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1.
Environ Sci Policy ; 127: 98-110, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720746

RESUMO

The COVID-19 global pandemic has had severe, unpredictable and synchronous impacts on all levels of perishable food supply chains (PFSC), across multiple sectors and spatial scales. Aquaculture plays a vital and rapidly expanding role in food security, in some cases overtaking wild caught fisheries in the production of high-quality animal protein in this PFSC. We performed a rapid global assessment to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related emerging control measures on the aquaculture supply chain. Socio-economic effects of the pandemic were analysed by surveying the perceptions of stakeholders, who were asked to describe potential supply-side disruption, vulnerabilities and resilience patterns along the production pipeline with four main supply chain components: a) hatchery, b) production/processing, c) distribution/logistics and d) market. We also assessed different farming strategies, comparing land- vs. sea-based systems; extensive vs. intensive methods; and with and without integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, IMTA. In addition to evaluating levels and sources of economic distress, interviewees were asked to identify mitigation solutions adopted at local / internal (i.e., farm-site) scales, and to express their preference on national / external scale mitigation measures among a set of a priori options. Survey responses identified the potential causes of disruption, ripple effects, sources of food insecurity, and socio-economic conflicts. They also pointed to various levels of mitigation strategies. The collated evidence represents a first baseline useful to address future disaster-driven responses, to reinforce the resilience of the sector and to facilitate the design reconstruction plans and mitigation measures, such as financial aid strategies.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150265, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536878

RESUMO

The initial purpose of this study has been to develop an instrumental platform for monitoring mercury (Hg) emissions from vehicle exhausts under actual traffic conditions. The platform was then mounted onto a fully-instrumented passenger car to identify emission proxies and factors governing the emissions of gaseous elemental Hg (GeM) and its complementary fraction (GdPM). Data obtained from the road were complemented by data acquired on a test track at either stabilized speeds or well-characterized speed variations. GeM emissions increased overall with both driving speed and fuel consumption; nonetheless, they were influenced by the sequence of accelerations and duration associated with the preceding idling or low-speed driving situations. GdPM emissions varied considerably over the course of trips or track tests, with medians ranging from 7% to 70% of the total Hg emissions stemming from fuel. Such high percentages could be explained by a series of redox reactions, whose kinetics and yield were influenced as much by exhaust gas temperature as by driving conditions or the exhaust system structural configuration. Lastly, an analysis of the GeM and GdPM signals showed that urban cores constitute emission hotspots during rush hour when handling low-speed driving and stop-and-go traffic.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, preliminary research has reported a significant decline in physical activity (PA) and an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB) among typically developed children and adolescents. Limited research has looked at the current situation of PA and SB during this pandemic among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study investigated the situations about PA and SB among school-aged children and adolescents with ID on China's mainland during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: In total, 837 parents of children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years) with ID from 15 special education schools of Shandong Province in China were recruited through convenience sampling in the study. Parents reported PA and SB among children and adolescents with ID through the Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey-Chinese version (CLASS-C) online questionnaires. RESULTS: From parents' reports, Chinese children and adolescents with ID during the COVID-19 pandemic participated in approximately 10 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and engaged in approximately 530 min of SB every day. Meanwhile, only 17.4% of children and adolescents with ID were able to achieve the recommendation of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 76.1% of children and adolescents with ID spent more than 2 h on SB per day. Additionally, the problems of decrease PA and excessive SB were more prominent in older adolescents with ID compared with younger children with ID. CONCLUSION: In China, the low level of PA and high level of SB is particularly evident in children and adolescents with ID during the outbreak of COVID-19. The great majority of children and adolescents with ID did not meet the recommended amount of PA while undergoing excessive SB under the long-term home quarantine environment. Therefore, immediate attention and great effort should be made to deal with this severe situation among this vulnerable population in the mainland of China.

