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1.
New Phytol ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215914

RESUMO

Litter decomposition plays a key role in nutrient cycling across ecosystems, yet to date, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the non-additive decomposition effects in leaf litter mixing experiments. In order to fill that gap, we compiled 69 individual studies for the purpose of performing two meta-analyses on non-additive effects. We show that a significant synergistic effect (faster decomposition in mixtures than expected) occurs at a global scale, with an average increase of 3-5% in litter mixtures. In particular, low-quality litter in mixtures shows a significant synergistic effect, while additive effects are observed for high-quality species. Additionally, synergistic effects turn into antagonistic effects when soil fauna are absent or litter is in very late stages of decomposition (near-humus). In contrast to temperate and tropical areas, studies in boreal regions show significant antagonistic effects. Our two meta-analyses provide a systematic evaluation of non-additive effects in mixed litter decomposition studies and show that litter quality alters the effects of litter mixing. Our results indicate that nutrient transfer, soil fauna, and inhibitory secondary compounds can influence mixing effects. We also highlight that synergistic and antagonistic effects happen concurrently, and the final litter mixing effect results from the interplay between them.

2.
J Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) has high incidence and high mortality worldwide. The studies of its risk factors were mostly concentrated on an individual level, and there are scarce studies on the two levels of risk factors which include individual and regional levels. METHODS: The data were obtained from a community-based study in 4 cities and 6 counties of Henan, China. Risk factors were initially screened by one-way analysis of variance or chi-square test. Then, they were re-analyzed using a two-level logistic regression model to construct a personal disease risk prediction model. RESULTS: A two-level ICVD risk prediction model comprised 11 variables: age, body mass index (BMI), family history of hypertension, marital status, salt intake, smoking, moderate recreational physical activities, alcohol intake, and education at the individual level. Among the unalterable risk factors, for each additional unit of age and family history of hypertension, the risk of ICVD increased by 1.08 and 1.07 units [ß95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.99-1.16, 0.97-1.17, both p < 0.0001], respectively. Among the modifiable risk factors, the ICVD risk increases by 0.67, 0.27, and 0.28 units for each additional unit of BMI, marital status, and education (ß95%CI: 0.60-0.74, p < 0.0001; ß95%CI: 0.14-0.40, p = 0.0012, 0.18-0.37, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The two-level ICVD risk model can predict that the risk of one person for ICVD will be lower if one is younger, thinner, and well-educated without a family history of hypertension. Overall, the two-level ICVD risk prediction model gets a better fitting effect than the single-level model.

3.
Brain Res Bull ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165274

RESUMO

Our previous findings indicate that HCN2 contributes to oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain, but the mechanisms underlying the development of neuropathic pain are still unclear. Here, we found that the rat HCN2 levels significantly increased after high-frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP). Spinal local application of ZD7288 (a cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channel-specific inhibitor) prevented LTP induction after intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin. In addition, oxaliplatin administration induced spinal LTP via activation of the CaMKII-CREB cascade in the rat spinal dorsal horn. Moreover, we found that administration of oxaliplatin significantly increased the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents and the number of action potentials, but these effects were attenuated by pretreatment with either CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 or NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981. An increase in the phosphorylation of spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 1 (NR1) after oxaliplatin administration was weakened by ZD7288 pretreatment. Administration of noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 blocked oxaliplatin-evoked CaMKII-CREB cascade activation and prevented HCN2-mediated spinal-LTP induction in vitro and suppressed neuropathic-pain behaviors of rats. All these data suggest that HCN2 contributes to the development of neuropathic pain by inducing spinal LTP via activation of NMDA receptor-mediated CaMKII signaling.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative cardiac arrest (ICA) has a reported frequency of 1 in 10,000 anesthetics but has a much higher estimated incidence in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Single-center studies of ICA in OLT are limited by small sample size that prohibits multivariable regression analysis of risks. METHODS: Utilizing data from 7 academic medical centers, we performed a retrospective, observational study of 5296 adult liver transplant recipients (18-80 years old) between 2000 and 2017 to identify the rate of ICA, associated risk factors, and outcomes. RESULTS: ICA occurred in 196 cases (3.7% 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-4.2) and mortality occurred in 62 patients (1.2%). The intraoperative mortality rate was 31.6% in patients who experienced ICA. In a multivariable generalized linear mixed model, ICA was associated with body mass index (BMI) <20 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.04, 95% CI, 1.05-3.98; P = .0386), BMI ≥40 (2.16 [1.12-4.19]; P = .022), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score: (MELD 30-39: 1.75 [1.09-2.79], P = .02; MELD ≥40: 2.73 [1.53-4.85], P = .001), postreperfusion syndrome (PRS) (3.83 [2.75-5.34], P < .001), living donors (2.13 [1.16-3.89], P = .014), and reoperation (1.87 [1.13-3.11], P = .015). Overall 30-day and 1-year mortality were 4.18% and 11.0%, respectively. After ICA, 30-day and 1-year mortality were 43.9% and 52%, respectively, compared to 2.6% and 9.3% without ICA. CONCLUSIONS: We established a 3.7% incidence of ICA and a 1.2% incidence of intraoperative mortality in liver transplantation and confirmed previously identified risk factors for ICA including BMI, MELD score, PRS, and reoperation and identified new risk factors including living donor and length of surgery in this multicenter retrospective cohort. ICA, while rare, is associated with high intraoperative mortality, and future research must focus on therapy to reduce the incidence of ICA.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(6)2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183201

