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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8051, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580739

RESUMO

Non-photochemical laser-induced nucleation (NPLIN) in supersaturated potassium bromide (KBr) solutions with the addition of acidic polymers is reported here for the first time. Upon absorbing the incident laser, crystallites are immediately induced along the laser pathway in the solution, eventually growing into needle-shaped crystals of varying sizes. When comparing induction time, nucleation probability, and crystal habits with spontaneous nucleation, the results suggest that NPLIN creates a distinct morphological pathway, transforming cubic crystals into needle-like structures. Additionally, it improves crystallization probability and growth rate. This paper aims to realize control from crystal nucleation to crystal growth by adding acidic polymers to the process of laser-induced nucleation, potentially influencing crystal morphology modification in NPLIN. With 19 wt% acidic polymers added to the solution as additives, control over both crystal growth and morphological modifications was observed: cubic KBr crystals with square patterns were produced through laser irradiation, and there was a varying reduction in both the number and growth rate of the crystals. The influence of acidic polymers on the solution environment was analyzed to determine the reasons for the variations in crystal quantity and growth speed. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the changes in crystal shape were also discussed.

2.
Mater Horiz ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587002

RESUMO

Thermomagnetic generation (TMG), a promising technology to convert low-grade waste heat to electricity, utilizes high performance TMG materials. However, the drawbacks of large hysteresis, poor mechanical properties and inadequate service life hinder the practical applications. For the first time, we evaluated the effect of different phase transitions on the TMG performance by systematically comparing the TMG performance of three typical Heusler alloys with similar composition but different phase transitions. Ni2Mn1.4In0.6 exhibits second-order magnetic transition (SOMT) from the ferromagnetic (FM) to paramagnetic (PM) state around TC = 316 K without thermal hysteresis. It presents highly comprehensive TMG performance, which is not only better than those of other two Heusler alloys with different phase transitions, but also better than those of most typical TMG materials. The maximum power density (1752.3 mW m-3), cost index (2.78 µW per €), and power generation index PGI (8.91 × 10-4) of Ni2Mn1.4In0.6 are 1-5, 1-4, and 1-7 orders of magnitude higher than those of most typical reported materials, respectively. In addition, Ni2Mn1.4In0.6 with SOMT also shows some advantages that first-order magnetic transition (FOMT) materials do not have, such as zero hysteresis and a long-term service life. In contrast to the short lifetime of a few minutes for the materials with FOMT, Ni2Mn1.4In0.6 with SOMT can serve for one month or even longer with excellent cycling stability. Consequently, we conclude that the SOMT Ni2Mn1.4In0.6 Heusler alloy with good TMG performance as well as zero hysteresis and long service life can be a better candidate than FOMT materials for practical applications of TMG.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587811

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D)-printed biodegradable polymer scaffolds are at the forefront of personalized constructs for bone tissue engineering. However, it remains challenging to create a biological microenvironment for bone growth. Herein, we developed a novel yet feasible approach to facilitate biomimetic mineralization via self-adaptive nanotopography, which overcomes difficulties in the surface biofunctionalization of 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. The building blocks of self-adaptive nanotopography were PCL lamellae that formed on the 3D-printed PCL scaffold via surface-directed epitaxial crystallization and acted as a linker to nucleate and generate hydroxyapatite crystals. Accordingly, a uniform and robust mineralized layer was immobilized throughout the scaffolds, which strongly bound to the strands and had no effect on the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. In vitro cell culture experiments revealed that the resulting scaffold was biocompatible and enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryolous osteoblast cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the resulting scaffold showed a strong capability to accelerate in vivo bone regeneration using a rabbit bone defect model. This study provides valuable opportunities to enhance the application of 3D-printed scaffolds in bone repair, paving the way for translation to other orthopedic implants.

