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1.
Eur J Immunol ; 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35415925

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are well known for their immunoregulatory roles on allergic inflammation particularly by acting on T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells (DCs). MSC-derived small extracellular vesicles (MSC-sEV) are increasingly considered as one of the main factors for the effects of MSCs on immune responses. However, the effects of MSC-sEV on DCs in allergic diseases remain unclear. MSC-sEV were prepared from the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-MSCs by anion-exchange chromatography, and were characterized with the size, morphology, and specific markers. Human monocyte-derived DCs were generated and cultured in the presence of MSC-sEV to differentiate the so-called sEV-immature DCs (sEV-iDCs) and sEV-mature DCs (sEV-mDCs), respectively. The phenotypes and the phagocytic ability of sEV-iDCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. sEV-mDCs were co-cultured with isolated CD4+ T cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with allergic rhinitis. The levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines produced by T cells were examined by ELISA and intracellular flow staining. And the following mechanisms were further investigated. We demonstrated that MSC-sEV inhibited the differentiation of human monocytes to iDCs with downregulation of the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and HLA-DR, but had no effects on mDCs with these markers. However, MSC-sEV treatment enhanced the phagocytic ability of mDCs. More importantly, using anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody or IL-10Rα blocking antibody, we identified that sEV-mDCs suppressed the Th2 immune response by reducing the production of IL-4, IL-9, and IL-13 via IL-10. Furthermore, sEV-mDCs increased the level of Treg cells. Our study identified that mDCs treated with MSC-sEV inhibited the Th2 responses, providing novel evidence of the potential cell-free therapy acting on DCs in allergic airway diseases.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Manual uterine aspiration (MUA) is a currently underused management option for early pregnancy loss (EPL) in the emergency department (ED). This study addresses the safety and efficiency of MUA in the ED. METHODS: We performed a single-site retrospective observational chart review of pregnant women presenting to the ED with vaginal bleeding and ED pathology submissions for products of conception (POC) between 2012 and 2016. Patients were excluded for gestational age >14 weeks, no evidence of pregnancy loss, uterine cavity anomaly, hemodynamic instability, or hemoglobin <80 g/L. We compared the frequencies of complications (need for blood transfusion, repeat ED visit, failed initial management, admission to hospital) and ED utilization time between 4 management options: expectant, misoprostol, MUA, and electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) outside the ED, as well as time to procedure between MUA and EVA. RESULTS: A total of 162 patients were included with 123 (76%) having a pathology report positive for POC. The mean patient and gestational ages were 30 ± 7 years and 66 ± 17 days, respectively. One hundred and 9 patients were managed expectantly, 9 were given misoprostol, 23 underwent MUA, and 21 underwent EVA. Composite complication rates were 40%, 33%, 9%, and 10% (P = 0.001), and mean ED times were 5.4, 4.9, 7.3, and 6.0 hours (P = 0.01), for expectant, misoprostol, MUA, and EVA, respectively. The mean time to procedure was 5.1 hours for MUA and 23.1 hours for EVA (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Integrating MUA in the ED has the potential to reduce health care resource utilization while improving patient care.

3.
Bioorg Chem ; 121: 105665, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152138

RESUMO

Berberine is a quaternary isoquinoline alkaloid that exhibits potent hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity. Many medicinal chemists are currently working on structural modifications around the parent scaffold of berberine, expecting to further enhance its hypolipidemic activity and reducing its cytotoxicity. In this study, a focused berberine-like compound library containing 12,600 molecules was built via the introduction of various "drug-like" fragments at the C8 and C9 positions of berberine. Sixteen comopounds were hit by using the in-house QSAR models previously reported by our group. Considering synthesis feasibility and the cost of building-blocks, only four berberine analogs (library ID: 2028, 3847, 6033, and 12456) were selected and synthesized for investigating their lipid-lowering activities. Preliminary lipid-lowering study showed that compound 12456 with the phenylsulfonyl group at the C9 position had potent cholesterol inhibitory activity in HepG2 cells, superior to that of the parent compound berberine. Subsequently, a total of twenty-five 9-O-phenylsulfonyl-berberines (1a-1y) and twenty-four 9-O-phenylsulfonyl-tetrahydroberberine (2a-2x) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated by lipid-lowering experiments. The results displayed that most compounds exhibited more lipid-lowering activities than berberine. Among them, compound 1m inhibited cholesterol production close to 50% in both cell models when compared with the blank control; the inhibition of triglycerides exceeded 70%. Moreover, 1m also had significant pharmacological effects on the inhibition of LDLC and promotion of HDLC production, especially in the HepG2 cell model, in which the inhibitory rate against LDLC was close to 70% and the increase rate of HDLC was more than 75%. The hypolipidemic experiment of SD rats demonstrated that after 40 days of administration (1m, 15 mg/kg/d), blood cholesterol was reduced by 19.6%, triglycerides reduced by 34.52%, and LDLC reduced by 41.49%, when compared with the high-fat diet model (HFD). In addition, after 80 days of administration, the three indexes of 1m were still better than that of berberine. Oil Red O staining and H&E staining results showed that 1m exhibited potent lipid scavenging activity. All in all, 1m was discovered and identified as a potent lipid-lowering agent and a new berberine-like candidate, being evaluated by subsequent studies.


