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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126834, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390954

RESUMO

Microplastic accumulation in agricultural soils can stress plants and affects quality of the products. Current research on the effects of microplastics on plants is not consistent and the underlying mechanisms are yet unknown. Here, the molecular mechanisms of the stress response were investigated via metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of rice Oryza sativa L. II Y900 and XS123 under the exposure of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) in a field study. Distinct responses were obtained in these two rice subspecies, showing decreased head rice yield by 10.62% in Y900 and increase by 6.35% in XS123. The metabolomics results showed that PS-MPs exposure inhibited 29.63% of the substance accumulation-related metabolic pathways and 43.25% of the energy expenditure-related metabolic pathways in the Y900 grains; however, these related pathways were promoted in the XS123 grains. The transcriptomics results indicated that the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the Y900 grains was inhibited, but it was enhanced in the XS123 grains. The XS123 subspecies could response against microplastic exposure stress through the metabolite accumulation and energy expenditure pathways, while the Y900 could not. The results provide insight into the perturbation of rice grains in farmlands with microplastics contamination.

2.
Talanta ; 237: 122959, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736684

RESUMO

Owing to the satisfactory properties such as high specific surface area, finely tunable chemical composition, large yet adjustable pore sizes, and diverse architecture, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have the potential to be used as a stable, efficient, reusable and protective biomacromolecule immobilization carrier in capillary electrophoresis. Herein, a novel immobilized receptor open-tubular affinity capillary electrochromatography (OT-ACEC) strategy was developed for the first time to rapidly investigate the interactions between a set of drugs and bovine serum albumin (BSA). To further increase the amount of immobilized BSA and maintain the bioactivity of BSA, BSA was immobilized on the inner capillary surface by using polydopamine (PDA) as the adhesion layer and surface functionalization agent, a MOF namely dresden university of technology-5 (DUT-5) as supporting platform and biomacromolecule immobilization carrier, respectively. The amount of immobilized BSA on the capillary surface of the BSA@capillary and the PDA/MOFs/BSA@capillary column are separately calculated as 0.00756 nmol and 0.01812 nmol. Besides, the PDA/MOFs/BSA@capillary column was applied to investigate the interactions between BSA and flavonoids, fluoroquinolones. Under the optimal interaction conditions, three flavonoids and three fluoroquinolones are able to achieve baseline separation in the PDA/MOFs/BSA@capillary column (with resolution values of three flavonoids, 5.78 and 4.13; three fluoroquinolones, 1.72 and 1.68). The PDA/MOFs/BSA@capillary column shows good stability and reproducibility over 100 runs (relative standard deviation (RSD)<5%). In addition, the normalized capacity factor (KRCE) in this method replaced the binding constant and was used as an evaluation index to fast predict the activities of 20 drugs, some of which have not yet been reported for their interactions with BSA. Spectroscopy and molecular docking further illuminated the binding mechanism.