5.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 59(11): 918-922, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743454

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the surgical outcome, completeness and safety of robotic thyroidectomy by bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA). Methods: From February 2014 to May 2019, 1 000 cases of robotic thyroidectomy via BABA at the Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, the 960th Hospital of People's Liberation Army were performed. The clinicopathologic characteristics, operation times, perioperative complications, and oncologic outcomes of patients underwent robotic thyroidectomy were collected and reviewed retrospectively. There were 216 males and 784 females, aging (42.3±11.5) years (range: 7 to 75 years). There were 270 cases with benign tumors, and 730 cases with malignant cancers (the tumor diameter was (7.9±6.7) mm (range: 0.1 to 60.0 mm)). Results: There were 999 patients received robotic thyroidectomy using BABA approach successfully, while only 1 case conversed to open operation. The postoperative hospital stay was (7.5±2.5) days (range: 2 to 30 days). Among the 730 patients with thyroid cancers, 725 cases (99.3%) were papillary thyroid carcinoma, 579(79.3%) cases were with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Lymph node metastasis was observed in 371(50.8%) cases. The retrieved central lymph node number was 11.2±6.1 (range: 1 to 44),and the retrieved lateral lymph node number was 14.0±8.8 (range: 1 to 52). Postoperative transient hypoparathyroidism and vocal cord palsy occurred in 247(24.70%) and 56(5.60%) cases. Both of permanent hypoparathyroidism and vocal cord palsy occurred in 2 (0.20%) cases. Other surgical complications included chyle leakage (6.1%, 28/460), trachea injury (0.40%, 4/1 000), carotid artery injury (0.10%, 1/1 000). Local regional lymph node recurrence was developed in 4 patients. All patients were satisfied with the postoperative cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions: Robotic thyroidectomy by BABA is safe and effective, suitable for large benign tumors and early thyroid cancers with central or lateral lymph node metastasis. It could obtain superior cosmetic results.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Axila , Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esvaziamento Cervical , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 840-845, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788924

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the interference of daratumumab on immunofixation electrophoresis after treating plasma cell diseases and methods to eliminate the interference. Methods: Serum samples of eight patients with plasma cell diseases treated with daratumumab in Peking University People's Hospital from April 2020 to March 2021 were collected for standard immunofixation electrophoresis and Hydrashift 2/4 daratumumab assay. Results: After treatment, 81.3% (13/16) of the samples showed drug-induced monoclonal antibodies (IgG-κ) . The samples without drug-induced monoclonal bands were related to individual differences, administration intervals, and immunoglobulin levels. Among the samples with IgG-κ monoclonal bands, 76.9% (10/13) could be directly identified as endogenous or exogenous monoclonal bands by immunofixation electrophoresis, and the others (3/13) could be identified by Hydrashift 2/4 daratumumab assay. Conclusion: Hydrashift 2/4 daratumumab assay can remove the band of daratumumab on the immunofixation electrophoresis and help with efficacy evaluation.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Paraproteinemias , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Humanos , Imunoeletroforese
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(42): 3466-3471, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775703

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and associated factors of hyperkalemia in dialysis patients. Methods: Patients underwent hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) from multi-center databases were recruited from January 2017 to December 2019, and those aged ≥18 years and with dialysis duration ≥3 months were included to analyze the prevalence and related factors of hyperkalemia. Results: A total of 12 364 patients were enrolled in the study, and 6 836 cases were men. The average age of the patients was (51±15) years. Among these patients, 4 230 cases underwent HD while 8 134 received PD. Hyperkalemia was detected in 20.7% (2 554/12 364) of the patients while hypokalemia was found in 17.0%(2 102/12 364) of the patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed that HD (OR=2.25, 95%CI: 1.54-3.30), diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.17-2.32), high body mass index (BMI) (OR=1.06, 95%CI: 1.03-1.09), high levels of serum albumin (OR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.07) and phosphorus (OR=3.12, 95%CI: 2.44-4.00), low levels of serum bicarbonate (OR=0.89, 95%CI: 0.87-0.92), triglycerides (OR=0.76, 95%CI: 0.68-0.85) and creatinine (OR=0.95, 95%CI: 0.90-0.99), usage of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/Angiotensin Ⅱ receptor antagonist (ACEI/ARB, OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.11-1.72) and beta-blocker (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.64) were associated with hyperkalemia. Conclusions: Hyperkalemia occurred in 20.7% of the dialysis patients. HD, DM, high BMI, high levels of serum albumin and phosphorus, low levels of serum bicarbonate, triglycerides and creatinine, use of ACEI/ARB were associated with hyperkalemia.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos
9.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 49(11): 1094-1101, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775719