RESUMO

Image data remains an important tool for post-event building assessment and documentation. After each natural hazard event, significant efforts are made by teams of engineers to visit the affected regions and collect useful image data. In general, a global positioning system (GPS) can provide useful spatial information for localizing image data. However, it is challenging to collect such information when images are captured in places where GPS signals are weak or interrupted, such as the indoor spaces of buildings. The inability to document the images' locations hinders the analysis, organization, and documentation of these images as they lack sufficient spatial context. In this work, we develop a methodology to localize images and link them to locations on a structural drawing. A stream of images can readily be gathered along the path taken through a building using a compact camera. These images may be used to compute a relative location of each image in a 3D point cloud model, which is reconstructed using a visual odometry algorithm. The images may also be used to create local 3D textured models for building-components-of-interest using a structure-from-motion algorithm. A parallel set of images that are collected for building assessment is linked to the image stream using time information. By projecting the point cloud model to the structural drawing, the images can be overlaid onto the drawing, providing clear context information necessary to make use of those images. Additionally, components- or damage-of-interest captured in these images can be reconstructed in 3D, enabling detailed assessments having sufficient geospatial context. The technique is demonstrated by emulating post-event building assessment and data collection in a real building.

6.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Establish whether POCD is associated with new disability after surgery, which would inform whether POCD impacts patient-centered outcomes. BACKGROUND: POCD is a decline in neuropsychiatric tests scores from presurgical baseline which occurs in approximately 15% of older patients 3 months after surgery. POCD is a research construct meant to investigate patient and family reports of older adults who were "never the same after surgery." However, many patients with POCD do not perceive difficulty with thinking and memory, and the question remains whether POCD impacts patient function. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 167 older adults undergoing major noncardiac surgery (requiring at least a 2-day hospital stay). Exclusion criteria were: history of dementia, cardiac or intracranial procedure, inability to consent for themselves, or emergency surgery. We administered formal neuropsychiatric testing (Alzheimer Disease Research Center UDS battery), basic and instrumental activities of daily living (Alzheimer Disease Research Center IADLs), pain (geriatric pain measure), and depression screening (hospital depression and anxiety scale) before and 3 months after surgery. We recorded all patient refined diagnostic related groups codes, blood pressure, anesthetics and narcotics administered, surgical and anesthesia duration, and measured complications and severity, length of stay, and readmissions. RESULTS: Patients with POCD (21/167, 14.1%) had twice the proportion of new impairment in IADL as compared to those without POCD (57% vs 27%, P = .01). The most common areas of decline were social activities, ability to find items around the house, remember appointments, shop and pay for items, do laundry, drive a car/use public transport, and do housework. Predictors of IADL change after surgery included POCD, presurgical cognition, presurgical function, postoperative depression, and the development of postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with POCD experience a much higher incidence of new disability after surgery. Baseline cognitive or functional limitations are also risk factors for new disability. Many patients are not aware of their limitations before surgery. Future study is needed to identify practical ways to routinely screen patients and reduce risk. Patients need to be informed of their risk for new disability after surgery to inform their medical decision making.