Assuntos
Eletrocromatografia Capilar , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Indóis , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Polímeros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Soroalbumina Bovina
4.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 246, 2021 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although discontinuation is common in clinical trials, no study has been conducted to analyse the current situation and reasons for the suspension or discontinuation of drug clinical trials in China. This study aims to analyse the general characteristics and reasons for the discontinuation of registered clinical trials in mainland China and to identify the associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of discontinued trials registered in the Drug Trial Registration and Information Publication Platform before March 31, 2020. All trials with a status of terminated or stopped recorded in the platform were classified as discontinued trials and included in the analysis. The basic characteristics of the discontinued trials were recorded, reasons for trial discontinuation were recorded and divided into 4 categories as drug development strategy, trial planning, trial conduct and studied drug. Pearson's chi-square test and fisher's exact test were used to compare the differences in reasons for discontinuation between neoplasm trials and non-neoplasm trials, and to examine the associations of trial characteristics with different reasons related to trials discontinuation. RESULTS: Three hundred twelve discontinued trials were included in this study. The studied drugs were mainly chemical drugs [229 (73.4%)], and indications of the studied drugs were mainly neoplasms [77 (24.7%)]. Geographical location of the discontinued trials were mostly in northern [114 (36.5%)] and eastern [96 (30.8%)] China. Study type of the included trials was mainly bioequivalence studies [97 (31.1%)]. The most common reason for trial discontinuation was commercial or strategic decision [84 (26.9%)], followed by futility/lack of efficacy [70 (22.4%)]. The number of trial centers, sample size and whether participants had been enrolled were significantly associated with trial discontinuation (P <  0.05). Multiple center trials showed a higher rate of trial discontinuation due to trial conduct related reasons than single center trials (P <  0.05), trials with sample size > 500 showed a higher rate of trial discontinuation due to studied drug related reasons (P < 0.05), and trials enrolled participants showed a lower rate of trial discontinuation due to commercial or strategic decision and a higher rate of trial discontinuation due to studied drug related reasons than trials without enrolled participants (P < 0.05). Besides, neoplasm trials showed a higher rate of trial discontinuation due to poor recruitment and safety comparing with non-neoplasm trials (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Trial discontinuation in China mainly occurred because of commercial or strategic decision and futility/lack of efficacy of the studied drug. Clinical trials with multiple centers and a large sample size may more likely be discontinued due to trial conduct related reasons such as good clinical practice. Discontinuation due to drug safety and lack of efficacy in multiple center trials with a large sample size deserves more attention to avoid resources wastes. Full communication with regulatory authorities such as Center for Drug Evaluation and research institutes to develop a feasible protocol is important for sponsors to avoid trial discontinuation due to protocol issues.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra
5.
Ann Nutr Metab ; : 1-12, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814152

RESUMO

PURPOSES: Adipokine alterations contribute to the development and remission of nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Adipsin is one of the most abundant adipokines and is almost exclusively produced by adipocytes. However, data on adipsin in human NAFLD are limited and controversial. We performed this study to investigate the association between adipsin and the remission of NAFLD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. METHODS: Whether adipsin is associated with the remission of NAFLD in a 3-year community-based prospective cohort study was investigated. Baseline levels of adipsin were measured in serum samples collected from 908 NAFLD participants. NAFLD was diagnosed using abdominal ultrasonography. Logistic regression analysis and a multiple stepwise logistic regression model including different variables were conducted to evaluate the association between serum adipsin levels and the remission of NAFLD. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 3.14 ± 0.36 years, 247 (27.20%) participants with NAFLD at baseline were in remission. At baseline, serum adipsin concentration was positively correlated with body mass index (r: 0.39, p < 0.001), insulin (r: 0.31, p < 0.001), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r: 0.31, p < 0.001) and was inversely associated with NAFLD remission with a fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.28 (0.16-0.48) (p trend < 0.001). In a multiple stepwise logistic regression model, circulating adipsin independently predicted NAFLD remission (OR: 0.284, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.172-0.471, p for trend <0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.751 (95% CI: 0.717-0.785) (p < 0.001) for the prediction model of NAFLD remission. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for an association between serum adipsin levels and the remission of NAFLD in a community-based prospective cohort study. Serum adipsin can be a potential biomarker for predicting NAFLD remission.

6.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 249, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diatoms usually dominate phytoplankton blooms in open oceans, exhibiting extremely high population densities. Although the iron uptake rate of diatoms largely determines the magnitude and longevity of diatom blooms, the underlying mechanisms regulating iron uptake remain unclear. RESULTS: The transcription of two iron uptake proteins, ISIP2a and ISIP1, in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was enhanced with increasing cell density, whereas the cellular iron content showed the opposite trend. When compared with the wild-type strain, knockdown of ISIP2a resulted in 43% decrease in cellular iron content, implying the involvement of ISIP2a in iron uptake under high-cell density conditions. Incubation of the diatom cells with sonicated cell lysate conditioned by different cell densities did not affect ISIP2a and ISIP1 expression, ruling out regulation via chemical cues. In contrast, ISIP2a and ISIP1 transcription were strongly induced by red light. Besides, chlorophyll fluorescence excited from the blue light was also positively correlated with population density. Subsequently, a "sandwich" illumination incubator was designed to filter out stray light and ensure that the inner layer cells only receive the emitted chlorophyll fluorescence from outer layers, and the results showed that the increase in outer cell density significantly elevated ISIP2a and ISIP1 transcription in inner layer cells. In situ evidence from Tara oceans also showed positively correlated between diatom ISIP transcripts and chlorophyll content. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that chlorophyll fluorescence derived from neighboring cells is able to upregulate ISIP2a and ISIP1 expression to facilitate iron assimilation under high-cell density. These results provide novel insights into biotic signal sensing in phytoplankton, which can help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of marine diatom blooms.

