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1.
Dalton Trans ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687705

RESUMO

Herein, we have studied the crystallization of zeolite omega by the solid-state transformation of TMA-magadiite at 100 °C for 12 h. The samples prepared at different times were subjected to XRD, SEM, IR, Raman and solid MAS NMR analyses to investigate the crystallization behaviors and changes in the medium-range structure during the synthesis process and a comprehensive mechanism was proposed. It has been demonstrated that the 5Rs and 6Rs in magadiite are partially retained in the system and participate in the growth of zeolite omega. The 4Rs were formed after heating for 4 h. The synthesis time of the zeolite omega using this method is shorter than that using the magadiite hydrothermal conversion method (about 72 h), because special composition building units, which have similarities to the structure of zeolite omega, were formed and adsorbed on the surface of the TMA-magadiite, and then provided a growth surface for the synthesis of targets. In addition, recycling the waste mother liquid produced in the preparation of the precursor was done to achieve the low cost and green synthesis. Finally, several factors influencing the reaction are discussed.

2.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705194

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has shown that the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role in the regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and drug resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the biological function roles of lncRNAs growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) and its underlying molecular mechanism in the development of HCC. qRT-PCR was used to detect GAS5, miR-21, and PTEN levels. MTT, cell counting assays, and xenograft mouse model were applied to measure cell proliferation rate in vitro and in vivo. The luciferase reporter assay and RNA immune-precipitation assay were introduced to evaluate the relationship between GAS5 and miR-21. We found that GAS5 was downregulated in HCC cell lines and tumor tissues. Knockdown of GAS5 enhanced HCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and increased HCC cell resistance to doxorubicin. GAS5 acted as a sponge for miR-21 silencing and consequently led to the elevation of PTEN expression. Our data demonstrated that GAS5 functioned as a tumor suppressor role in HCC through regulation of miR-21-PTEN singling pathways, suggesting a potential application of GAS5 in HCC therapy.

3.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675439

RESUMO

The endophytic fungus Falciphora oryzae was initially isolated from wild rice (Oryza granulata) and colonizes many crop species and promotes plant growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying F. oryzae-mediated growth promotion are still unknown. We found that F. oryzae was able to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. The most dramatic change after F. oryzae inoculation was observed in the root architecture, as evidenced by increased lateral root growth but reduced primary root length, similar to the effect of auxin, a significant plant growth hormone. The expression of genes responsible for auxin biosynthesis, transport and signalling was regulated in Arabidopsis roots after F. oryzae co-cultivation. Indole derivatives were detected at significantly higher levels in liquid media after co-cultivation compared with separate cultivation of Arabidopsis and F. oryzae. Consistently, the expression of indole biosynthetic genes was highly upregulated in F. oryzae upon treatment with Arabidopsis exudates. Global analysis of Arabidopsis gene expression at the early stage after F. oryzae co-cultivation suggested that signals were exchanged to initiate Arabidopsis-F. oryzae interactions. All these results suggest that signalling molecules from Arabidopsis roots are perceived by F. oryzae and induce the biosynthesis of indole derivatives in F. oryzae, consequently stimulating Arabidopsis lateral root growth.

4.
J Nat Prod ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702148

RESUMO

The Arctic fungus Eutypella sp. D-1, previously found to produce a variety of cytotoxic cyclopropyl-fused and cyclobutyl-fused pimarane diterpenoids when grown in the defined medium, was induced to produce unusual metabolites by growing on solid rice medium. A chemical investigation on the rice medium extract led to the isolation of four new meroterpenoids, eutypellacytosporins A-D (1-4), along with the known biogenetically related compound cytosporin D (5). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by their detailed spectroscopic analysis and modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-4 may be formed by the 12,32-ester linkage of two moieties, cytosporin D (5) and decipienolide A or B. All isolated compounds, except 5, showed weak cytotoxicity against DU145, SW1990, Huh7, and PANC-1 cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4.9 to 17.1 µM.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576025

