. Stavudine exposure reduced somite numbers, yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length, and increased the rate of embryonic degeneration compared with the control. We chose the lowest but clearly toxic concentration: 5 µM to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the damage. At the molecular level, stavudine produced DNA damage, increased the levels of the phospho-CHK1 and cleaved-caspase-3, and decreased the expression level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These changes indicated that stavudine caused a coordinated DNA damage response, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in the embryos. Collectively these results suggest that stavudine exposure disturbs the embryonic development, and its use in pregnant mothers should be re-examined.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/patologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estavudina/toxicidade , Animais , Caspase 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/efeitos dos fármacos , Saco Vitelino/efeitos dos fármacos , Saco Vitelino/patologia
14.
Eur Respir J ; 55(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), consistent and considerable differences in disease severity and mortality rate of patients treated in Hubei province compared to those in other parts of China have been observed. We sought to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients being treated inside and outside Hubei province, and explore the factors underlying these differences. METHODS: Collaborating with the National Health Commission, we established a retrospective cohort to study hospitalised COVID-19 cases in China. Clinical characteristics, the rate of severe events and deaths, and the time to critical illness (invasive ventilation or intensive care unit admission or death) were compared between patients within and outside Hubei. The impact of Wuhan-related exposure (a presumed key factor that drove the severe situation in Hubei, as Wuhan is the epicentre as well the administrative centre of Hubei province) and the duration between symptom onset and admission on prognosis were also determined. RESULTS: At the data cut-off (31 January 2020), 1590 cases from 575 hospitals in 31 provincial administrative regions were collected (core cohort). The overall rate of severe cases and mortality was 16.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Patients in Hubei (predominantly with Wuhan-related exposure, 597 (92.3%) out of 647) were older (mean age 49.7 versus 44.9 years), had more cases with comorbidity (32.9% versus 19.7%), higher symptomatic burden, abnormal radiologic manifestations and, especially, a longer waiting time between symptom onset and admission (5.7 versus 4.5 days) compared with patients outside Hubei. Patients in Hubei (severe event rate 23.0% versus 11.1%, death rate 7.3% versus 0.3%, HR (95% CI) for critical illness 1.59 (1.05-2.41)) have a poorer prognosis compared with patients outside Hubei after adjusting for age and comorbidity. However, among patients outside Hubei, the duration from symptom onset to hospitalisation (mean 4.4 versus 4.7 days) and prognosis (HR (95%) 0.84 (0.40-1.80)) were similar between patients with or without Wuhan-related exposure. In the overall population, the waiting time, but neither treated in Hubei nor Wuhan-related exposure, remained an independent prognostic factor (HR (95%) 1.05 (1.01-1.08)). CONCLUSION: There were more severe cases and poorer outcomes for COVID-19 patients treated in Hubei, which might be attributed to the prolonged duration of symptom onset to hospitalisation in the epicentre. Future studies to determine the reason for delaying hospitalisation are warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Tosse/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Dispneia/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Faringite/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 30(3): 219-226, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169315

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by homozygous deletions of the SMN1 gene in approximately 95% of patients. The remaining 5% of patients with SMA retain at least one copy of the SMN1 gene carrying insertions, deletions, or point mutations. Although molecular genetic testing for most SMA patients is quite easy, diagnosing "nondeletion" SMA patients is still compromised by the presence of a highly homologous SMN2 gene. In this study, we analyzed the SMN1/SMN2 copy number by quantitative PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Further, common primers for both SMN1 and SMN2 sequences were used to screen DNA intragenic mutations. To confirm whether the identified mutations occurred in SMN1 or SMN2, we improved the traditional RT-PCR method by only amplifying SMN1 transcripts using an allelic-specific PCR (AS-RT-PCR) strategy. We identified six SMN1 point mutations and small indels in 8 families, which included c.683T>A, c.22dupA, c.815A>G, c.19delG, c.551_552insA and c.401_402delAG. To the best of our knowledge, the latter three have never been previously reported. The most common mutation in Chinese patients is c.22dupA, which was identified in three families. In this work, we demonstrated AS-RT-PCR to be reliable for identifying SMN1 subtle mutations, especially the prevalent mutation c.22dupA in Chinese SMA patients. By reviewing published papers and summarizing reported SMN1 mutations, a distinct ethnic specificity was found in SMA patients from China. Our research extends the SMN1 mutation spectrum.