Assuntos
Berberina , Animais , Berberina/química , Berberina/farmacologia , Colesterol , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos
4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 830046, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35186935

RESUMO

Background: Almost all lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients with EGFR mutant will develop resistance to EGFR-TKIs, which limit the long-term clinical application of these agents. Accumulating evidence shows one of the main reasons for resistance to EGFR-TKIs is induction of autophagy in tumor cells. Our previous study found that circumsporozoite protein (CSP) in Plasmodium can suppress autophagy in host hepatocytes. However, it is unknown whether CSP-mediated inhibition of autophagy could improve the anti-tumor effect of EGFR-TKIs. Methods: We constructed A549 and H1975 cell lines with stable overexpression of CSP (OE-CSP cells). CCK-8, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), flow cytometry, and colony analysis were performed to observe the effect of CSP overexpression on cell viability, apoptosis rate, and colony formation ratio. The sensitizing effect of CSP on gefitinib was evaluated in vivo using a subcutaneous tumor model in nude mice and immunohistochemical assay. The role of CSP in regulation of autophagy was investigated by laser confocal microscopy assay and western blotting. A transcriptome sequencing assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the levels of mRNA for autophagy-related proteins. Cycloheximide (CHX), MG132, TAK-243, and immunoprecipitation assays were used to detect and confirm proteasomal degradation of LC3B. Results: OE-CSP A549 and H1975 cells were more sensitive to gefitinib, demonstrating significant amounts of apoptosis and decreased viability. In the OE-CSP group, autophagy was significantly inhibited, and there was a decrease in LC3B protein after exposure to gefitinib. Cell viability and colony formed ability were recovered when OE-CSP cells were exposed to rapamycin. In nude mice with xenografts of LUAD cells, inhibition of autophagy by CSP resulted in suppression of cell growth, and more marked apoptosis during exposure to gefitinib. CSP promoted ubiquitin-proteasome degradation of LC3B, leading to inhibition of autophagy in LUAD cells after treatment with gefitinib. When LUAD cells were treated with ubiquitin activating enzyme inhibitor TAK-243, cell viability, apoptosis, and growth were comparable between the OE-CSP group and a control group both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion: CSP can inhibit gefitinib-induced autophagy via proteasomal degradation of LC3B, which suggests that CSP could be used as an autophagy inhibitor to sensitize EGFR-TKIs.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(6): 1127-1135, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in phase I and evaluate safety and efficacy of abivertinib in patients with EGFR Thr790Met point mutation (T790M)-positive(+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with disease progression from prior EGFR inhibitors in phase II. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter, open-label study included 367 adult Chinese patients. Abivertinib at doses of 50 mg twice a day to 350 mg twice a day was evaluated in phase I in continual 28-day cycles, and the RP2D of 300 mg twice a day was used in phase II in continual 21-day cycles. Primary endpoints include RP2D in phase I and objective response rate (ORR) at RP2D in phase II. RESULTS: The RP2D of 300 mg twice a day for abivertinib was established based on pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety profiles across doses in phase I. In phase II, 227 patients received RP2D for a median treatment duration of 24.6 weeks (0.43-129). Among 209 response-evaluable patients, confirmed ORR was 52.2% [109/209; 95% confidence interval (CI): 45.2-59.1]. Disease control rate (DCR) was 88.0% (184/209; 95% CI: 82.9-92.1). The median duration of response (DoR) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.5 months (95% CI: 6.1-9.2) and 7.5 months (95% CI: 6.0-8.8), respectively. The median overall survival (OS) was 24.9 months [95% CI: 22.4-not reachable (NR)]. All (227/227) patients reported at least 1 adverse event (AE), with 96.9% (220/227) of treatment-related AEs. Treatment-related serious AEs were reported in 13.7% (31/227) of patients. Death was reported in 4.4% (10/227) of patients, and none was deemed as treatment-related. CONCLUSIONS: Abivertinib of 300 mg twice a day demonstrated favorable clinical efficacy with manageable side effects in patients with EGFR T790M+ NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Pirimidinas , Adulto , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Mutação Puntual , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 710372, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691024