RESUMO

X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is an inherited renal disease caused by mutations in COL4A5 gene. The c.2858G>T(p.(G953V)) in COL4A5 gene (rs78972735) has been considered pathogenic previously. However, there are conflicting interpretations of its pathogenicity recently. Here we presented 19 Chinese families, out of which 36 individuals (18 probands and 18 family members) carried the c.2858G>T(p.(G953V)) in COL4A5 gene. The clinical manifestations and genetic findings of them were analyzed. We found there were no clinical features of Alport syndrome not only in six probands with c.2858G>T(p.(G953V)) in COL4A5 plus pathogenic variants in other genes (e.g., WT1, ADCK4, NPHP1, TRPC6, COL4A4, and PAX2) but also in another six probands with only the c.2858G>T(p.(G953V)) variant. The other six probands with a combination of c.2858G>T(p.(G953V)) and another pathogenic variant in COL4A5 had XLAS. Eleven family members (11/18, nine females and two males) who had only the c.2858G>T(p.(G953V)) variant were asymptomatic. These two males (at age of 42 and 35 years) had normal result of urine analysis and no more clinical traits of Alport syndrome. We conclude c.2858G>T(p.(G953V)) in COL4A5 gene is not a pathogenic variant for XLAS. Individuals should not be diagnosed as XLAS only based on the detection of c.2858G>T(p.(G953V)) in COL4A5 gene.

6.
Glia ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626364

RESUMO

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a type III intermediate filament, is a marker of mature astrocytes. The expression of GFAP gene is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs), mainly Janus kinase-2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 cascade and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell signaling. GFAP expression is also modulated by protein kinase and other signaling molecules that are elicited by neuronal activity and hormones. Abnormal expression of GFAP proteins occurs in neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, brain edema-eliciting diseases, traumatic brain injury, psychiatric disorders and others. GFAP, mainly in α-isoform, is the major component of cytoskeleton and the scaffold of astrocytes, which is essential for the maintenance of astrocytic structure and shape. GFAP also has highly morphological plasticity because of its quick changes in assembling and polymerizing states in response to environmental challenges. This plasticity and its corresponding cellular morphological changes endow astrocytes the functions of physical barrier between adjacent neurons and stabilizer of extracellular environment. Moreover, GFAP colocalizes and even molecularly associates with many functional molecules. This feature allows GFAP to function as a platform for direct interactions between different molecules. Last, GFAP involves transportation and localization of other functional proteins and thus serves as a protein transport guide in astrocytes. This guiding role of GFAP involves an elastic retraction and extension cytoskeletal network that couples with GFAP reassembling, transporting, and membrane protein recycling machinery. This paper reviews our current understanding of the expression and functions of GFAP as well as their regulation.

7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640344

RESUMO

Lysozyme has emerged to be a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics to deal with the increasing antibiotic resistance of bacteria. However, its application is hampered by its inferior bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria. To address this problem, a novel "enzyme-cascade fluorescent high-throughput screening (HTS) method" was designed and constructed based on detection of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and enzyme-cascade reaction of lysozyme and protease. As a proof of concept, site-saturation mutagenesis libraries targeting at residues of the unstructured stretch at the N-terminus of Antheraea pernyi lysozyme were constructed and screened by the proposed HTS method. The isolated lysozyme variants proved to exhibit higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli K12, demonstrating the significance of this region for the bactericidal function of lysozyme. The presented cell-based fluorescent HTS method is a new tool for screening lysozyme variants with improved bactericidal efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria and for exploring the sequence-structure-function relationship of lysozyme.

8.
Opt Express ; 27(18): 25241-25250, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510399

RESUMO

Broadband photon detectors are a key enabling technology for various applications such as spectrometers, light detection and ranging. In this work, we report on an ultra-broadband single-photon detector based on a microfiber (MF)-coupled superconducting nanowires structure operating in the spectral range from visible to near-infrared light. The MF-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) is formed by placing an MF on top of superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) nanowires, allowing ultra-broadband photon detection due to their nearly lossless transmission/absorption and nearly unity internal efficiency for ultra-broad waveband. The simulation results indicate that with optimal device structure, the optical absorption with efficiency > 90% can be realized over a wavelength range of 350 nm to 2150 nm. The fabricated MF-coupled SNSPD shows unparalleled broadband system detection efficiencies (SDEs) of more than 50% from 630 nm to 1500 nm. The SDEs reach 66% at 785 nm and 45% at 1550 nm. These results pave the way for ultra-broadband weak light detection with quantum-limit sensitivity.

