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1.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829391

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This phase I clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety of RP22 as a skin test reagent for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and to explore the appropriate dosage. METHODS: We used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled identification allergen (IA) skin test. A total of 72 healthy adult volunteers with negative chest X-ray results were randomized into six groups and given a QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT) test. Of the 12 participants in each group, eight received RP22 and four received placebo. The doses of RP22 in the six experimental groups ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 µg in a single intradermal injection of 0.1 ml. Skin reactions and adverse events were recorded at intervals. RESULTS: All doses of RP22 except the highest were well tolerated and safe. No serious adverse events associated with the injection were observed in all groups. There were 11 participants who had positive QFT results, eight had a skin reaction with a redness or induration area diameter of greater than 10 mm at 48-72 h, one had no skin reaction. Among the 60 negative-QFT participants, none had a reaction area diameter of greater than 10 mm. CONCLUSION: The RP22 skin test was well tolerated and safe, it could play a key role in screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) by providing a much-wanted alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs).

2.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(2): 222-228, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829695

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of astragaloside Ⅳ (AS-Ⅳ) on neonatal rats' hypoxic/reoxygenated (H/R) injured myocardial cells and to explore its underlying mechanism. Methods: Cardiac cells were extracted from newborn rats and divided into control, H/R, H/R-low AS-Ⅳ (0.1 µmol/L AS-Ⅳ), H/R-medium AS-Ⅳ (1 µmol/L AS-Ⅳ), H/R-high AS-Ⅳ (10 µmol/L AS-Ⅳ) and H/R-high AS-Ⅳ-AKT (10 µmol/L AS-Ⅳ+5 µmol/L AKT) groups. After 48 h of treatment, the contents of LC3-Ⅱ, p62, AKT, pAKT, rapamycin (mTOR) mammalian targets and uncoordinated 51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) in cardiac myocytes were compared. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of P62 in myocardium autophagosome. Restults: AS-Ⅳ improved the proliferative activity of cardio AS-Ⅳ improved the proliferative activity of cardiomyocytes in H/R injury in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the level of cell autophagy. However, when AKT inhibitors were added, the effect of AS-Ⅳ was partially inhibited ( P<0.05). Gene and protein expression showed that AS-Ⅳ had no significant effect on the expression of AKT and mTOR genes ( P>0.05), but could significantly promote the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR ( P<0.05). Immunofluorescence staining results showed that high concentrations of the AS - Ⅳ can reverse H/R injury induced the expression of autophagy body P62. Conclusion: AS-Ⅳ showed protection effect on H/R injured myocardial cells. The possible mechanism is by reducing the autophagy level via activating the mTOR signal in the PI3K/AKT pathway, thereby preventing H/R damage in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Saponinas , Transdução de Sinais , Triterpenos
3.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793917

RESUMO

Seed storage protein (SSP) acts as one of the main components of seed storage reserves, of which accumulation is tightly mediated by a sophisticated regulatory network. However, whether and how gibberellin (GA) signaling is involved in this important biological event is not fully understood. Here, we show that SSP content in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is significantly reduced by GA and increased in the GA biosynthesis triple mutant ga3ox1/3/4. Further investigation shows that the DELLA protein RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3), a negative regulator of GA signaling, is important for SSP accumulation. In rgl3 and 35S:RGL3-HA, the expression of SSP genes is down- and upregulated, respectively, compared with that in the wild-type. RGL3 interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), a critical transcription factor for seed developmental processes governing SSP accumulation, both in vivo and in vitro, thus greatly promoting the transcriptional activating ability of ABI3 on SSP genes. In addition, genetic evidence shows that RGL3 and ABI3 regulate SSP accumulation in an interdependent manner. Therefore, we reveal a function of RGL3, a little studied DELLA member, as a coactivator of ABI3 to promote SSP biosynthesis during seed maturation stage. This finding advances the understanding of mechanisms in GA-mediated seed storage reserve accumulation.