RESUMO

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is characterized by IgE-mediated mucosa response after exposure to allergens. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-size vesicles containing biological cargos for intercellular communications. However, the role of plasma EVs in pathogenesis of AR remains largely unknown. Methods: Plasma EVs from patients with AR were isolated, quantified, and characterized. The expression of Der p 1 and antigen-presenting molecules on EVs was determined by Western blot, flow cytometry, or ELISA. PKH26- and CFSE (carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester)-stained AR-EVs were used to determine the uptake of EVs by CD4+T cells and their effects on CD4+T cell proliferation, respectively. Results: Plasma EVs in healthy control (HC) and AR patients were similar in the concentration of particles, expression for specific EV markers, and both had structural lipid bilayer. However, the levels of Der p 1 on plasma EVs from both mild and moderate-severe AR patients were significantly higher than that on HC. The levels of antigen-presenting molecules on plasma EVs were similar from three subjects. Moreover, levels of Der p 1 on EVs in plasma, but not nasal secretion, were significantly associated with the symptom score of AR patients and level of plasma IL-13. Additionally, plasma EVs from patients with AR promoted the development of Th2 cells, while no effect was found on CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Conclusions: Plasma EVs derived from patients with AR exhibited antigen-presenting characteristics and promoted differentiation of Th2 cells, thus providing novel understanding of the pathogenesis of AR.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Células Th2/citologia , Adulto , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/sangue , Proteínas de Artrópodes/sangue , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Cisteína Endopeptidases/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108233, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653730

RESUMO

The diversity of immune responses in allergic diseases is critically mediated by dendritic cells (DCs), including myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs. Allergen inhalation increased the release of IL-33 from patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), which affecting the downstream cells by binding to its receptor (ST2). However, the effects of inhaled allergens on the expression of ST2 by DCs and IL-33 on the function of mDCs are unknown. The levels of ST2+mDCs and ST2+pDCs in the blood from patients with AR and healthy subjects were examined using flow cytometry. Moreover, the patients were challenged using the allergens and the levels of ST2+mDCs and ST2+pDCs were investigated at different time points. We found that there were higher levels of ST2+ mDCs and ST2+ pDCs in patients with AR, and these levels were further increased 0.5 h after allergen inhalation. Additionally, the type 2 immune response was upregulated after challenge. IL-33 treatment increased the expression of ST2 on mDCs. Our study demonstrated that ST2 was upregulated on DCs after allergen inhalation and that mDCs responded directly to IL-33 through ST2, suggesting that the IL-33/ST2 axis might play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis by DCs.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/toxicidade , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Rinite Alérgica/metabolismo , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-33 , Masculino , Células Mieloides/metabolismo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This phase II study evaluated camrelizumab in different PD-L1 expression cohorts of patients with previously treated advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; NCT03085069, registered March 21, 2017). METHODS: Patients who progressed during/after chemotherapy were enrolled and divided into four cohorts based on PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS). Patients with EGFR/ALK alterations and PD-L1 TPS ≥ 50% were also eligible. All enrolled patients received camrelizumab at 200 mg IV Q2W. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. RESULTS: A total of 146 patients were enrolled. As of data cutoff on Aug 20, 2020, the median follow-up was 29.5 months (95% CI 27.4-30.8). Objective response rate was 17.8% (95% CI 12.0-25.0) and improved with the increasing PD-L1 TPS (TPS < 1%, 12.2% [95% CI 5.7-21.8]; ≥ 1-< 25%, 19.4% [95% CI 7.5-37.5]; ≥ 25-< 50%, 36.4% [95% CI 10.9-69.2]; ≥ 50%, 23.3% [95% CI 9.9-42.3]). No response was observed in the five patients harboring EGFR mutations. Median progression-free survival was 3.2 months (95% CI 2.0-3.4), and patients with positive PD-L1 TPS had longer progression-free survival. Median overall survival was 14.8 months (95% CI 10.2-18.7). Treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) of any grade occurred in 87.7% of patients, and 21.2% had grade ≥ 3 TRAEs. CONCLUSION: Camrelizumab showed improved efficacy compared with historical data of the second-line chemotherapy in pre-treated advanced/metastatic NSCLC. Patients with positive PD-L1 expression derived greater benefit from camrelizumab. Camrelizumab has a manageable safety profile.