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous closure of ventricular septal rupture (VSR) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the risk factors of all-cause mortality at 30 days after operation. Methods: This is a retrospective case series study. A total of 69 patients with post-AMI VSR, underwent percutaneous closure of VSR from October 2013 to May 2020 in Department of Cardiology of Henan Provincial People's Hospital and Department of Cardiology of Central China Fuwai Hospital, were included. Patients were divided into survival group (53 cases) and non-survival group (16 cases) according to the status at 30 days after operation. Clinical data were collected and analyzed during hospitalization. Telephone follow-up was performed 30 days after operation. The primary safety endpoint was occlusion failure and all-cause mortality at 30 days post operation. The secondary safety endpoint was the operation related or non-operation related complications. Efficacy endpoint included NYHA classification of cardiac function, index measured by right heart catheterization and echocardiography. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the risk factors of all-cause mortality at 30 days after operation. Results: A total of 69 patients, aged 67 (64, 71) years, including 42 women (60.9%), were enrolled in this study. All-cause death occurred in 16 patients (23.2%), including 13 in-hospital death and 3 death during follow-up. There were 4 cases of closure failure (5.8%). Among the 65 patients with successful closure, 12 (18.5%) experienced operation-related complications, among which 8 (12.3%) experienced valve injury. The mortality was significantly higher in patients with operation-related complications than that in patients without operation-related complications (41.7% (5/12) vs. 13.2% (7/53), P = 0.022). One case received percutaneous closure of VSR and PCI, this patient experienced new-onset AMI immediately post procedure and died thereafter (1.5%). One case (1.5%) developed multiple organ failure and 2 cases (3.1%) developed gastrointestinal bleeding post operation. All of the 65 patients with successful occlusion completed postoperative echocardiography, 56 patients completed cardiac function assessment at discharge, and 53 patients who survived up to 30 days post discharge completed clinical follow up by telephone. The NYHA cardiac function at discharge and 30 days after operation were significantly improved as compared to that before operation (P<0.001), the ratio of NYHA Ⅰ and Ⅱ patients was significantly higher post operation at these two time points as compared to baseline level (76.8% (43/56) vs. 23.1% (15/65), P<0.001, 77.4% (41/53) vs. 23.1% (15/65), P<0.001). The pulmonary circulation/systemic circulation blood flow ratio (Qp/Qs), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd) were decreased, aortic systolic pressure (ASP) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were increased post operation (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that WBC>9.8×109/L (OR=20.94, 95%CI 1.21-362.93, P=0.037) and NT-ProBNP>6 000 ng/L (OR=869.11, 95%CI 2.93-258 058.34, P=0.020) were the independent risk factors of mortality at 30 days. Conclusions: Percutaneous closure in VSR after AMI is safe and effective. The increase of WBC and NT-ProBNP are the independent risk factors of all-cause mortality at 30 days after operation.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular , Assistência ao Convalescente , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular/etiologia , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular/cirurgia
10.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 49(11): 1102-1107, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775720