4.
Neurotox Res ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797738

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve as regulators or effectors of the p53 regulatory pathway. The lncRNA-p53 regulatory network plays an important role in ischemia-induced apoptosis and may be important for post-stroke recovery. Eight genetic variants of p53-related lncRNAs were genotyped in 982 patients to explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes related to the p53 regulatory pathway with ischemic stroke (IS) prognosis in a northern Chinese population. Long- and short-term outcomes were assessed by stroke recurrence and modified Rankin Scale score 3 months after stroke, respectively. We first identified that p53 rs1042522 and LINC-ROR rs2027701 could be associated with IS recurrence risk. On further cumulative effect analysis, we found that these two polymorphisms could jointly be associated with IS recurrence. Patients carrying 2-4 risk alleles showed a significantly higher IS recurrence risk than those harboring no or a single risk allele. In contrast to rs2027701 and rs1042522, the other SNPs were not associated with IS recurrence. Subsequently, we found that TUG1 rs2240183 CC genotype was associated with a favorable IS outcome after adjusting for confounding factors. However, the other seven genetic variants of p53-related lncRNAs were not associated with a functional outcome after stroke. p53 rs1042522 and LINC-ROR rs2027701 may exert combined effects on IS recurrence, and TUG1 rs2240183 may be a new biomarker to predict short-term IS outcomes as it modulates p53-mediated apoptosis.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 282: 117038, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838438

RESUMO

Non-ferrous smelting is a primary cause of serious soil pollution. Contamination and health risks of heavy metals in soils around various types of non-ferrous smelteries in China were assessed using data from peer-reviewed papers published between 2000 and 2019. Development in the relevant environmental policy in China was discussed. The studied non-ferrous smelting sites were mainly located in provinces that produced non-ferrous metals on a large scale. The average concentrations of the heavy metals in soils around the non-ferrous smelteries (in mg per kg of soil) were as follows: Cd, 19.8; Cu, 265; Pb, 1536; and Zn, 1371; the concentrations greatly exceeded their corresponding background values. The smelting sites with high soil contamination in terms of metal concentrations, geo-accumulation (Igeo), and pollution index (PI) were mainly distributed in several provinces of China, including Guangxi, Gansu, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, and Liaoning. Soils near smelteries that processed copper were the most polluted based on Igeo and PI. The accumulation of Cd and Pb in soils around non-ferrous smelteries would pose potentially high risks to residents. A series of environmental policies have proven successful in lowering the emissions of contaminants from the non-ferrous in China. The findings of the study suggested that the strategies to control soil pollution around non-ferrous smelteries should primarily focus on Cd and Pb.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 282: 117036, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838441

RESUMO

Artificial light is transforming the nighttime environment and quickly becoming one of the most pervasive pollutants on earth. Across taxa, light entrains endogenous circadian clocks that function to synchronize behavioral and physiological rhythms with natural photoperiod. Artificial light at night (ALAN) disrupts these photoperiodic cues and has consequences for humans and wildlife including sleep disruption, physiological stress and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms underlying organismal responses to dim ALAN, resembling light pollution, remain elusive. Light pollution exists in the environment at lower levels (<5 lux) than tested in many laboratory studies that link ALAN to circadian rhythm disruption. Few studies have linked dim ALAN to both the upstream regulators of circadian rhythms and downstream behavioral and physiological consequences. We exposed zebra finches (Taeniopygia gutatta) to dim ALAN (1.5 lux) and measured circadian expression of five pacemaker genes in central and peripheral tissues, plasma melatonin, locomotor activity, and biomarkers of cardiovascular health. ALAN caused an increase in nighttime activity and, for males, cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, downstream effects were detectable after just short duration exposure (10 days) and at dim levels that mimic the intensity of environmental light pollution. However, ALAN did not affect circulating melatonin nor oscillations of circadian gene expression in the central clock (brain) or liver. These findings suggest that dim ALAN can alter behavior and physiology without strong shifts in the rhythmic expression of molecular circadian pacemakers. Approaches that focus on ecologically-relevant ALAN and link complex biological pathways are necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying vertebrate responses to light pollution.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876516

RESUMO

An enantioselective synthetic approach for preparing manginoids and guignardones, two types of biogenetically related meroterpenoids, is reported. This bioinspired and divergent synthesis employs an oxidative 1,3-dicarbonyl radical-initiated cyclization and cyclodehydration of the common precursor to forge the central ring of the manginoids and guignardones, respectively, at a late stage. Key synthetic steps include silica-gel-promoted semipinacol rearrangement to form the 6-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane skeleton and the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction of vinyl bromide to achieve fragment coupling. This synthesis protocol enables the asymmetric syntheses of four fungal meroterpenoids from commercially available materials.