10.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(8): 3594-3607, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no standard context that conforms to the Chinese national framework for evaluating medical decisions regarding the treatment of lung cancer. METHODS: This draft was formulated after a systematic review and a focus group discussion among 20 experts, who were senior physicians with extensive clinical experience from the Chinese Thoracic Oncology Group (CTONG) task force. Subsequently, a draft and a five-point Likert scale were sent to 300 CTONG working group members. These were modified according to feedback from a four-round modified Delphi approach. Hence, the first version of the 'Therapeutic option of lung cancer: CTONG scoring system' was formulated. Afterward, a corresponding questionnaire was designed to collect opinions on the weight allocation of various indicators. This was issued through the WeChat platform, "Oncology News" application and e-mails from October 23, 2020, to November 25, 2020. Participants from numerous occupations in cancer-related fields from various regions of China were included in the study. Overall and subgroup analyses regarding weight allocations were performed. The differences between participant-allocated and reference weights were considered to adjust the framework. RESULTS: The framework contained four aspects and six indicators, including efficacy [progression-free survival (PFS)/overall survival (OS) and subsequent treatment], safety [treatment-related severe adverse event (SAE), dose adjustment], quality of life (Qol), and compensation. The reference weights were 50%, 5%, 10%, 5%, 10%, and 20% for each indicator. By November 25, 2020, 1,043 valid questionnaires had been obtained. The majority of the questionnaires were completed by physicians (86.5%). Subgroup analysis among the various groups showed an overall consistent trend. Besides, significant differences between the participant-allocated and reference weights were found among PFS/OS (difference: -11.5%), compensation (difference: -10.1%), and subsequent treatment (difference: 9.7%) indicators. After discussion, the final weight allocations were set at 45%, 10%, 15%, 5%, 10%, and 15% for PFS/OS, subsequent treatment, treatment-related SAE, dose adjustment, Qol, and compensation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CTONG scoring system, as an objective evaluation model that involves multiple parameters, is a breakthrough method for evaluating the therapeutic value of lung cancer treatment options in China, which is worthy of further verification in future clinical practice.

11.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(11): 941, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients by stratifying by the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis status is still uncertain. METHODS: We included 1,590 hospitalized COVID-19 patients confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay or high-throughput sequencing of pharyngeal and nasal swab specimens from 575 hospitals across China between 11 December 2019 and 31 January 2020. Times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were described and turned into binary variables by the maximally selected rank statistics method. Then, survival analysis, including a log-rank test, Cox regression, and conditional inference tree (CTREE) was conducted, regarding whether patients progressed to a severe disease level during the observational period (assessed as severe pneumonia according to the Chinese Expert Consensus on Clinical Practice for Emergency Severe Pneumonia, admission to an intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation, or death) as the prognosis outcome, the dependent variable. Independent factors included whether the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis was longer than 5 days (the exposure) and other demographic and clinical factors as multivariate adjustments. The clinical characteristics of the patients with different times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis were also compared. RESULTS: The medians of the times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit, and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were 6, 3, and 2 days. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and comorbidity status, age [hazard ratio (HR): 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04], comorbidity (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.23-2.73), and a duration from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis of >5 days (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.10-2.60) were independent predictors of COVID-19 prognosis, which echoed the CTREE models, with significant nodes such as time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, age, and comorbidities. Males, older patients with symptoms such as dry cough/productive cough/shortness of breath, and prior COPD were observed more often in the patients who procrastinated before initiating the first medical consultation. CONCLUSIONS: A longer time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis yielded a worse COVID-19 prognosis.