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the current status of clinical treatment and factors influencing postoperative mortality in infants with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) in China, optimize the perioperative management of CCHD, and provide a new scientific basis for clinical decision-making for the optimal management of these patients. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center study. Infants diagnosed with CCHD in Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from January 2017 to December 2019 (aged 0-1 years at admission) were enrolled. General clinical information, inpatient treatment information, prognosis and complications were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the independent risk factors of postoperative death in infants with CCHD. Results: A total of 826 infants with CCHD were included, including 556 males (67.3%) and the age at first admission was 51.0 (5.0,178.3) days. 264 (32.0%) cases were tetralogy of Fallot and 137 (16.6%) cases were total anomalous pulmonary venous return. 195 cases (23.6%) were diagnosed prenatally. 196 cases (23.7%) were treated with prostaglandin. The preoperative invasive ventilation time was 0 (0, 0) hour, and the postoperative invasive ventilation time was 95.0 (26.0, 151.8) hours. A total of 668 cases (80.9%) underwent surgical treatment. The age was 100.5 (20.0, 218.0) days during operation and the operation time was 190.0 (155.0, 240.0) hours. Sixty-two cases (7.5%) received medical treatment, and 96 cases (11.6%) gave up treatment. A total of 675 cases (81.7%) were discharged with improvement, 96 cases (11.6%) were discharged after giving up treatment, 55 cases (6.7%) died and 109 cases (13.2%) were readmitted within one year. Complications occurred in 565 (68.6%) cases, including pneumonia in 334 cases (40.4%) and cardiac arrhythmias in 182 cases (22.0%). Multifactorial analysis showed that delayed chest closure (OR=49.775, 95%CI 3.291-752.922, P=0.005), prolonged post-operative invasive ventilator ventilation (OR=1.003, 95%CI 1.000-1.005, P=0.038) and cardiac hypoplasia syndrome (OR=272.658, 95%CI 37.861-1 963.589, P<0.001) were the independent risk factors for mortality in CCHD infants post-operation. Conclusions: Tetralogy of Fallot and total anomalous pulmonary venous return account for the majority of infants with CCHD. The proportion of infants diagnosed prenatally was less than 1/4. The majority CCHD infants received surgical treatment. The main complications are pneumonia and arrhythmia. Delayed chest closure, prolonged postoperative invasive ventilator ventilation and low cardiac output syndrome are the independent risk factors for postoperative death in infants with CCHD.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , China/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Biomaterials ; 279: 121202, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749072

RESUMO

Red blood cells (RBCs) are biocompatible carriers that can be employed to deliver different bioactive substances. In the past few decades, many strategies have been developed to encapsulate or attach drugs to RBCs. Osmotic-based encapsulation methods have been industrialized recently, and some encapsulated RBC formulations have reached the clinical stage for treating tumors and neurological diseases. Inspired by the intrinsic properties of intact RBCs, some advanced delivery strategies have also been proposed. These delivery systems combine RBCs with other novel systems to further exploit and expand the application of RBCs. This review summarizes the clinical progress of drugs encapsulated into intact RBCs, focusing on the loading and clinical trials. It also introduces the latest advanced research based on developing prospects and limitations of intact RBCs drug delivery system (DDS), hoping to provide a reference for related research fields and further application potential of intact RBCs based drug delivery system.

12.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(10): 987-994, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814394

RESUMO

Objective: Differential expression of serum exosomal miRNAs were detected for NAFLD patients and healthy controls, thereby determining the role of serum exosomal miRNAs in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of NAFLD. Methods: Four patients with S2-3 NAFLD who shared similar demographic features and personal histories, and matched healthy controls were recruited for high-throughput sequencing of serum exosomal miRNAs. Four miRNAs with the most significant differential expression were verified by qRT-PCR in three groups (S1, S2-3, and control groups) with 20 cases in each group. Target gene prediction was performed for these differentially-expressed miRNAs, along with GO and KEGG enrichment analyses for the target genes. T-test or ANOVA were used for normally distributed data. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for ranked data and non-normally distributed data. The count data used Pearson chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: There were 19 serum exosomal miRNAs with significantly different levels of expression (P < 0.05) and a fold-change > 2. The expression of hsa-miR-122-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, and hsa-miR-197-3P was highest in the S2-3 group, followed by the S1 and control groups (in order); hsa-miR-483-3p expression was higher in the NAFLD group (S1 or S2-3) than the control group. There were 84 pathways significantly enriched in target genes. From 20 pathways closely related to NAFLD, at least 5 target genes which were simultaneously correlated to all 10 pathways were screened (PIK3R2, AKT2, AKT3, MAPK1, and NFKB1). Conclusion: Differential expression of serum exosomal miRNAs was detected in NAFLD patients and healthy controls. Four miRNAs with the greatest fold-changes were assessed to judge the severity of fatty degeneration of the liver. The research findings provide reference for non-invasive identification of new biomarkers and specific targets for NAFLD treatment.