4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research on the factors associated with surgical dose-response in strabismus surgery for exotropia has yielded inconsistent results. This study determined the factors influencing surgical dose-response in exotropia patients who underwent recession and resection (R&R). METHODS: Exotropia patients who underwent unilateral R&R at the National Taiwan University Hospital between 2006 and 2021 were evaluated. Deviation-angle differences in prism diopters (PD) were measured preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Surgical dose-response (PD/mm) was defined as the difference in deviation angle (in PD) divided by the surgical dose in millimeters. Linear and non-linear regression models were used to evaluate the influence of variables including age, sex, axial length, and preoperative deviation on surgical dose-response. RESULTS: Overall, 295 patients (162 children; 133 adults) were included. Average surgical dose-response in the pediatric and adult groups was 2.82 ± 0.60 PD/mm and 3.02 ± 0.62 PD/mm, respectively. Male sex was negatively correlated with surgical dose-response in children. The surgical dose-response was larger in adults with longer axial length (>25.64 mm) and patients with larger preoperative deviation (>42.6 PD and >38.7 PD in pediatric and adult groups, respectively). Surgical dose-responses peaked at 35.1 years. CONCLUSION: Age, axial length, and preoperative deviation have a nonlinear effect on surgical dose-responses in exotropia patients undergoing R&R. Surgical dose-responses were larger in patients in young adulthood, with longer axial length and larger preoperative deviation angle. A table with fitted values for surgical dose-response based on age, axial length, and preoperative deviation was established for clinical reference.

5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558309

RESUMO

Since RNA is an important biomarker of many infectious pathogens, RNA detection of pathogenic organisms is crucial for disease diagnosis and environmental and food safety. By simulating the base mismatch during DNA replication, this study presents a novel three-way junction structure-mediated reverse transcription-free exponential amplification reaction (3WJ-RTF-EXPAR) for the rapid and sensitive detection of pathogen RNA. The target RNA served as a switch to initiate the reaction by forming a three-way junction (3WJ) structure with the ex-trigger strand and the ex-primer strand. The generated trigger strand could be significantly amplified through EXPAR to open the stem-loop structure of the molecular beacon to emit fluorescence signal. The proofreading activity of Vent DNA polymerase, in combination with the unique structure of 2+1 bases at the 3'-end of the ex-primer strand, could enhance the role of target RNA as a reaction switch to reduce non-specific amplification and ensure excellent specificity to differentiate target pathogen from those causing similar symptoms. Furthermore, detection of target RNA showed a detection limit of 1.0×104 copies/mL, while the time consumption was only 20 min, outperforming qRT-LAMP and qRT-PCR, the most commonly used RNA detection methods in clinical practice. All those indicates the great application prospects of this method in clinical diagnostic.

6.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567763

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is strongly associated with a heightened incidence of lymphomas. To mirror the natural course of human HIV infection, animal models have been developed. These models serve as valuable tools to investigate disease pathobiology, assess antiretroviral and immunomodulatory drugs, explore viral reservoirs, and develop eradication strategies. However, there are currently no validated in vivo models of HIV-associated lymphoma (HAL), hampering progress in this crucial domain, and scant attention has been given to developing animal models dedicated to studying HAL, despite their pivotal role in advancing knowledge. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the existing animal models of HAL, which may enhance our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis and approaches for malignancies linked to HIV infection.

7.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593991

RESUMO

Background Postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) has been shown to be associated with increased surgical morbidity and mortality following cancer ablation surgery. However, evidence on new-onset AF's impact on surgical outcomes in head and neck cancer patients undergoing tumor ablation and microvascular free tissue transfer remains scarce. This study aims to evaluate the association between AF and surgical outcomes in these patients. Methods We enrolled head and neck cancer patients who underwent tumor ablation reconstructed with microvascular free tissue transfer from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Patients were grouped into (1) without AF, (2) new-onset AF, and (3) preexisting AF. The groups were matched by propensity score based on age, gender, cancer stage, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was postoperative complications, whereas all-cause mortality was the secondary outcome. Results Total 26,817 patients were included in this study. After matching, we identified 2,176 (79.24%) patients without AF, 285 (10.37%) with preexisting AF, and 285 (10.37%) with new-onset AF. Our results demonstrated that the free flap failure rate was twofold escalated in patients with new-onset AF (9.8%) compared to those without AF (5.4%) or preexisting AF (5.3%) (p = 0.01). However, we did not identify significant differences among other postoperative complications across groups. Additionally, we found that the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly elevated in patients with preexisting AF (p<0.001) compared to those without AF or new-onset AF. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that new-onset AF is associated with an increased risk of flap failure and could serve as a predictor. On the other hand, all-cause mortality in patients with preexisting AF was significantly elevated. Close postoperative monitoring in patients with new-onset and preexisting AF is crucial to identify any potential adverse effects.