8.
Plant Cell ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871651

RESUMO

Light functions as the primary environmental stimulus and brassinosteroids (BRs) as important endogenous growth regulators throughout the plant lifecycle. Photomorphogenesis involves a series of vital developmental processes that require the suppression of BR-mediated seedling growth, but the mechanism underlying the light-controlled regulation of the BR pathway remain unclear. Here, we reveal that nuclear factor YC proteins (NF-YCs) function as essential repressors of the BR pathway during light-controlled hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the light, NF-YCs inhibit BR biosynthesis by directly targeting the promoter of the BR biosynthesis gene BR6ox2 and repressing its transcription. NF-YCs also interact with BIN2, a critical repressor of BR signaling, and facilitate its stabilization by promoting its Tyr200 autophosphorylation, thus inhibiting the BR signaling pathway. Consistently, loss-of-function mutants of NF-YCs show etiolated growth and constitutive BR responses, even in the light. Our findings uncover a dual role of NF-YCs in repressing BR biosynthesis and signaling, providing mechanistic insights into how light antagonizes the BR pathway to ensure photomorphogenic growth in Arabidopsis.

9.
Biomaterials ; 272: 120757, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798960

RESUMO

Transplantation is the most effective, and sometimes the only resort for end-stage organ failure. However, allogeneic graft suffers greatly from lymphocyte-mediated immunorejection, which bears close relationship with a hyperactivation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in host lymphocytes, especially in CD8+ T cells (T-8). Therefore, regulating lymphocytic ER unfolded protein response (UPR) might be a potential therapeutic breakthrough in alleviating graft rejection. Here, ER-targetable liposome is prepared via the surface modification of ER-targeting peptide (Pardaxin), which efficiently loads and directly delivers small molecule inhibitor of UPR sensor IRE1α into the ER of lymphocytes, inducing a systemic immunosuppression that facilitates tumorigenesis and metastasis in the tumor inoculation challenge in vivo. And in vitro, a stage-differential dependency of IRE1α in the phase transition of T-8 is identified. Specifically, inhibiting IRE1α at the early responding stages of T-8, especially at the activation phase, results in a shrunk proliferation, impaired effector function, and limited memory commitment, which might contribute centrally to the induced overall immunosuppression. Based on this, a classical acute rejection model, murine full-thickness trunk skin allograft that primary arises from the hyperactivity of T-lymphocyte, is used. Results suggest that lymphocytic IRE1α inactivation attenuates transplant rejection and prolongs graft survival, with a limited effector function and memory commitment of host T-8. Moreover, an even higher immunosuppressive effect is obtained when IRE1α inhibition is used in combination with immunosuppressant tacrolimus (FK506), which might owe to a synergistic regulation of inflammatory transcription factors. These findings provide a deeper insight into the biological polarization and stress response of lymphocytes, which might guide the future development of allogeneic transplantation.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8089, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850203

RESUMO

To explore the changes in oral flora in people with functional dyspepsia (FD). Unstimulated saliva was collected from 21 FD patients diagnosed according to the Rome IV criteria and from 12 healthy controls (HCs) for 16SrRNA sequencing. The pH of saliva samples and community periodontal index (CPI) were tested. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) was obtained by the methane-and hydrogen-based breath test. At the phylum level, FD patients had a higher relative abundance of Spirochaetes and a lower relative abundance of Fusobacteria, TM7 and Proteobacteria than HCs (p < 0.01). In the saliva, Kingella and Abiotrophia genus levels showed significant changes between the FD and HC groups (p < 0.01). Salivary species level marker Intermedia was significantly different between FD and HC groups (p < 0.01). The oral pH of FD patients was higher than that of HCs (p < 0.01). The mean CPI of the FD group was 1.52 and that of the HC group was 0.17 (p < 0.01). Moreover, 71.4% of the FD group was positive for SIBO. The oral flora of FD patients was different from that of HCs. Spirochaetes, Kingella, Abiotrophia, and Intermedia may be diagnostic indicators of FD.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(16)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846255