13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(4): 668-671, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814448

RESUMO

Objectives: To explore the HIV prevalence and related factors among MSM aged 50 and above and provide evidence on the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Methods: Based on an MSM social application software Blued 7.1.6, we recruited participants through online convenience sampling to collect demographic variables, behavioral and self-reported HIV infection status, etc. Univariate χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the related factors of self-reported HIV infection. Results: Self-reported HIV infection rate was 17.6%(126/714) among the participants. In multivariable analysis, participants who got divorced or widowed had a 2.07(95%CI: 1.34-3.21) times greater risk of self-reported HIV-positive than those who were married. Participants unaware of HIV-related knowledge showed a 1.92(95%CI:1.21-3.04) times greater risk of self-reported HIV-positive than those with better HIV-related knowledge. Participants who have ever been diagnosed with sexually transmitted disease (STD) showed a 3.17(95%CI:2.09-4.83) times greater risk of self-reported HIV-positive than those without STD infection history. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the self-reported HIV infection rate was high among MSM aged 50 and above. Being divorced or widowed, being unaware of HIV-related knowledge and STD infection history was proved related with self-reported HIV infection.

14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(4): 677-682, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814450

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, influence factors and interaction on HCV infection in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Taiyuan. Methods: Between April-June 2019, three MMT clinics in Taiyuan were selected to conduct a face-to-face questionnaire survey among MMT patients to collect the information about their socio-demographic characteristics, drug use, MMT, sexual behavior and health status. Software EpiData 3.1 was used for real-time double entry to establish the database. Software SAS 9.4 was used to analyze the data, and χ2 test was used for univariate analysis and logistic regression model was used for multivariate and interaction analyses. Results: A total of 903 subjects were surveyed among MMT patients, the male to female ratio of was 7.21∶1(743∶103), and the rate of HCV infection was 12.53% (106/846). After adjusting for the confounding factors, being women (OR=1.936, 95%CI: 1.023-3.662), having sex with drug users (OR=2.073, 95%CI: 1.110-3.871) and injection drug use (OR=7.737, 95%CI: 4.614-12.973) might be the risk factors for HCV infection in patients receiving MMT. The results showed that there were multiplicative interactions among women, having sex with drug user and injection drug use on HCV infection. Conclusions: Being women, having sex with drug user and injection drug use were associated with higher risk for HCV infection in patients receiving MMT in Taiyuan. There were multiplication interactions between being women and having sex with drug user, being female and injection drug use, and having sex with drug use and injection drug use on HCV infection.

15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(4): 683-689, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814451

RESUMO

Objective: To study the prevalence and correlations of HIV infection among cross-border couples in the Dehong prefecture. Methods: A cross-sectional mass screening study with questionnaire interview and HIV testing was conducted among 17 594 registered cross-border couples from May 2017 through June 2018. Results: Among 32 400 participants, the overall prevalence of HIV infection was 2.27% (736/32 400), 2.44% (375/15 372) for Chinese citizens, and 2.12% (361/17 028) for foreign spouses. Among all the 13 853 couples with both spouses receiving HIV testing, 13 415(96.84%) were seroconcordant-negative couples, 142(1.03%) were serocondordant-positive couples, and 296(2.13%) were serodiscordant couples, including 167(1.20%) couples with positive husband and negative wife and 129(0.93%) couples with positive wife and negative husband. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that HIV infection was associated with drug use and risky sexual behaviors for male spouses. In contrast, HIV infection was associated with risky sexual behaviors for female spouses. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV among cross-border couples in Dehong prefecture is high, underscoring the urgent need to scale up HIV testing, prevention, and behavioral intervention.

16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 801-806, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814470