7.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157556

RESUMO

Retinal injury is the most common ocular impairment associated with shaken baby syndrome (SBS), which could lead to vision loss and blindness. However, a woodpecker does not develop retinal hemorrhages or detachment even at a high acceleration of 1,000×g during pecking. To understand the mechanism of retinal injury and its resistance strategy, we put insight into the special ability of the woodpecker to protect the retina against damage under acceleration-deceleration impact. In this study, the structural and mechanical differences on the eyes of the woodpecker and human were analyzed quantitatively based on anatomical observation. We developed finite element eye models of the woodpecker and human to evaluate the dynamic response of the retina to the shaking load obtained from experimental data. Moreover, several structural parameters and mechanical conditions were exchanged between the woodpecker and human to evaluate their effects on retinal injury in SBS. The simulation results indicated that scleral ossification, lack of vitreoretinal attachment, and rotational acceleration-deceleration impact loading in a woodpecker contribute to the resistance to retinal injuries during pecking. The above mentioned special physical structures and mechanical behavior can distribute the high strain in the posterior segment of the woodpecker's retina, which decrease the risk of retinal injury to SBS.

8.
Neuroscience ; 430: 94-104, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032670

RESUMO

Previous studies have identified the ventral and dorsal brain regions that respectively support semantic and non-semantic phonological access. Nevertheless, the specific role of the left occipitotemporal cortex (lOTC) in the two pathways of phonological access is ambiguous. To address that question, the present study compared word reading in Chinese (presumably relying on the semantic pathway) with that in English (presumably relying on the non-semantic pathway). Results revealed a clear dissociation in the involvement of the anterior and posterior lOTC in semantic and non-semantic phonological access. Specifically, the anterior lOTC showed greater activation for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior lOTC showed greater activation for English than for Chinese. More importantly, both psychophysiological interaction analysis and resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed that the anterior lOTC was functionally connected to the ventral brain regions (e.g., left anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior temporal lobe, and ventral inferior frontal gyrus), whereas the posterior lOTC was functionally connected to the dorsal brain regions (e.g., left posterior superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and dorsal inferior frontal gyrus). These results suggest that the anterior and posterior lOTC are involved in semantic and non-semantic phonological access, respectively.

9.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 19: 1110-1122, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059337

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that play key roles in the generation of insulin-producing cells from stem cells provide a cell-based approach for insulin replacement therapy. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to detect the miRNA expression profile of normal mouse pancreatic ß cells, non-ß cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and determined relative miRNA expression levels in mouse pancreatic ß cells. After the novel mouse miRNA candidates were identified using miRDeep 2.0, we found that Chr13_novelMiR7354-5p, a novel miRNA candidate, significantly promoted the differentiation of BM-MSCs into insulin-producing cells in vitro. Furthermore, Chr13_novelMiR7354-5p-transfected BM-MSCs reversed hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, bioinformatics analyses, a luciferase reporter assay, and western blotting demonstrated that Chr13_novelMiR7354-5p targeted Notch1 and Rbpj. Our results provide compelling evidence of the existence of 65 novel mouse miRNA candidates and present a new treatment strategy to generate insulin-producing cells from stem cells.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049529

RESUMO

Perovskite and chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs) are important nano semiconductors. It has been a challenge to synthesize heterostructural QDs combining perovskite and chalcogenide with tailorable photoelectronic properties. In this report, heterostructural CsPbX3-PbS (X = Cl, Br, I) QDs were successfully synthesized via a room temperature in situ transformation route. The CsPbX3-PbS QDs show a tunable dual emission feature with the visible and near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) corresponding to CsPbX3 and PbS, respectively. Typically, the formation and evolution of the heterostructural CsPbBr3-PbS QDs with reaction time was investigated. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) was applied to illuminate the exciton dynamics in CsPbBr3-PbS QDs. The mild synthetic method and TAS proved perovskite to PbS energy transfer may pave the way toward highly efficient QD photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