8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1722: 464846, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579612

RESUMO

In forensic science, glyphosate (GLYP) and glufosinate (GLUF), a class of non-selective broad-spectrum herbicides, have been frequently encountered in many fatal poisoning and suicide cases due to their widespread availability. Therefore, it is essential to develop an effective method for detecting these compounds. Some conventional methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), have been reported to detect these compounds. However, these methods are not ideal for their time-consuming and non-sensitive feature. Herein, probe electrospray ionization (PESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), a fast and sensitive technique, was applied for the determination of GLYP and GLUF in human blood, which can obtain analytical results within 0.5 min without derivatization and chromatographic separation. After protein precipitation of blood samples, the supernatant was mixed with isopropanol and ultra-pure water (1:1 v/v). Then, 8 µL of the mixture was introduced into the plastic sample plate for PESI-MS/MS analysis. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 0.50 µg/mL and 0.25 µg/mL for two analytes, and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were both 1.00 µg/mL, which are higher than the concentration of reported poisoning and fatal cases. In the linear range of 1-500 µg/mL, the regression coefficients (r2) for GLYP and GLUF were over 0.99. The matrix effects ranged from 94.8 % to 119.5 %, and the biases were below 4.3 %. The recoveries ranged between 84.8 % and 107.4 %, and the biases were below 7.6 %. Meanwhile, the method was effectively utilized to detect and quantify the blood, urine, and other samples. Consequently, the results suggest that PESI-MS/MS is a straightforward, fast, and sensitive method for detecting GLUF and GLYP in forensics. In the future, PESI-MS/MS will become an indispensable technique for polar substances in grassroots units of public security where rapid detection is essential.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498746

RESUMO

Intracortical brain-computer interfaces offer superior spatial and temporal resolutions, but face challenges as the increasing number of recording channels introduces high amounts of data to be transferred. This requires power-hungry data serialization and telemetry, leading to potential tissue damage risks. To address this challenge, this paper introduces an event-based neural compressive telemetry (NCT) consisting of 8 channel-rotating Δ-ADCs, an event-driven serializer supporting a proposed ternary address event representation protocol, and an event-based LVDS driver. Leveraging a high sparsity of extracellular spikes and high spatial correlation of the high-density recordings, the proposed NCT achieves a compression ratio of >11.4×, while consumes only 1 µW per channel, which is 127× more efficient than state of the art. The NCT well preserves the spike waveform fidelity, and has a low normalized RMS error <23% even with a spike amplitude down to only 31 µV.

10.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(4): 141, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441685

RESUMO

A strictly anaerobic, motile bacterium, designated as strain Ai-910T, was isolated from the sludge of an anaerobic digestion tank in China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative rods. Optimal growth was observed at 38 °C (growth range 25-42 °C), pH 8.5 (growth range 5.5-10.5), and under a NaCl concentration of 0.06% (w/v) (range 0-2.0%). Major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The respiratory quinone was MK-7. Using xylose as the growth substrate, succinate was produced as the fermentation product. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16 S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain Ai-910T formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage that reflects a new genus in the family Marinilabiliaceae, sharing high similarities to Alkaliflexus imshenetskii Z-7010T (92.78%), Alkalitalea saponilacus SC/BZ-SP2T (92.51%), and Geofilum rubicundum JAM-BA0501T (92.36%). Genomic similarity (average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization) values between strain Ai-910T and its phylogenetic neighbors were below 65.27 and 16.90%, respectively, indicating that strain Ai-910T represented a novel species. The average amino acid identity between strain Ai-910T and other related members of the family Marinilabiliaceae were below 69.41%, supporting that strain Ai-910T was a member of a new genus within the family Marinilabiliaceae. Phylogenetic, genomic, and phenotypic analysis revealed that strain Ai-910T was distinguished from other phylogenetic relatives within the family Marinilabiliaceae. The genome size was 3.10 Mbp, and the DNA G + C content of the isolate was 42.8 mol%. Collectively, differences of the phenotypic and phylogenetic features of strain Ai-910T from its close relatives suggest that strain Ai-910T represented a novel species in a new genus of the family Marinilabiliaceae, for which the name Xiashengella succiniciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain of Xiashengella succiniciproducens is Ai-910T (= CGMCC 1.17893T = KCTC 25,304T).