16.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 9(1): 1723260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128074

RESUMO

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are recently reported to play a more critical role in allergic diseases. We previously identified that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) elicited therapeutic effects on allergic airway inflammation. Small extracellular vesicles (sEV) derived from MSCs possess striking advantages including low immunogenicity and high biosafety, and is extremely promising cell-free therapeutic agents. However, the effects of MSC-sEV on ILC2s are still unclear. Additionally, scalable isolation protocols are required for the mass production of homogenous MSC-sEV especially in clinical application. We previously reported that induced pluripotent stem cells-derived MSCs were the ideal cellular source for the large preparation of MSC-sEV. Here we developed a standardized scalable protocol of anion-exchange chromatography for isolation of MSC-sEV, and investigated the effects of MSC-sEV on ILC2 function from patients with allergic rhinitis and in a mouse ILC2-dominant asthma model. The characterization of MSC-sEV was successfully demonstrated in terms of size, morphology and specific markers. Using flow cytometry and human Cytokine Antibody Array, MSC-sEV but not fibroblasts-sEV (Fb-sEV) were found to significantly inhibit the function of human ILC2s. Similarly, systemic administration of MSC-sEV but not Fb-sEV exhibited an inhibition of ILC2 levels, inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus production in the lung, a reduction in levels of T helper 2 cytokines, and alleviation of airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of asthma. Using RNA sequencing, miR-146a-5p was selected as the candidate to mediate the above effects of MSC-sEV. We next revealed the uptake of ILC2s to MSC-sEV, and that transfer of miR-146a-5p in MSC-sEV to ILC2s in part contributed to the effects of MSC-sEV on ILC2s in vitro and in a mouse model. In conclusion, we demonstrated that MSC-sEV were able to prevent ILC2-dominant allergic airway inflammation at least partially through miR-146a-5p, suggesting that MSC-sEV could be a novel cell-free strategy for the treatment of allergic diseases.

17.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 17(2): 85-95, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165881

RESUMO

Background: In China, lack of evidence remains a significant challenge for the national initiative to promote physical activity (PA). We aimed to quantify the beneficial effects of meeting or maintaining the recommended PA level [150 minutes per week (min/wk) of moderate PA or 75 min/wk of vigorous PA or an equivalent combination] on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Chinese population. Methods: We included 100,560 participants without history of CVD from three cohorts in the Prediction for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk in China (China-PAR) project. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD events and its subtypes, including stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and CVD death. Results: During a median follow-up of 7.3 years (range: 6-15 years), 777,163 person-years and 4693 incident CVD events were observed. Compared with participants who were inactive at baseline, the multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI) of developing CVD was 0.74 (0.69-0.79) for those who met recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) level at baseline. Furthermore, the risk of CVD incidence was reduced with increment of MVPA (P trend < 0.001), and the HR (95% CI) of highly-active versus inactive category was 0.62 (0.56-0.68). Compared with individuals who were inactive both at the baseline and follow-up, those keeping active over the period of follow-up had a substantial lower risk of incident CVD with the HR (95% CI) of 0.57 (0.43-0.77). Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that meeting and maintaining the recommended MVPA level could reduce the cardiovascular risk. Wider adoption of the PA recommendations would have considerable health impacts to the Chinese population.