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the gender difference in secular trends of body height in Chinese Han adolescents aged 18 years from 1985 to 2014. Methods: Data were extracted from 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 Chinese National Surveys in Students' Constitution and Health. A total of 124 099 Chinese Han adolescents aged 18 years were included in the analysis. ANOVA test was used to compare the body height between different subgroups stratified by gender and the mean difference and ratio in body height were calculated. Quantile regression model was used to assess the association between body height and gender over time in the adolescents stratified by region or area. Results: The mean body height of adolescents aged 18 years increased significantly from 1985 to 2014 with the rate of 1.3 cm/decade in male adolescents and 0.8 cm/decade in female adolescents, and the highest increment occurred from 1995 to 2005 in both groups. Male adolescents were taller than female adolescents at each subgroup (P<0.05). Gender difference in body height increased from 11.1 cm in 1985 to 12.6 cm in 2014 and ratio remained to be 1.07-1.08. The body height was taller in adolescents in urban area than in rural area (P<0.05) and in northeastern China than in other regions (P<0.05) in both male and female adolescents. The body height of obese male adolescents had been taller since 2000 and the body height of obese female adolescents had been taller since 2010 than other groups. When adjusted for urban-rural areas, region, socioeconomic status and nutritional status, the body height increased over time at P5, P25, P50, P75 and P95 in both male and female adolescents, and the increments of gender difference in body height at different percentile ranged from 0.45 cm/decade to 0.57 cm/decade. When stratified by region, the gender difference in body height showed similar trend with total sample except P5 and P95 in northeastern China, the difference of increments were not significant. Conclusions: From 1985 to 2014, the gender difference in body height of Chinese Han adolescents aged 18 years increased, and male adolescents showed greater increase than female adolescents. Moreover, the adolescents in northeastern and eastern China had larger increment in body height. It is necessary to paid more attention to the adolescents in central and western China to promote their physical development.

17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 827-832, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814474

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the influence and lag effect of meteorological factors on the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Shijiazhuang. Methods: The daily incidence data of HFMD in Shijiazhuang during 2017-2019 were collected from Chinese Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The hourly meteorological data were collected form meteorological stations of Shijiazhuang of Chinese meteorological data network. The distributed lag nonlinear model was built for statistical analysis by software R 3.6.2. Results: When the daily average temperature was 15-26 ℃, the risk of incidence of HFMD increased at lag 3-6 days. However, the risk was highest when the temperature was 25 ℃ at lag 3 days (RR=1.03,95%CI:1.00-1.06). When the daily average relative humidity was more than 80%, the risk of incidence of HFMD increased at lag 5-18 days. However, the risk was highest at lag 9 days (RR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.02-1.06).When the daily average air pressure ranged from 999 hPa to 1 007 hPa, the risk of incidence of HFMD increased at lag 5-8 days. However, the risk was highest at lag 6 days (RR=1.01, 95%CI: 1.00-1.02).When the daily average precipitation ranged from 15 to 32 mm, the risk of incidence of HFMD increased at lag 3-18 days. However, the risk was highest at lag 6 days (RR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.02-1.19). Conclusions: Meteorological factors increased the risk of incidence of HFMD such as higher daily average temperature (15-26 ℃), higher daily average humidity (>80%), lower daily average air pressure (999-1 007 hPa) and higher daily average precipitation (15-32 mm) in Shijiazhuang during 2017-2019. They were all correlated with the incidence of HFMD with certain lag days. It is suggested to use these meteorological indicators for the early warning of HFMD.

18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 833-839, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814475

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the overall satisfaction rate with vaccination services in parents of children, and the impact of additional time consumed for vaccination service on overall satisfaction rate. Methods: From December 2019 to January 2020, a total of 3 178 parents of 0-3 years old children were investigated to collect the information about their basic characteristics, additional time spent for vaccination service and overall satisfaction through questionnaires. Binary logistic regression model and restricted cubic spline model were used to evaluate the impact of additional time spend on the overall satisfaction rate. Results: The overall satisfaction rate of parents with vaccination services was 92.32%. The median time for parents to move from home to vaccination clinic was 10.00 (10.00, 20.00) minutes, the median waiting time to make an appointment was 10.00 (5.00, 15.00) minutes, the median waiting time for vaccination was 5.00 (3.00, 10.00) minutes, and the median total additional time spent was 30.00 (20.00, 45.00) minutes. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting the relevant factors, the main factors affecting the overall satisfaction rate were the waiting time for making an appointment (the 4- minutes group vs. 8- minutes group: OR=1.863, 95%CI: 1.307-2.657), waiting time for vaccination (the <4 minutes group vs. 8- minutes group: OR=1.529, 95%CI: 1.102-2.120; the 4- minutes group vs. 8- minutes group: OR=1.534, 95%CI: 1.104-2.130), total additional time spent (the 15- minutes group vs. 30- minutes group: OR=1.470, 95%CI: 1.094-1.976). Restricted cubic spline analysis showed that the waiting time for making an appointment (non-linear: χ2=13.18, P=0.001), the waiting time for vaccination (non-linear: χ2=13.50, P=0.001), and the total additional time consumed (non-linear: χ2=9.38, P=0.009) showed a non-linear inverted "V" dose response relationship to the overall satisfaction of vaccination services. Conclusions: The waiting time for parents to make an appointment, the waiting time for vaccination and the total additional time spent for receiving vaccination services affected the overall satisfaction rate of the vaccination services. And the waiting time for making an appointment was the most important factor, and it is necessary to shorten the waiting time for appointment. It is suggested that the vaccination clinic should make use of information technology (such as WeChat public account, APP) to make accurate appointments, make appointments to the time period to control the number of people within time period.