12.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(8): 608-620, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419260

RESUMO

Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE) has been used to treat tumor in China for more than 40 years. However, its components and effectiveness in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and its mechanism of anti-cancer activity remain unknown. In the current study, high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was used to analyze the components of BJOE. Then, the anti-leukemia effects of BJOE were examined both in vitro and in vivo using ALL Jurkat cells and the p388 mouse leukemia transplant model, respectively. The primary ALL leukemia cells were also used to confirm the anti-leukemia effects of BJOE. The apoptotic-related results indicated that BJOE induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells and were suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic induction. Moreover, BJOE inhibited Akt (protein kinase B) activation and upregulated its downstream targets p53 and FoxO1 (forkhead box gene, group O-1) to initiate apoptosis. The activation of GSK3ß was also involved. Our findings demonstrate that BJOE has anti-leukemia effects on ALL cells and can induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells through the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) /Akt signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Brucea , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Animais , Brucea/química , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(3): 295-301, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Canakinumab is an interleukin (IL)-1ß inhibitory antibody. Recently, a large trial of canakinumab in cardiac patients described lower lung cancer incidence in patients treated with canakinumab compared to controls. This finding is the basis for ongoing clinical trials of canakinumab in lung cancer. To address the underlying mechanism, we established lung cancer co-cultures to investigate the interactions between lung cancer cells and immunocyte macrophages as related to the expression of IL-1ß and the effect of IL-1ß on the NF-κB pathway on lung cancer cells. METHODS: Lung cancer cell lines H838 and H1975 and macrophages were mono-cultured separately as control groups. Lung cancer cell lines and macrophages were co-cultured respectively in a ratio of 5:1 under the conditions of 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 for seven days. Cell culture supernatants were collected at predetermined time points, and cell morphology was observed and photographed by microscopy. IL-1ß was detected by ELISA. H838 and H1975 cells were treated with PBS or IL-1ß for 24 hours. Cells were harvested and lysed, then analyzed in a proteome profiler array. RESULTS: Cells in co-cultures initially grew well. IL-1ß was almost undetectable in lung cancer cell lines and macrophage monoculture groups but was highly expressed in co-cultures after 24h and declined at the 7th day. In the H838 and H1975 co-culture group, the lung cancer cells occupied a great majority. IL-1ß activates the NF-κB pathway on H838 and H1975 cells. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that in a lung cancer co-culture incorporating lung cancer cells and macrophages lead to a higher expression of IL-1ß than monoculture. It is possible that such dynamic changes in IL-1ß expression may also occur in vivo in response to changes in the tumor microenvironment and interactions with immune cell populations. These interactions are likely important components to be considered when studying and modeling the expression of IL-1ß as a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/agonistas , Microambiente Tumoral , Apoptose , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
14.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 18(3): 175-184, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to prevent hypertension according to the current guidelines. However, the degree to which the total physical activity (TPA) and its changes benefit normotensives and hypertensives is uncertain. We aimed to examine the effects of TPA and its changes on the incidence, progression, and remission of hypertension in the large-scale prospective cohorts. METHODS: A total of 73,077 participants (55,101 normotensives and 17,976 hypertensives) were eligible for TPA analyses. During a mean follow-up of 7.16 years (394,038 person-years), 12,211 hypertension cases were identified. TPA was estimated as metabolic equivalents and categorized into quartiles. Cox proportional hazards regression and multivariable logistic regression were used to estimate associations of TPA and changes in TPA with incident hypertension and progression/remission of hypertension. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quartile of TPA, normotensives at the third and the highest quartile had a decreased risk of incident hypertension, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-0.91] and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.86), respectively. Hypertensives at the highest quartile of TPA demonstrated a decreased risk of progression of hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.95], and an increased probability of hypertension remission (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.29). Moreover, getting active from a sedentary lifestyle during the follow-up period could reduce 25% (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.96) risk of incident hypertension, whereas those becoming sedentary did not achieve benefit from initially being active. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that increasing and maintaining TPA levels could benefit normotensives, whereas higher TPA levels were needed to effectively control progression and improve remission of hypertension. Physical activity played undoubtedly an essential role in both primary and secondary prevention of hypertension.