7.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828934

RESUMO

The pH-responsive hydrogels were obtained through successive carboxymethylation and phosphorylase elongatation of phytoglycogen and their structure and functional characterizations were investigated. Phytoglycogen (PG) was first carboxymethylated to obtain carboxymethyl phytoglycogen (CM-PG) with degree of substitution (DS) at 0.15, 0.25, 0.30, and 0.40, respectively. Iodine staining and X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that the linear glucan chains were successfully phosphorylase-elongated from the non-reducing ends at the CM-PG surface and assembled into the double helical segments, leading to formation of the hydrogel. The DS of CM-PG significantly influenced elongation of glucan chains. Specifically, fewer glucan chains were elongated for CM-PG with higher DS and the final glucan chains were shorter, resulting in lower gelation rate of chain-elongated CM-PG and lower firmness of the corresponding hydrogels. Scanning electron microscope observed that the hydrogels exhibited a porous and interconnected morphology. The swelling ratio and volume of hydrogels was low at pH 3-5 and then became larger at pH 6-8 due to electrostatic repulsion resulting from deprotonated carboxymethyl groups. Particularly, the hydrogel prepared from chain-elongated CM-PG (DS = 0.25) showed the highest sensitivity to pH. These results suggested that phosphorylase-treated CM-PG formed the pH-responsive hydrogel and that the elongation degree and the properties of hydrogels depended on the carboxymethylation degree. Thus, it was inferred that these hydrogels was a potential carrier system of bioactive substances for their targeted releasing in small intestine.

8.
ACG Case Rep J ; 8(11): e00702, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820469

RESUMO

Hepatitis A (HAV) has emerged in outbreaks across the United States particularly in at-risk populations such as men who have sex with men, as well as patients with a history of drug use, homelessness, and incarceration. Immunization among these high-risk populations remains underused. In this study, we describe a case of acute HAV and hepatitis B (HBV) coinfection in an MSM patient occurring in the period of these outbreaks. Clinical resolution of acute HAV and HBV coinfection was attained by 5 months from the time of initial hospitalization without viral hepatitis treatment. This case highlights the need for increased awareness of at-risk populations for HAV and HBV infection in promoting guideline-based vaccination efforts.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(23): 10961-10972, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734468

RESUMO

Rad50 is a component of MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1), which participates in DNA double-strand break repair and DNA-damage checkpoint activation. Here, we sought to investigate the clinical and functional significance of Rad50 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). We found that Rad50 was frequently upregulated in HGSOCs and enhanced Rad50 expression inversely correlated with patient survival. In addition, ectopic expression of Rad50 promoted proliferation/invasion and induced EMT of ovarian cancer cells, whereas knockdown of Rad50 led to decreased aggressive behaviors. Mechanistic investigations revealed that Rad50 induced aggressiveness in HGSOC via activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, we identified CARD9 as an interacting protein of Rad50 in ovarian cancer cells and the activation of NF-κB pathway by Rad50 is CARD9 dependent. Our findings provide evidence that Rad50 exhibits oncogenic property via NF-κB activation in HGSOC.