9.
Plant J ; 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494982

RESUMO

Fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes based on oligonucleotides (oligo-FISH) is a useful tool for chromosome identification and karyotype analysis. Here we developed two oligo-FISH probes that allow the identification of each of the 12 pairs of chromosomes in rice (Oryza sativa). These two probes comprised 25 717 (green) and 25 215 (red) oligos (45 nucleotides), respectively, and generated 26 distinct FISH signals that can be used as a barcode to uniquely label each of the 12 pairs of rice chromosomes. Standard karyotypes of rice were established using this system on both mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Moreover, dual-color oligo-FISH was used to characterize diverse chromosomal abnormalities. Oligo-FISH analyses using these probes in various wild Oryza species revealed that chromosomes from the AA, BB or CC genomes generated specific and intense signals similar to those in rice, while chromosomes with the EE genome generated less specific signals and the FF genome gave no signal. Together, the oligo-FISH probes we established will be a powerful tool for studying chromosome variations and evolution in the genus Oryza.

10.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(5): 4253-4261, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545438

RESUMO

Investigating active compounds from Chinese herbal medicine that can rescue myocardial cells is a good approach to preserve cardiac function. Several herbal formulae that containing Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS), also called Suanzaoren in Chinese, are clinically effective in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present study aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of spinosin and 6'''­feruloylspinosin, two flavonoid glycosides from SZS, in a rat model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. The left anterior descending artery (LAD) was occluded to induce myocardial ischemia. Spinosin or 6'''­feruloylspinosin (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into rats 30 min before LAD ligation. The protein levels of myocardial enzymes in the serum, the extent of tissue injury and the rate of apoptosis were examined after AMI in rats with or without pretreatment with spinosin or 6'''­feruloylspinosin. Western blotting was performed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the function of these two flavonoid glycosides. The present results suggested that pretreatment with spinosin or 6'''­feruloylspinosin significantly attenuated myocardial tissue injury, and reduced myocardial enzyme release and cell apoptosis in AMI rats. In addition, spinosin treatment increased light chain 3B­II and 6'''­feruloylspinosin, and reduced p62, indicating that autophagy was promoted after drug treatments. Treatments of spinosin and 6'''­feruloylspinosin led to the reduction of glycogen synthase kinase­3ß (GSK3ß) phosphorylation at Tyr216, and the increase of peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)­1α and its downstream signaling proteins, including nuclear factor (erythroid­derived 2)­like 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase1 (HO­1). The present data suggested that SZS flavonoids could protect myocardial cells against acute heart ischemia­reperfusion, probably via the inhibition of GSK3ß, which increased autophagy and the activity of the PGC­1α/Nrf2/HO­1 pathway.

11.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560760

RESUMO

An accurate biomarker or method for diagnosis of thyroid nodule with indeterminate fineneedle aspiration result is essential for clinical treatment. miRNAs of exosomes are advantageous in the diagnosis of tumors because they are highly stable, and be protected by a bilayer membrane structure. Exosomes were isolated from 13 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 7 nodular goiter (NG) patients' plasma. Small RNA sequencing was performed on exosomes' RNA in next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform. Then we performed comprehensive analysis on miRNA expression profile in exosome of two groups. 129 differential expressed miRNAs were identified in plasma exosomes between PTC and NG patients. 49 miRNAs were up-regulated, and 80 miRNAs were down-regulated in PTC patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of 129 miRNAs were plotted. Area Under Curve (AUC) of 129 miRNAs was 0.571-0.951, with distribution peak of 0.82-0.86. AUC of 11 miRNAs was above 0.9, miR-5189-3p had the most optimal performance for diagnosis between PTC and NG, with 0.951 of AUC. Target genes of 129 miRNAs were enriched into 7 cancer-related signaling pathways, including MAPK, TNF, NF-kappa B signaling pathway et al. This study profiled the miRNA signature of exosomes from PTC patients and NG patients. We proposed a group of miRNAs in plasma exosomes as candidate biomarkers for thyroid nodule diagnosis.