11.
Nano Lett ; 20(3): 1755-1765, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069419

RESUMO

Insulin would undergo unfolding and fibrillation under stressed conditions, which may cause serious biotechnological and medical problems. Herein, by mimicking the structure and functions of natural chaperones HSP70s, self-assembled polymeric micelles are used as nanochaperones for the delivery of insulin. The confined hydrophobic domains on the surface of nanochaperones adsorb partially unfolded insulin, inhibiting the aggregation and fibrillation and enhancing the stability of insulin. The bioactivity of insulin is well-reserved after incubation with the nanochaperones at 37 °C for 7 d or heating at 70 °C for 1 h. The stealthy poly(ethylene glycol) chains around the confined domains protect the adsorbed insulin from enzymatic degradation and prolong the circulation time. More importantly, the excellent glucose sensitivity of the hydrophobic domains enables the nanochaperones to release and refold insulin in native form in response to hyperglycemia. This kind of nanochaperone may offer a hopeful strategy for the protection and delivery of insulin.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013011

RESUMO

Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne graminicola are root-knot nematodes (RKNs) infecting rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots and severely decreasing yield, whose mechanisms of action remain unclear. We investigated RKN invasion and development in rice roots through RNA-seq transcriptome analysis. The results showed that 952 and 647 genes were differently expressed after 6 (invasion stage) and 18 (development stage) days post inoculation, respectively. Gene annotation showed that the differentially expressed genes were classified into diverse metabolic and stress response categories. Furthermore, phytohormone, transcription factor, redox signaling, and defense response pathways were enriched upon RKN infection. RNA-seq validation using qRT-PCR confirmed that CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) genes (CIPK5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 23, 24, and 31) as well as brassinosteroid (BR)-related genes (OsBAK1, OsBRI1, D2, and D11) were altered by RKN infection. Analysis of the CIPK9 mutant and overexpressor indicated that the RKN populations were smaller in cipk9 and larger in CIPK9 OX, while more galls were produced in CIPK9 OX plant roots than the in wild-type roots. Significantly fewer numbers of second-stage infective juveniles (J2s) were observed in the plants expressing the BR biosynthesis gene D2 mutant and the BR receptor BRI1 activation-tagged mutant (bri1-D), and fewer galls were observed in bri1-D roots than in wild-type roots. The roots of plants expressing the regulator of ethylene signaling ERS1 (ethylene response sensor 1) mutant contained higher numbers of J2s and developed more galls compared with wild-type roots, suggesting that these signals function in RKN invasion or development. Our findings broaden our understanding of rice responses to RKN invasion and provide useful information for further research on RKN defense mechanisms.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019153

RESUMO

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) severely affect plants growth and productivity, and several commercial biocontrol bacteria can improve plants resistance to RKNs. Pseudomonas putida Sneb821 isolate was found to induce tomatoes resistance against Meloidogyne incognita. However, the molecular functions behind induced resistance remains unclear. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is considered to be a new component that regulates the molecular functions of plant immunity. We found lncRNA was involved in Sneb821-induced tomato resistance to M. incognita. Compared with tomato inoculated with M. incognita, high-throughput sequencing showed that 43 lncRNAs were upregulated, while 35 lncRNAs were downregulated in tomatoes previously inoculated with Sneb821. A regulation network of lncRNAs was constructed, and the results indicated that 12 lncRNAs were found to act as sponges of their corresponding miRNAs. By using qRT-PCR and the overexpression vector pBI121, we found the expression of lncRNA44664 correlated with miR396/GRFs (growth-regulating factors) and lncRNA48734 was correlated with miR156/SPL (squamosal promoter-binding protein-like) transcription factors. These observations provided a novel molecular model in biocontrol bacteria-induced tomato resistance to M. incognita.