11.
J Chem Neuroanat ; : 102053, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839004

RESUMO

Chronic spinal cord injury (CSCI) results from progressive compression of the spinal cord over time. A variety of factors cause CSCI, and its exact pathogenesis is unknown. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is closely related to the apoptosis pathway, but no CSCI-related studies on CDK1 have been conducted. In this study, the role of CDK1 in CSCI was explored in a rat model. The CSCI model was established by screw compression using the cervical anterior approach for twelve weeks. The neurological function of the rats was evaluated using the neurological severity scores (NSS) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Pathological changes in spinal cord tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and Nissl staining was performed to assess the survival of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Changes in autophagy and apoptosis in anterior horn of spinal cord tissue were detected using transmission electron microscopy and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. The expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adaptor (IBA) and choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) in the anterior horn were determined using immunohistochemistry assays to investigate astrocytes, microglia and motor neurons, respectively, in the anterior horn. Western blot assays were used to detect the expression levels of CDK1, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase 3, LC3 and Beclin1. Changes in the expression of CDK1, LC3 and Beclin1 were also observed using immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that CSCI resulted in neuronal injury and a decrease in the NSS. In the CSCI model group, anterior horn astrocytes and microglia were activated, and motor neurons were decreased. Neuronal apoptosis was promoted, and the number of autophagic vacuoles was elevated. Rats treated with the CDK1 shRNA-expressing lentivirus exhibited better NSS, more surviving motor neurons, and fewer apoptotic neurons than the model rats. The occurrence of autophagy and the expression of proapoptotic and autophagy-related proteins were lower in the CDK1 shRNA group than the model group. In conclusion, CDK1 downregulation suppressed the activation of anterior horn astrocytes and microglia, promoted motor neuron repair, and inhibited neurons apoptosis and autophagy to promote the recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839656

RESUMO

Lithium (Li) metal batteries are promising future rechargeable batteries with high-energy density as the Li metal anode (LMA) possesses a high specific capacity and the lowest potential. However, the commercial application of the LMA has been hindered by a low Coulombic efficiency and dendrite growth, which are related to the unstable interphase with poor Li+ ion transport. Herein, we report novel polymer zwitterion-based artificial interphase layers (AILs) with improved Li+ ion transport and high stability for long-life LMAs. Benefitting from the unique zwitterion effect within the polymer zwitterion-based AILs, a high Li+ ion transference number (0.81) and a good ionic conductivity (0.75 × 10-4 S cm-1) can be realized simultaneously at the interface. By regulating the weight ratio of the sulfonate group and the phosphate group in polymer zwitterion-based AILs, the modified LMA enables long-term Li plating/stripping for 1400 h at 1 mA cm-2 and stable cycling in a full cell. This interfacial engineering concept could shed light on the development of safe LMAs.

13.
Life (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833015

RESUMO

Strabismus is associated with amblyopia and a lower quality of life. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among children and adolescents, and influences their academic, vocational, and social life. Previous studies have suggested an association between strabismus and ADHD. Using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2010, we performed a large-scale cohort study comparing the incidence, risk factors, and severity of ADHD in children with and without strabismus. A total of 2049 patients <18 years old with newly diagnosed strabismus (esotropia: 404; exotropia: 1645) were identified, and 8196 age- and sex-matched controls without strabismus were also included. After an average of 6.5 ± 2.9 years of follow-up, the incidence of ADHD per 1000 person-years was 5.39 in the strabismus group (esotropia: 9.93; exotropia: 4.11) and 3.23 in the control group. The cumulative incidence of ADHD was significantly greater in the esotropia (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.36-3.06; p = 0.0007) and exotropia groups (HR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.03-2.03; p = 0.038) than in the controls. Patients with strabismus had more comorbidities than those without (p < 0.05). In summary, this large-scale study found a higher cumulative incidence of ADHD in patients with strabismus, especially in those with esotropia.

14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5278-5283, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738430