15.
Stem Cells ; 39(7): 975-987, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662168

RESUMO

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are recognized as key controllers and effectors of type 2 inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to alleviate type 2 inflammation by modulating T lymphocyte subsets and decreasing TH 2 cytokine levels. However, the effects of MSCs on ILC2s have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the potential immunomodulatory effects of MSCs on ILC2s in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic rhinitis patients and healthy subjects. We further investigated the mechanisms involved in the MSC modulation using isolated lineage negative (Lin- ) cells. PBMCs and Lin- cells were cocultured with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) under the stimulation of epithelial cytokines IL-25 and IL-33. And the ILC2 levels and functions were examined and the possible mechanisms were investigated based on regulatory T (Treg) cells and ICOS-ICOSL pathway. iPSC-MSCs successfully decreased the high levels of IL-13, IL-9, and IL-5 in PBMCs in response to IL-25, IL-33, and the high percentages of IL-13+ ILC2s and IL-9+ ILC2s in response to epithelial cytokines were significantly reversed after the treatment of iPSC-MSCs. However, iPSC-MSCs were found directly to enhance ILC2 levels and functions via ICOS-ICOSL interaction in Lin- cells and pure ILC2s. iPSC-MSCs exerted their inhibitory effects on ILC2s via activating Treg cells through ICOS-ICOSL interaction. The MSC-induced Treg cells then suppressed ILC2s by secreting IL-10 in the coculture system. This study revealed that human MSCs suppressed ILC2s via Treg cells through ICOS-ICOSL interaction, which provides further insight to regulate ILC2s in inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Ligante Coestimulador de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/metabolismo , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Linfócitos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
16.
Stem Cells Int ; 2021: 6624265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747094

RESUMO

Airway stenosis is a common problem in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A tissue-engineered trachea is a new therapeutic method and a research hotspot. Successful vascularization is the key to the application of a tissue-engineered trachea. However, successful vascularization studies lack a complete description. In this study, it was assumed that rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were obtained and induced by ascorbic acid to detect the tissue structure, ultrastructure, and gene expression of the extracellular matrix. A vascular endothelial cell culture medium was added in vitro to induce the vascularization of the stem cell sheet (SCS), and the immunohistochemistry and gene expression of vascular endothelial cell markers were detected. At the same time, vascular growth-related factors were added and detected during SCS construction. After the SCS and decellularized tracheal (DT) were constructed, a tetrandrine allograft was performed to observe its vascularization potential. We established the architecture and identified rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell membranes by 14 days of ascorbic acid, studied the role of a vascularized membrane in inducing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by in vitro ascorbic acid, and assessed the role of combining the stem cell membranes and noncellular tracheal scaffolds in vivo. Fourteen experiments confirmed that cell membranes promote angiogenesis at gene level. The results of 21-day in vitro experiments showed that the composite tissue-engineered trachea had strong angiogenesis. In vivo experiments show that a composite tissue-engineered trachea has strong potential for angiogenesis. It promotes the understanding of diseases of airway stenosis and tissue-engineered tracheal regeneration in newborns and small infants.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1589, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452403