RESUMO

Great efforts have been made to build integrated devices to enable future wearable electronics; however, safe, disposable, and cost-effective power sources still remain a challenge. In this paper, an all-solid-state power source was developed by using graphene materials and can be printed directly on an insulating substrate such as paper. The design of the power source was inspired by electric eels to produce programmable voltage and current by converting the chemical potential energy of the ion gradient to electric energy in the presence of moisture. An ultrahigh voltage of 192 V with 175 cells in series printed on a strip of paper was realized under ambient conditions. For the planar cell, the mathematical fractal design concept was adapted as printed patterns, improving the output power density to 2.5 mW cm-3, comparable to that of lithium thin-film batteries. A foldable three-dimensional (3D) cell was also achieved by employing an origami strategy, demonstrating a versatile design to provide green electric energy. Unlike typical batteries, this power source printed on flexible paper substrate does not require liquid electrolytes, hazardous components, or complicated fabrication processes and is highly customizable to meet the demands of wearable electronics and Internet of Things applications.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 216: 112214, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848735

RESUMO

Although the accumulation of potentially toxic elements in soil and crops has attracted widespread attention, the characteristics of the transfer and accumulation of potentially toxic elements in soil-crop systems with different soil parent materials are still not clear. Soil and crop samples were collected from agricultural regions with different soil parent materials in Guangxi, China. This study analyzed the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Fe in the roots, straws, and seeds of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and soils with Quaternary sediments and clastic rocks as the parent materials. The concentration of several potentially toxic elements in rice tissue from the two areas followed the order of Croot> Cstraw> Cseed. The transport capability of Cd and Zn from roots to straws is higher than straws to seeds, and Fe showed a strong capability for transport from straws to seeds. In general, the transfer capacity of potentially toxic elements in the soil-rice system in the Quaternary sediments area was stronger than that in the soil-rice system in the clastic rocks area. Soil pH and minerals, which were represented by major elements, were the main factors affecting the transfer of metals from soil to seeds. This approach could help to evaluate the bioaccumulation risk of potentially toxic elements in crops in different areas quantitatively.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804330

RESUMO

In object detection of remote sensing images, anchor-free detectors often suffer from false boxes and sample imbalance, due to the use of single oriented features and the key point-based boxing strategy. This paper presents a simple and effective anchor-free approach-RatioNet with less parameters and higher accuracy for sensing images, which assigns all points in ground-truth boxes as positive samples to alleviate the problem of sample imbalance. In dealing with false boxes from single oriented features, global features of objects is investigated to build a novel regression to predict boxes by predicting width and height of objects and corresponding ratios of l_ratio and t_ratio, which reflect the location of objects. Besides, we introduce ratio-center to assign different weights to pixels, which successfully preserves high-quality boxes and effectively facilitates the performance. On the MS-COCO test-dev set, the proposed RatioNet achieves 49.7% AP.

14.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818708

RESUMO

Genetic polymorphisms in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are considered as potential genetic biomarkers for the prediction of human complex diseases such as ischemic stroke (IS). However, so far, no reports have focused on the relationship of lncRNA polymorphisms with IS onset and prognosis. In our study, eight potential functional polymorphisms of four well-known lncRNAs (H19 rs2107425 and rs2251375, MALAT1 rs4102217 and rs3200401, MEG3 rs11160608 and rs4081134, SENCR rs4526784 and rs555172) were genotyped in 657 ischemic stroke patients. Then, the association between lncRNA polymorphisms and IS onset and recurrence were investigated. These lncRNA variants were not associated with age onset of IS. However, we observed that MEG3 rs4081134 AA genotype was statistically related with a reduced risk of stroke recurrence, particularly for patients with large-artery atherosclerotic stroke. Also, the decreased risk was more prominent in elders, non-smokers, non-drinkers and hypertensive patients. Furthermore, the variant genotype AA of rs4081134 was an independent predictor for IS recurrence using the multivariate Cox regression model. Our findings indicated that MEG3 rs4081134 can serve as a useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in IS recurrence. More researches are needed to verify our results and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms.