RESUMO

Triptolide(TP), the main active and toxic component of Tripterygium wilfordii, has the limitations of low bioavailability, poor absorption, low concentration in plasma, and small lethal dose. Microneedle(MN), the hybrid of hypodermic needle and transdermal patch, is a physical penetration-enhancing system. Dissolving microneedles(DMNs) can be tailored to specific needs of degradation rate. In this study, the TP-loaded DMNs(DMNs-TP) were prepared with the two-step centrifugation method. The optimal ratio of PVA to PVP K30, water content in matrix solution, demoulding method, and plasticizer for preparing DMNs were investigated with the indexes of formability and mechanical strength. The drug loading capacity was determined by HPLC and morphological characteristics were observed under an optical microscope. The mechanical properties were investigated by H&E staining and Franz diffusion cell was used to detect the in vitro skin permeation characteristics. Through the experiment, we confirmed that the optimal backing material should be PVA and PVP K30(3∶1) and the optimal ratio of matrix material to water should be 3∶4. The prepared DMNs-TP were pyramidal with smooth surface and length of approximately 550 µm. Each patch(2.75 cm~2) had the drug loading capacity of(153.41±2.29) µg, and TP was located in the upper part of the needle. The results of in vitro skin permeation assay demonstrated that the cumulative penetration of TP in DMNs-TP reached 80% in 24 h, while little TP solution penetrated the skin, which proved that DMNs promoted the transdermal delivery of TP.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Fenantrenos , Administração Cutânea , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Compostos de Epóxi , Agulhas , Pele
15.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leucocytes for individuals during pregnancy may form into different trajectory patterns. Since no studies have been conducted, we aim to examine the associations between leucocyte trajectory across pregnancy and offspring's birth outcomes and growth during the first 2 years. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolled 1070 singleton pregnancies aged 21-46 years old between 2014 and 2018 in Huazhong University of Science and Technology Union Shenzhen Hospital, China. Leucocyte trajectories were modelled using growth mixture modelling and four trajectories were identified: moderate-increasing (n = 41), low-stable (n = 828), high-decreasing (n = 145) and low-increasing (n = 56). RESULTS: Relative to the low-stable group, logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates indicated that the odds ratios of preterm were 3.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43-6.23) for moderate-increasing, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.38-1.47) for high-decreasing and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.23-1.61) for the low-increasing group, respectively. By using generalized estimating equation analysis, we observed that infants in the moderate-increasing and low-increasing group had -0.35 and -0.21 (P < 0.01) lower head circumference z-score compared with the low-stable group, respectively. No significant association of leucocyte trajectory with other birth weight measures or anthropometric measure z-scores was found. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in leucocytes across pregnancy affected the occurrence of preterm and offspring's head circumference during the first 2 years of life. IMPACT: Previous researches on the association of leucocytes with pregnancy outcomes mainly focused on leucocytes in a specific trimester. No studies until now have been conducted to assess the influences of the leucocyte trajectories on the growth and development of infants. Changes in leucocytes across pregnancy affected the occurrence of preterm and offspring's head circumference during the first 2 years of life. Our study will positively contribute to the dialogue regarding the treatment of pregnancies with different levels of inflammation in each trimester to minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes and optimize brain growth.

16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103041, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738729

RESUMO

Although purely organic room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) has drawn widespread attention in recent years, regulatable phosphorescence resonance energy transfer (PRET) supramolecular switch is still rare. Herein, single molecular dual-fold supramolecular light switches, which are constructed by phenylpyridinium salts modified diarylethene derivatives (DTE-Cn, n = 3, 5) and cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) are reported. Significantly, biaxial [3]pseudorotaxane displayed efficiently reversible RTP after binding with CB[8] and the phosphorescence quenching efficiency is calculated up to be 99%. Furthermore, the binary supramolecular assembly can coassemble with Cy5 to form ternary supramolecular assembly showing efficiently PRET, which is successfully applied in switchable near infrared (NIR) mitochondria-targeted cell imaging and photocontrolled data encryption. This supramolecular strategy involving energy transfer provides a convenient approach for phosphorescent application in biology and material fields.

17.
Case Rep Oncol ; 14(3): 1373-1379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720944

RESUMO

Docetaxel is a taxane, which is a class of chemotherapy agent used in the treatment of multiple malignancies. It is known to have gastrointestinal side effects which can range from mild symptoms such as nausea and diarrhea to more severe complications such as neutropenic enterocolitis. In the current literature, taxanes have not been described to cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding and melena. Here, we present a case of a 54-year-old woman with breast cancer who developed dizziness, fatigue, and melena after receiving chemotherapy. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed diffuse gastric erosions as well as ulceration and linear superficial lesions in the duodenum; biopsies from these sites showed taxane-induced toxicity. Her bleeding resolved with medical therapy and subsequent removal of docetaxel from her chemotherapy regimen. This case identifies upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a previously undescribed side effect of docetaxel therapy. Recent docetaxel use should be included in the differential diagnosis for upper gastrointestinal bleed, and diagnosis should lead to consideration of cessation of docetaxel or substitution with another chemotherapeutic agent.