19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 878-885, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814482

RESUMO

Objective: Analyze epidemiological situation of dengue fever,and survey impacts of four serotypes dengue viruses in Guangzhou, 2019. Methods: Information of patients was collected in Notifiable Infectious Disease Report System (NIDRS). Spatial autocorrelation of dengue cases was evaluated using ArcGIS version 10.2. Serum samples were tested by real-time PCR. Virus strains were isolated from positive sera. Then E gene was sequenced. Phylogenetic trees were including PhyMLsoftwarev 3.1. Results: A total of 1 655 dengue cases, consisted of 1 382 local cases and 273 imported cases, was confirmed in 2019. The incidence was 11.10 per 100 000 dengue cases were autocorrelated in Guangzhou. There were 18 high-high clusters. Most of the imported dengue cases were imported from Southeast Asian countries (86.08%,235/273) and African countries (2.56%,7/273). Of 749 serum samples detected by real-time PCR, the positive rate was 93.06% (697/749). Four hundred and sixty-four dengue virus strains had been isolated in 2019. Compared with data from the genotype tree of the former years, no genotype shift was discovered. Serotype 1 was still predominant. Serotype 2 was the significant strain in Baiyun district and Liwan district. Conclusions: Dengue fever was spreading all over Guangzhou in 2019. The suburban areas, which played a more critical role in causing the spread and outbreak of dengue fever, should be given more prominence. Inspection at ports should be enforced to prevent importing cases from African countries and Southeast Asian countries. The risk of serotype 2 cannot be overlooked. Four serotypes dengue viruses prevailed simultaneously in Guangzhou, which warns us to take precaution of severe dengue outbreaks.

20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 891-897, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814484

RESUMO

Objective: To isolate the influenza A (H3N2) viruses from different sources in Guangzhou in 2019 and analyze these viruses' evolution and variation characteristics. Methods: The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H3N2 isolates from outpatient monitoring, influenza outbreaks, and inpatient severe cases in Guangzhou in 2019 were sequenced. Bioinformatics software analyzed the variations and evolution characteristics of HA and NA genes. Results: The epidemic peaks of influenza A (H3N2) viruses were made up of period Ⅰ (from January to August) and period Ⅱ (from November to December). The positive rate of influenza A (H3N2) in males was 13.46% (703/5 221), which was higher than that in females (11.50%, 510/4 435) (χ2=8.43,P=0.00). The group's positive rate of 10-20 years old was the highest (25.18%,665/2 641). The isolates from different sources were highly homologous and closely related to 3C.2a.1 branches, which could be further divided into three small groups of Group 1-3. Gene recombination was observed between different branches. The mutations of HA antigen sites gradually appeared from Group 1 to Group 3, leading to new antigen drift. Variations of HA antigenic sites mainly occurred in the region of A and B. The mutations of receptor binding sites of Group 1 and Group 3 viruses occurred in the anterior and posterior walls. There were two glycosylation sites lacked on region A of HA antigen observed in the isolates of Group 2-3. Conclusions: Genetic variations of H3N2 influenza viruses in Guangzhou included gene mutations and gene recombination. Under the pressure of the vaccine, the evolution of viruses was rapid. Therefore, the monitoring of molecular-related epidemic characteristics of the H3N2 influenza virus was necessary.

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