15.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 226, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the proportion of elderly breast cancer patients has been consistently increasing, the optimal treatment modalities for this population have not been well explored. We summarized the treatment outcomes of these patients in our hospital. METHODS: Older patients with early breast cancer were identified from the Breast Cancer Information Management System at West China Hospital, Sichuan University (2000-2019). We compared tumor characteristics and treatment outcomes between the older group (65-74 years old) and the elderly group (≥75 years old). The Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis were conducted to determine significant prognostic factors. RESULTS: In total, 1094 patients were included. The median follow-up time for this cohort was 59 months. The majority of patients underwent surgery and benefited from surgical treatment. Elderly group patients were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy or postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) compared to the older group. However, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.521, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.284-0.955, P = 0.035). Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with grade III disease best benefited from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMRT offered a significant improvement in local disease control, but not in OS. Furthermore, endocrine therapy improved the OS of HR-positive patients (HR 0.440, 95%CI 0.261-0.741, P = 0.002), especially for cases aged 65-74 years. Also, receipt of trastuzumab in HER2-positive patients was associated with better OS (HR 0.168, 95%CI 0.029-0.958, P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, endocrine and targeted therapy are associated with improved OS in older breast cancer patients. Moreover, clinicopathological characteristics should be comprehensively considered when making treatment decisions for these patients.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5975, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727641

RESUMO

Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, numerous studies have been attempting to determine biomarkers, which could rapidly and efficiently predict COVID-19 severity, however there is lack of consensus on a specific one. This retrospective cohort study is a comprehensive analysis of the initial symptoms, comorbidities and laboratory evaluation of patients, diagnosed with COVID-19 in Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, from 4th February to 12th March, 2020. Based on the data collected from 63 severely ill patients from the onset of symptoms till the full recovery or demise, we found not only age (average 70) but also blood indicators as significant risk factors associated with multiple organ failure. The blood indices of all patients showed hepatic, renal, cardiac and hematopoietic dysfunction with imbalanced coagulatory biomarkers. We noticed that the levels of LDH (85%, P < .001), HBDH (76%, P < .001) and CRP (65%, P < .001) were significantly elevated in deceased patients, indicating hepatic impairment. Similarly, increased CK (15%, P = .002), Cre (37%, P = 0.102) and CysC (74%, P = 0.384) indicated renal damage. Cardiac injury was obvious from the significantly elevated level of Myoglobin (52%, P < .01), Troponin-I (65%, P = 0.273) and BNP (50%, P = .787). SARS-CoV-2 disturbs the hemolymphatic system as WBC# (73%, P = .002) and NEUT# (78%, P < .001) were significantly elevated in deceased patients. Likewise, the level of D-dimer (80%, P < .171), PT (87%, P = .031) and TT (57%, P = .053) was elevated, indicating coagulatory imbalances. We identified myoglobin and CRP as specific risk factors related to mortality and highly correlated to organ failure in COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Mioglobina/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , /mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Troponina I/sangue
17.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(4): 580-588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761271

RESUMO

The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is one of the most significant agricultural pests in the world and invaded China in early 2019. We sampled and sequenced RNA-seq data from 15 individuals across different developmental stages. Developmental stages were the larval stage (5th instar larvae and 6th instar larvae), chrysalis stage, and adult stage (female adult and male adult). Individual samples were mainly clustered by developmental stages and we then identified variation between developmental stages of differentially expressed transcripts (DETs). There were 2136 upregulated DETs and 1391 downregulated DETs in the larval stage when comparing larval and chrysalis stages. In the comparison between the chrysalis and adult stages, there were 2033 upregulated DETs and 1391 downregulated DETs in the chrysalis stage. In total, 19,195 abundantly expressed transcripts were obtained and 10% of them were DETs. We then obtained stage-specific DETs to investigate the potential function of the fall armyworm during different developmental stages. We also constructed our annotation background set for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. This indicated that the fall armyworm may undergo active metabolism during its lifespan, even in the chrysalis stage. And it also may experience detoxifying and xenobiotic metabolism throughout its life, especially in the larval stage, which partially explains the difficulty to eradicate using chemical control. Our study is the first insight into the developmental patterns of the fall armyworm and we also provide the fundamental information about enhanced drug resistance at the level of transcriptome. These results are beneficial for a future investigation related to the eradication and/or control stage.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Spodoptera/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , China , Expressão Gênica/genética , Ontologia Genética , Larva/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Spodoptera/embriologia
18.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(4): e21784, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719055