18.
Exp Astron (Dordr) ; 51(3): 661-697, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744305

RESUMO

The far-infrared (FIR) regime is one of the wavelength ranges where no astronomical data with sub-arcsecond spatial resolution exist. None of the medium-term satellite projects like SPICA, Millimetron, or the Origins Space Telescope will resolve this malady. For many research areas, however, information at high spatial and spectral resolution in the FIR, taken from atomic fine-structure lines, from highly excited carbon monoxide (CO), light hydrides, and especially from water lines would open the door for transformative science. A main theme will be to trace the role of water in proto-planetary discs, to observationally advance our understanding of the planet formation process and, intimately related to that, the pathways to habitable planets and the emergence of life. Furthermore, key observations will zoom into the physics and chemistry of the star-formation process in our own Galaxy, as well as in external galaxies. The FIR provides unique tools to investigate in particular the energetics of heating, cooling, and shocks. The velocity-resolved data in these tracers will reveal the detailed dynamics engrained in these processes in a spatially resolved fashion, and will deliver the perfect synergy with ground-based molecular line data for the colder dense gas.

19.
Orthop Rev (Pavia) ; 13(2): 25085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745475

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: Fibromyalgia is a highly prevalent chronic pain syndrome that affects up to 4% of the population and causes significant morbidity and disability, with an increasing associated cost. Though many approaches for treatment have been tested, therapy regimens are still elusive, and efficacy is limited. This review summarizes the background of fibromyalgia and acupuncture and reviews the latest and seminal literature discussing the application of acupuncture in fibromyalgia. Recent Findings: Fibromyalgia is hard to treat, owing both to its chronicity and poorly understood pathophysiology and etiology. Current treatments target symptoms primarily, and few attempt to address the source. Efficacious treatment requires long-term treatment by a multidisciplinary team. Though several treatments exist, they still fall short with a substantial number of patients. Acupuncture, a form of integrative medicine, has been a part of traditional Chinese medication for generations. Evidence shows that it effectively treats different kinds of pain conditions, including migraines and chronic musculoskeletal pain. Recent studies showed evidence to support its use in fibromyalgia. Clinical trials studying acupuncture in fibromyalgia have shown improvement in pain, quality of sleep, and quality of life, though the quality of evidence is mainly low to medium. Several studies were not able to provide evidence to support real over sham acupuncture. Weighing the overall evidence paints a picture of mixed results between equivocal results to positive. In analyzing these results, one must also consider publication bias supporting the dissemination of positive results. Summary: An increasing number of studies support the utilization of acupuncture for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Though no head-to-head comparison was able to show the superiority of acupuncture to other therapies, mounting evidence supports its use as part of multimodal approaches to treatment with additive efficacy to traditional therapy. Further research will likely provide data on effective regimens and combination therapies.

20.
Mater Today Bio ; 12: 100154, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778741

RESUMO

Ferroptosis has received ever-increasing attention due to its unparalleled mechanism in eliminating resistant tumor cells. Nevertheless, the accumulation of toxic lipid peroxides (LPOs) at the tumor site is limited by the level of lipid oxidation. Herein, by leveraging versatile sodium alginate (ALG) hydrogel, a localized ferroptosis trigger consisting of gambogic acid (GA), 2,2'-azobis [2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl) propane] dihydrochloride (AIPH), and Ink (a photothermal agent), was constructed via simple intratumor injection. Upon 1064 â€‹nm laser irradiation, the stored AIPH rapidly decomposed into alkyl radicals (R•), which aggravated LPOs in tumor cells. Meanwhile, GA could inhibit heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to reduce the heat resistance of tumor cells, and forcefully consume glutathione (GSH) to weaken the antioxidant capacity of cells. Systematic in vitro and in vivo experiments have demonstrated that synchronous consumption of GSH and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) facilitated reduced expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), which further contributed to disruption of intracellular redox homeostasis and ultimately boosted ferroptosis. This all-in-one strategy has a highly effective tumor suppression effect by depleting and generating fatal active compounds at tumor sites, which would pave a new route for the controllable, accurate, and coordinated tumor treatments.

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