RESUMO

This study was performed to propose a method, the Feature Ambiguity Mitigate Operator (FAMO) model, to mitigate feature ambiguity in bone fracture detection on radiographs of various body parts. A total of 9040 radiographic studies were extracted. These images were classified into several body part types including 1651 hand, 1302 wrist, 406 elbow, 696 shoulder, 1580 pelvic, 948 knee, 1180 ankle, and 1277 foot images. Instance segmentation was annotated by radiologists. The ResNext-101+FPN was employed as the baseline network structure and the FAMO model for processing. The proposed FAMO model and other ablative models were tested on a test set of 20% total radiographs in a balanced body part distribution. To the per-fracture extent, an AP (average precision) analysis was performed. For per-image and per-case, the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) were analyzed. At the per-fracture level, the controlled experiment set the baseline AP to 76.8% (95% CI: 76.1%, 77.4%), and the major experiment using FAMO as a preprocessor improved the AP to 77.4% (95% CI: 76.6%, 78.2%). At the per-image level, the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 61.9% (95% CI: 58.7%, 65.0%), 91.5% (95% CI: 89.5%, 93.3%), and 74.9% (95% CI: 74.1%, 75.7%), respectively, for the controlled experiment, and 64.5% (95% CI: 61.3%, 67.5%), 92.9% (95% CI: 91.0%, 94.5%), and 77.5% (95% CI: 76.5%, 78.5%), respectively, for the experiment with FAMO. At the per-case level, the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 74.9% (95% CI: 70.6%, 78.7%), 91.7%% (95% CI: 88.8%, 93.9%), and 85.7% (95% CI: 84.8%, 86.5%), respectively, for the controlled experiment, and 77.5% (95% CI: 73.3%, 81.1%), 93.4% (95% CI: 90.7%, 95.4%), and 86.5% (95% CI: 85.6%, 87.4%), respectively, for the experiment with FAMO. In conclusion, in bone fracture detection, FAMO is an effective preprocessor to enhance model performance by mitigating feature ambiguity in the network.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Área Sob a Curva , Cotovelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Curva ROC , Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Raios X
18.
Invest New Drugs ; 39(2): 477-487, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052556

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are recommended first-line treatments in EGFR-mutated (EGFRm) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance (e.g. MET amplification) is frequently observed. Savolitinib (volitinib, HMPL-504, AZD6094) is an oral, potent, and highly selective MET-TKI. In this phase Ib, open-label, multicenter study, we enrolled Chinese patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC, whose disease progressed following prior EGFR-TKI treatment. In the safety run-in, patients received savolitinib 600 or 800 mg plus gefitinib 250 mg orally once daily, and dose-limiting toxicities were recorded. In the expansion phase, patients with MET amplification received savolitinib plus gefitinib. The primary endpoint was safety/tolerability. Secondary endpoints included antitumor activity. Thirteen patients were enrolled in the safety phase (median age 52 years, 46% female) and 51 enrolled in the expansion phase (median age 61 years, 67% female). No dose-limiting toxicities were reported in either dose group during the safety run-in. Adverse events of grade ≥ 3 in the safety run-in and expansion phases (n = 57) were reported in 21 (37%) patients. The most frequently reported adverse events (all grades) were: vomiting (n = 26, 46%), nausea (n = 23, 40%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (n = 22, 39%). Of four deaths, none were treatment-related. The objective response rates in EGFR T790M-negative, -positive, and -unknown patients were 52% (12/23), 9% (2/23), and 40% (2/5), respectively. Savolitinib 600 mg plus gefitinib 250 mg once daily had an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated promising antitumor activity in EGFRm, MET-amplified advanced NSCLC patients who had disease progression on EGFR-TKIs. NCT02374645, Date of registration: March 2nd 2015.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Gefitinibe/administração & dosagem , Gefitinibe/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/biossíntese , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/efeitos adversos
20.
J Oncol ; 2021: 5548128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35096055

RESUMO

Recent studies have revealed that antiparasitic agents showed promising inhibitory effects on tumors, raising a possibility that repositioning this class of drugs may shed new light on clinical therapy against tumors. CWHM-1008 is a novel class of antimalarial drug; however, the inhibitory impact of CWHM-1008 on lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cells remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the anticancer effect and underlying mechanisms of CWHM-1008 on LUAD cells in vitro and in vivo. Human LUAD cells, H358 and A549, were treated with varying concentrations of CWHM-1008 at different lengths of time. Cell viability, colony formation, cell count, flow cytometry findings, microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-green- (LC3-) GFP/RFP adenovirus infection status, and the expression of apoptosis and autophagy-related proteins were examined. Potential effects of an autophagy inhibitor (LY294002) and constitutively active Akt plasmid (CA-Akt) on CWHM-1008-induced apoptosis were also examined. Our results showed that CWHM-1008 significantly inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and enhanced autophagy flux by blocking the RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase/the mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) axis in two LUAD cells. In addition, autophagy inhibited by LY294002 or CA-Akt transfection accelerated CWHM-1008-induced apoptosis in those LUAD cells. Moreover, CWHM-1008 significantly inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of A549 cell in nude mice in vivo. The present findings provide new insights into anticancer properties of CWHM-1008, suggesting that it may be an adjuvant treatment for LUAD treatment, warranting further study.

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