12.
J Pathol ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397884

RESUMO

Vascular calcification is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Vascular calcification is now recognised as a biological process similar to bone formation involving osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Cell division cycle 42 (CDC42), a Rac1 family member GTPase, is essential for cartilage development during endochondral bone formation. However, whether CDC42 affects osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs and vascular calcification remains unknown. In the present study, we observed a significant increase in the expression of CDC42 both in rat VSMCs and in calcified arteries during vascular calcification. Alizarin red staining and calcium content assay revealed that adenovirus-mediated CDC42 overexpression led to an apparent VSMC calcification in the presence of calcifying medium, accompanied with up-regulation of bone-related molecules including RUNX2 and BMP2. By contrast, inhibition of CDC42 by ML141 significantly blocked calcification of VSMCs in vitro and aortic rings ex vivo. Moreover, ML141 markedly attenuated vascular calcification in rats with CKD. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of AKT signal was shown to block CDC42-induced VSMC calcification. These findings demonstrate for the first time that CDC42 contributes to vascular calcification through a mechanism involving AKT signalling; this uncovered a new function of CDC42 in regulating vascular calcification. This may provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of vascular calcification in the context of CKD. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 257: 698-709, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for PTSD is an emerging treatment of remarkable promise, but its efficacy and safety are still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of VRET for individuals with PTSD, and to identify the potential moderating variables associated with interventions. METHODS: Literature search was conducted via PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, Science Direct, and EBSCO. We identified 18 studies on PTSD including 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; 654 participants) and 5 single-group trials (60 participants). RESULTS: The main effects analysis showed a moderate effect size (g = 0.327, 95% CI: 0.105-0.550, p<0.01) for VRET compared to control conditions on PTSD symptoms. Subgroup analysis revealed that the effects of VRET were larger when compared to inactive groups (g = 0.567) than active control groups (g = 0.017). This finding was in agreement with depressive symptoms. A dose-response relationship existed with more VRET sessions showing larger effects. There was a long-range effect of VRET on PTSD symptoms indicating a sustained decrease in PTSD symptoms at 3-month follow-up (g = 0.697) and 6-month follow-up (g = 0.848). The single-group trials analysis revealed that the VRET intervention had a significant effect on PTSD. LIMITATIONS: Many of the combat-related PTSD subjects resulted in uncertainty regarding meta-analytical estimates and subsequent conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that VRET could produce significant PTSD symptoms reduction and supported its application in treating PTSD.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(15)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382430

RESUMO

There are Rogowski coils of various shapes in the on-site measurement, and it is difficult to calculate the electrical quantities of Rogowski coils of curved skeleton and circular cross-section by simulation software. This paper proposes a theoretical derivation to calculate the mutual inductance between the conductors of any shape and Rogowski coils with skeletons of any shape. Based on the derivation, the influence of four skeleton shapes of Rogowski coils and four shapes of the primary conductors on the mutual inductance of Rogowski coils are studied by the comparison between the ideal cases and some non-ideal ones. The gap and gap compensation of the openable Rogowski coils are also considered. Experiments verify the numerical results according to the derivation. It is shown that to reduce the errors of the measurement the circular skeleton deformation should be avoided, the coil's skeleton should be with curved angle, the primary conductor should be as straight as possible and should go through the center of the skeletons vertically. Furthermore, for the Rogowski coils of the rectangular skeleton, we propose a new skeleton structure to reduce the deviation influence of the primary conductors.

15.
Cancer Med ; 8(12): 5619-5628, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407497

RESUMO

Methylated SEPT9 showed relatively low sensitivity in detecting early stage colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced adenomas (AA) in plasma. Combination of multiple biomarkers was an effective strategy to improve sensitivity in early stage cancer diagnosis and screening. A new qPCR-based assay combining the detection of methylated SEPT9 and SDC2 (ColoDefense test) was used. Methylation statuses of SEPT9 and SDC2 were examined in 40 sets of cancer tissues and paired adjacent tissues, 10 adenomatous polyps and 3 hyperplastic polyps (HP). Then evaluated with 384 plasma samples, including 117 CRC patients, 23 AA patients, 78 small polyps patients, and 166 normal individuals. The limit of detection of ColoDefense was about 25 pg per reaction. Both SEPT9 and SDC2 were shown by ColoDefense to be heavily methylated in CRC tissues when compared to paired paracancerous tissues and HP (P < .01). The sensitivities for detecting AA and stage I CRC by plasma SEPT9 methylation alone were 12.1% and 65.0%, and those by plasma SDC2 methylation alone were 43.5% and 55.0%. In comparison, the sensitivities to detect AA and stage I CRC by ColoDefense improved to 47.8% and 80.0%. The overall sensitivity of ColoDefense in detecting CRC was 88.9% (95% CI: 81.4%-93.7%) with a specificity of 92.8% (95% CI: 87.4%-96.0%). Detection of the combinatorial biomarker of methylated SEPT9 and/or SDC2 is a powerful, convenient and highly effective strategy for early CRC screening with high sensitivity and specificity.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330992