RESUMO

Blister beetles have medicinal uses for their defensive secretion cantharidin, which has curative effects on many cancers and other diseases. It was demonstrated that sexual dimorphism exists in the production of cantharidin between male and female adults. This study performed a de novo assembly of Epicauta tibialis transcriptomes and analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between male and female adults to help to find genes and pathways associated with cantharidin biosynthesis. A total of 99,295,624 paired reads were generated, and more than 7 Gb transcriptome data for each sample were obtained after trimming. The clean data were used to de novo assemble and then cluster into 27,355 unigenes, with a mean length of 1442 bp and an N50 of 2725 bp. Of these, 14,314 (52.33%) unigenes were annotated by protein databases. Differential expression analysis identified 284 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between male and female adults. Nearly 239 DEGs were up-regulated in male adults than in female adults, while 45 DEGs were down-regulated. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes pathway enrichment manifested that seven up-regulated DEGs in male adults were assigned to the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway, to which 19 unigenes were annotated. The DEGs in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway between male and female adults may be responsible for the sexual dimorphism in cantharidin production. The up-regulated genes assigned to the pathway in male adults may play a significant role in cantharidin biosynthesis, and its biosynthesis process is probably via the mevalonate pathway. The results would be helpful to better understand and reveal the complicated mechanism of the cantharidin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Cantaridina/metabolismo , Besouros/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Besouros/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Inseto , Masculino , Terpenos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(3): 30, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749721

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to reveal retinal abnormities in a spontaneous diabetic nonhuman primate model and explore the mechanism of featured injuries. Methods: Twenty-eight cynomolgus monkeys were identified to suffer from spontaneous type 2 diabetes from a colony of more than eight-hundred aged monkeys, and twenty-six age-matched ones were chosen as controls. Their blood biochemistry profiles were determined and retinal changes were examined by multimodal imaging, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunofluorescence. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were further investigated by RNA sequencing and computational analyses. Results: These diabetic monkeys were characterized by early retinal vascular and neural damage and dyslipidemia. The typical acellular capillaries and pericyte ghost were found in the diabetic retina, which also exhibited reduced retinal nerve fiber layer thickness compared to controls (all P < 0.05). Of note, distinct sub-RPE drusenoid lesions were extensively observed in these diabetic monkeys (46.43% vs. 7.69%), and complements including C3 and C5b-9 were deposited in these lesions. RNA-seq analysis revealed complement activation, AGE/RAGE activation and inflammatory response in diabetic RPE cells. Consistently, the plasma C3 and C4 were particularly increased in the diabetic monkeys with drusenoid lesions (P = 0.028 and 0.029). Conclusions: The spontaneous type 2 diabetic monkeys featured with early-stage retinopathy including not only typical vascular and neural damage but also a distinct sub-RPE deposition. The complement activation of RPE cells in response to hyperglycemia might contribute to the deposition, revealing an unrecognized role of RPE cells in the early-stage pathological process of diabetic retinopathy.

20.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784631

RESUMO

Panchromatic (PAN) and multispectral (MS) images have coordinated and paired spatial spectral information, which can complement each other and make up for their shortcomings for image interpretation. In this article, a novel classification method called the deep group spatial-spectral attention fusion network is proposed for PAN and MS images. First, the MS image is processed by unpooling to obtain the same resolution as that of the PAN image. Second, the group spatial attention and group spectral attention modules are proposed to extract image features. The PAN and the processed MS images are regarded as the input of the two modules, respectively. Third, the features from the previous step are fused by the attention fusion module, which aims to fully fuse multilevel features, take into account both the low-level features and the high-level features, and maintain the global abstract and local detailed information of the pixels. Finally, the fusion feature is fed into the classifier and the resulting map is obtained by pixel level. Extensive experiments and analysis on four datasets show that the proposed method achieves comparable results.

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