14.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043825

RESUMO

Energy and environmental issues have given rise to the development of advanced energy-storage devices worldwide. Electrochemical energy technologies, such as rechargeable batteries, are considered to be the most reliable and efficient candidates. Compared with other batteries, zinc-based batteries seem promising due to their advantages, including inherent safety, cost-effectiveness, and environmentally friendliness. As potential alternatives to conventional inorganic cathodes, organic cathodes for Zn-organic batteries have become a hot topic for research, owing to their favorable characteristics, such as easy structure design, controllable synthesis, and environmental benignancy. Herein, a systematic overview on the fundamentals of organic cathode materials for zinc batteries, including material design, electrochemical mechanisms, technical advances, and challenging analysis, is provided. Furthermore, perspectives and corresponding research directions are offered to facilitate the future development of organic cathode materials for zinc batteries toward practical applications.

15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 503: 84-89, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylated SFRP2 was previously reported as a non-invasive biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection with a relatively low sensitivity for early stage CRC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new plasma based CRC screening assay, SpecColon test, which tested methylated SFRP2 and SDC2 simultaneously in a single qPCR reaction, in detecting CRC and advanced adenomas (AA). METHOD: One milliliter plasma of 122 CRC patients, 12 AA patients, 93 patients with benign polyps, and 91 normal individuals were collected from the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, and all samples were examined by SpecColon test. RESULTS: The sensitivities for detecting AA and CRC by methylated SFRP2 alone were 50.0% (95% CI: 22.2-77.7%) and 63.1% (95% CI: 53.9-71.5%) with a specificity of 90.1% (95% CI: 81.6-95.1%). The sensitivities by methylated SDC2 alone were 33.3% (95% CI: 11.3-64.6%) and 56.6% (95% CI: 47.3-65.4%) with a specificity of 95.6% (95% CI: 88.5-98.6%). However, when methylated SFRP2 and methylated SDC2 were combined, the sensitivities for AA and CRC detection improved to 58.3% (95% CI: 28.6-83.5%) and 76.2% (95% CI: 67.5-83.3%) with a specificity of 87.9% (95% CI: 79.0-93.5%). The positive detection rates of benign polyp group and normal control group showed no significant difference (p > 0.01), whereas AA and CRC groups had significantly higher positive detection rates than normal individual group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The sensitivities for AA and early stage CRC by combined test of methylated SFRP2 and methylated SDC2, the so called SpecColon test, improved upon those by either biomarker alone without significant impact on the specificity. It has the potential to become a powerful, convenient and highly effective screening tool for early CRC screening.

16.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(3): 751-765, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease. Increased plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-dependent product, concentrations are found in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, a clear mechanistic link between TMAO and vascular calcification is not yet established. In this study, we investigate whether TMAO participates in the progression of vascular calcification using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. Approach and Results: Alizarin red staining revealed that TMAO promoted calcium/phosphate-induced calcification of rat and human vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner, and this was confirmed by calcium content assay. Similarly, TMAO upregulated the expression of bone-related molecules including Runx2 (Runt-related transcription factor 2) and BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2), suggesting that TMAO promoted osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, ex vivo study also showed the positive regulatory effect of TMAO on vascular calcification. Furthermore, we found that TMAO accelerated vascular calcification in rats with chronic kidney disease, as indicated by Mico-computed tomography analysis, alizarin red staining and calcium content assay. By contrast, reducing TMAO levels by antibiotics attenuated vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease rats. Interestingly, TMAO activated NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3) inflammasome and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signals during vascular calcification. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB signals attenuated TMAO-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time demonstrates that TMAO promotes vascular calcification through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB signals, suggesting the potential link between gut microbial metabolism and vascular calcification. Reducing the levels of TMAO could become a potential treatment strategy for vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936278