RESUMO

Greenhouse cultivation consumes large volumes of freshwater, and excessive irrigation induces environmental problems, such as nutrient leaching and secondary salinization. Pyrochar (biochar from high-temperature pyrolysis) is an effective soil amendment, and researches have shown that pyrochar application could maintain soil nutrient and enhance carbon sequestration. In addition to pyrochar from pyrolysis, hydrochar from hydrothermic carbonization is considered as a new type of biochar and has the advantages of low energy consumption and a high productive rate. However, the effect of these two biochars on water evaporation in clayey soils under a greenhouse system has seldom been studied. The relationship between water evaporation and biochar properties is still unknown. Thus, in the present study, water evaporation under pyrochar and hydrochar application were recorded. Results showed that both pyrochar and hydrochar application could inhibit water evaporation in clayey soil under greenhouse cultivation. Pyrochar showed a better inhibition effect compared with hydrochar. Correlation analysis indicated that the water evaporation rate was significantly positively correlated with bulk density of biochar (p < 0.05). Overall, application of pyrochar or hydrochar could both reduce soil bulk density and inhibit soil evaporation, and be available for greenhouse cultivation. However, the inhibition effect depends on the properties of the biochar.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(14): 4076-4081, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276411

RESUMO

Bulk 2H-TaSe2 is a model charge density wave (CDW) metal with superconductivity emerging at extremely low temperature (Tc = 0.1 K). Here, by first-principles calculations including the explicit calculation of the screened Coulomb interaction, we demonstrate enhanced superconductivity in the CDW state of monolayer 1H-TaSe2 observed in recent experiments. Its ground-state 3 × 3 CDW phase features triangular clustering of Ta atoms and possesses a large electron-phonon coupling of λ = 0.74, yielding an order of magnitude higher superconducting Tc compared to the bulk. Upon lowering the thickness from bulk to monolayer TaSe2, the CDW intensifies with slightly decreased Fermi-level density of states, while superconductivity gets boosted via a largely increased intrinsic electron-phonon coupling strength, which overcomes both the CDW effect and naturally reinforced Coulomb repulsion. These results uncover the simultaneously enhanced CDW and superconducting orders in the two-dimensional limit for the first time and have key implications for other CDW metals like 2H-TaS2.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9930, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289344

RESUMO

The superconducting device of multiple Josephson junctions in arrays has increasingly attracted interest in both applications and fundamental research. The challenge of array integration and scaling is a wide concern. The present study investigated superconducting devices of multiple niobium three-dimensional nano-bridge junctions (3D-NBJs) in parallel. We fabricated evenly and unevenly spaced devices of three to six 3D-NBJs in parallel. We measured the critical current as a function of the magnetic field and voltage to magnetic field transfer function of each device. The derivative of voltage with respect to the magnetic field at the sensitive point increased linearly with the number of junctions. A maximal derivative of 97.3 V/T was achieved by our device with six unevenly spaced junctions in parallel. Furthermore, we carried out numerical simulations on devices of three and four junctions in parallel using the current-phase relation of a single 3D-NBJ. The CPR was determined by comparing the measured and simulated magnetic flux modulations of nano-SQUID. Qualitative agreement between the numerical simulation and experimental measurement suggests that it is possible to use 3D-NBJs to build SQUID arrays or SQIFs with high integration density.

20.
Clin Respir J ; 13(10): 614-623, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347281

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Occupational exposures at the WTC site after September 11, 2001 have been associated with several presumably inflammatory lower airway diseases. Pulmonary arterial enlargement, as suggested by an increased ratio of the diameter of the pulmonary artery to the diameter of the aorta (PAAr) has been reported as a computed tomographic (CT) scan marker of adverse respiratory health outcomes, including WTC-related disease. In this study, we sought to utilize a novel quantitative CT (QCT) measurement of PAAr to test the hypothesis that an increased ratio is associated with FEV1 below each subject's statistically determined lower limit of normal (FEV1  < LLN). METHODS: In a group of 1,180 WTC workers and volunteers, we examined whether FEV1  < LLN was associated with an increased QCT-measured PAAr, adjusting for previously identified important covariates. RESULTS: Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant association of FEV1  < LLN with PAAr (35.3% vs 24.7%, P = 0.0001), as well as with height, body mass index, early arrival at the WTC disaster site, shorter WTC exposure duration, post-traumatic stress disorder checklist (PCL) score, wall area percent and evidence of bronchodilator response. The multivariate logistic regression model confirmed the association of FEV1  < LLN with PAAr (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.21, 2.20, P = 0.0015) and all the unadjusted associations, except for PCL score. CONCLUSIONS: In WTC workers, FEV1  < LLN is associated with elevated PAAr which, although likely multifactorial, may be related to distal vasculopathy, as has been hypothesized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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