18.
Eur Respir J ; 55(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is evolving rapidly worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 by stratifying the comorbidity status. METHODS: We analysed data from 1590 laboratory confirmed hospitalised patients from 575 hospitals in 31 provinces/autonomous regions/provincial municipalities across mainland China between 11 December 2019 and 31 January 2020. We analysed the composite end-points, which consisted of admission to an intensive care unit, invasive ventilation or death. The risk of reaching the composite end-points was compared according to the presence and number of comorbidities. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.9 years and 686 (42.7%) patients were female. Severe cases accounted for 16.0% of the study population. 131 (8.2%) patients reached the composite end-points. 399 (25.1%) reported having at least one comorbidity. The most prevalent comorbidity was hypertension (16.9%), followed by diabetes (8.2%). 130 (8.2%) patients reported having two or more comorbidities. After adjusting for age and smoking status, COPD (HR (95% CI) 2.681 (1.424-5.048)), diabetes (1.59 (1.03-2.45)), hypertension (1.58 (1.07-2.32)) and malignancy (3.50 (1.60-7.64)) were risk factors of reaching the composite end-points. The hazard ratio (95% CI) was 1.79 (1.16-2.77) among patients with at least one comorbidity and 2.59 (1.61-4.17) among patients with two or more comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Among laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19, patients with any comorbidity yielded poorer clinical outcomes than those without. A greater number of comorbidities also correlated with poorer clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
19.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(1): 1-9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441715

RESUMO

Isoquercitrin is a flavonoid with important applications in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. However, a low yield and high production cost hinders the industrial preparation of isoquercitrin. In the present study, isoquercitrin was prepared by biotransformation of rutin using α-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus niger JMU-TS528 combined with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) purification. As a result, the optimum transformation pH, temperature, and time were pH 4.0, 60 °C, and 60 min, respectively. The Km and Vmax were 0.36 mM and 0.460 mmol/min, respectively. For isoquercitrin production, the optimal rutin concentration and transformation time were approximately 1000 mg/L and 60 min. The rutin transformation rate reached 96.44%. The isoquercitrin was purified to a purity of 97.83% using one-step purification with HSCCC. The isoquercitrin was identified using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The comprehensive results indicated that the biotransformation procedure using the α-L-rhamnosidase from A. niger JMU-TS528 combined with HSCCC was a simple and effective process to prepare isoquercitrin, which might facilitate the production of isoquercitrin for industrial use.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Rutina/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Distribuição Contracorrente , Microbiologia Industrial , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Quercetina/metabolismo
20.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(6): 749-754, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423721

RESUMO

Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and risk factors of systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE)complicated with cytomegalovirus infection(CMV). Methods The medical records of patients diagnosed with SLE at discharge in the Department of Immunology at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between July 1,2017 and April 1,2019 were retrospectively reviewed,and the clinical and laboratory data related to CMV infection were analyzed. Results Of the 231 patients with SLE,115(49.8%)had CMV infection.Among them,78(67.8%)were asymptomatic CMV infection and 37(32.2%)were diagnosed with CMV disease.Univariate analysis showed the number of organs involved(P=0.015),presence of other infections(P=0.004),methylprednisolone pulse therapy(P=0.001),cumulative dose of prednisolone within 30 days(P=0.001),average dose of prednisolone within 30 days(P<0.001),intravenous cyclophosphamide(P=0.003),methylprednisolone pulse therapy plus immunosuppressants(P=0.001),Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 at admission(P=0.018),and serum albumin(ALB)level≤30 g/L(P<0.001)were associated with CMV infection.Multivariate analysis showed presence of other infections(OR=8.003,95%CI=2.108-30.383,P=0.002),methylprednisolone pulse therapy plus immunosuppressants(OR=10.336,95%CI=2.107-50.711, P=0.004),and serum ALB≤ 30 g/L(OR=3.367,95%CI=1.157-9.796,P=0.026)were independent risk factors for CMV infection. Conclusion Presence of other infections,recent methylprednisolone pulse therapy plus immunosuppressants,and serum ALB≤30 g/L can increase the risk of CMV infection in patients with SLE.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Albumina Sérica Humana/análise , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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