RESUMO

In plant immune responses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules that activate defense pathways against pathogens, especially following resistance (R) gene-mediated pathogen recognition. Glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant and redox regulator, participates in the removal of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, the mechanism of GSH-mediated H2O2 generation in soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) remains unclear. To elucidate this underlying relationship, the feeding of race 3 of H. glycines with resistant cultivars, Peking and PI88788, was compared with that on a susceptible soybean cultivar, Williams 82. After 5, 10, and 15 days of SCN infection, we quantified γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-EC) and (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH), and a gene expression analysis showed that GSH metabolism in resistant cultivars differed from that in susceptible soybean roots. ROS accumulation was examined both in resistant and susceptible roots upon SCN infection. The time of intense ROS generation was related to the differences of resistance mechanisms in Peking and PI88788. ROS accumulation that was caused by the (h)GSH depletion-arrested nematode development in susceptible Williams 82. These results suggest that (h)GSH metabolism in resistant soybeans plays a key role in the regulation of ROS-generated signals, leading to resistance against nematodes.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(6): 3386-3394, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961660

RESUMO

Although the fate of nanoplastics (<100 nm) in freshwater systems is increasingly well studied, much less is known about its potential threats to cyanobacterial blooms, the ultimate phenomenon of eutrophication occurrence worldwide. Previous studies have evaluated the consequences of nanoplastics increasing the membrane permeability of microbes, however, there is no direct evidence for interactions between nanoplastics and microcystin; intracellular hepatotoxins are produced by some genera of cyanobacteria. Here, we show that the amino-modified polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NH2) promote microcystin synthesis and release from Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant species causing cyanobacterial blooms, even without the change of coloration. We demonstrate that PS-NH2 inhibits photosystem II efficiency, reduces organic substance synthesis, and induces oxidative stress, enhancing the synthesis of microcystin. Furthermore, PS-NH2 promotes the extracellular release of microcystin from M. aeruginosa via transporter protein upregulation and impaired cell membrane integrity. Our findings propose that the presence of nanoplastics in freshwater ecosystems might enhance the threat of eutrophication to aquatic ecology and human health.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcystis , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Microcistinas
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 80: 106196, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978803

RESUMO

Sepsis-induced liver injury is very common in intensive care units. Here, we investigated the effects of 6-gingerol on sepsis-induced liver injury and the role of the Nrf2 pathway in this process. 6-Gingerol is the principal ingredient of ginger that exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce polymicrobial sepsis and related liver injury, we found that mice pre-treated with 6-Gingerol showed less incidences of severe liver inflammation and death than untreated CLP groups. 6-Gingerol administration also inhibited the expression of pyroptosis-related proteins, including NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), IL-1ß, and caspase-1. Consistent with these findings, 6-gingerol reduced the effects of pyroptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in RAW 264.7 cells, as evidenced by IL-1ß and caspase-1 protein levels in the supernatant and propidium iodide (PI) staining. 6-Gingerol was shown to activate the Nrf2 pathway in vivo and in vitro. Notably, Nrf2 siRNA transfection nullified the inhibitory effects of 6-gingerol on pyroptosis in vitro. In summary, these findings suggested that 6-gingerol alleviated sepsis-induced liver injury by inhibiting pyroptosis through the Nrf2 pathway.

20.
Water Res ; 171: 115458, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931378

RESUMO

The performance of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) is significantly governed by the hydrodynamics of the reactor. Though the influence of hydrodynamics on mass transfer, granular size distribution, and biogas production was well studied, the interaction between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) is poorly understood. This study used the impinging-jet technique and bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles (CH4 and CO2) and AGS. The fluxes of normalized CH4 or CO2 bubble-attachment on two kinds of AGS were directly affected by gas velocity and decreased with an increase in the Reynolds number ranged from 40 to 140. The bubble-attachment had a positive linear relationship with the contact angles, ratio of exopolymeric protein and polysaccharide, and hydrophilic functional groups of AGS. A bubble probe AFM was used to explore the adhesion force between a single bubble and AGS. The results indicated that the adhesion force between the bubbles and the two kinds of AGS also decreased with increasing approach velocity. Overall, these results contribute to a new insight into the understanding of interaction between biogas bubbles and AGS in UASB reactors.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
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