Assuntos
Bactérias , Ácido Succínico , Anaerobiose , Filogenia , Succinatos , DNA
11.
J Med Chem ; 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436574

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as promising agents to combat the antibiotic resistance crisis due to their rapid bactericidal activity and low propensity for drug resistance. However, AMPs face challenges in terms of balancing enhanced antimicrobial efficacy with increased toxicity during modification processes. In this study, de novo d-type ß-hairpin AMPs are designed. The conformational transformation of self-assembling peptide W-4 in the environment of the bacterial membrane and the erythrocyte membrane affected its antibacterial activity and hemolytic activity and finally showed a high antibacterial effect and low toxicity. Furthermore, W-4 displays remarkable stability, minimal occurrence of drug resistance, and synergistic effects when combined with antibiotics. The in vivo studies confirm its high safety and potent wound-healing properties at the sites infected by bacteria. This study substantiates that nanostructured AMPs possess enhanced biocompatibility. These advances reveal the superiority of self-assembled AMPs and contribute to the development of nanoantibacterial materials.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(13): 7100-7120, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488514

RESUMO

Depression is a neuropsychiatric disease that significantly impacts the physical and mental health of >300 million people worldwide and places a major burden on society. Ginsenosides are the main active ingredient in ginseng and have been proven to have various pharmacological effects on the nervous system. Herein, we investigated the antidepressant effect of ginsenoside Rk3 and its underlying mechanism in a murine model of depression. Rk3 significantly improved depression-like behavior in mice, ameliorated the disturbance of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and alleviated neuronal damage in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice. Additionally, Rk3 improved the abnormal metabolism of tryptophan in brain tissue by targeting tryptophan hydroxylase, thereby reducing neuronal apoptosis and synaptic structural damage in the mouse hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, Rk3 reshaped the composition of the gut microbiota of mice and regulated intestinal tryptophan metabolism, which alleviated intestinal barrier damage. Thus, this study provides valuable insights into the role of Rk3 in the tryptophan metabolic cycle along the brain-gut axis, suggesting that Rk3 may have the potential for treating depression.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Triptofano , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299950, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547100

RESUMO

In the era of mass tourism, more and more people are attracted by internet-famous site. With people's demand for travel surged, tourists are getting together in one scenic spot with doubling numbers, which easily leads to high concentration of tourists with uncontrollable security risks. It needs to be highly valued by the tourism department. Monitoring and issuing warnings for crowd density in scenic areas with Highly Aggregated Tourist Crowds (HATCs) is an urgent challenge that needs to be addressed. In this paper, Highly Aggregated Tourist Crowds is taken as the research objective, and a VGGT-Count network model is proposed to forecast the density of HATCs. The experimental outcomes demonstrated a substantial improvement in counting accuracy for the ShanghaiTech B and UCF-QNRF datasets. Furthermore, the model allows for real-time monitoring of tourist attractions, enabling advanced prediction of high concentrations in scenic areas. This timely information can alert relevant authorities to implement preventive measures such as crowd control and flow regulation, thereby minimizing safety hazards.


Assuntos
Turismo , Viagem , Humanos , Aglomeração
14.
Surg Endosc ; 38(4): 2260-2266, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though robotic adoption for eTEP surgery has decreased technical barriers to minimally invasive repairs of large ventral hernias, relatively few studies have examined outcomes of robotic-specific eTEP surgery. This study evaluates safety, feasibility, and early outcomes of ERAS/same-day discharge protocols for robotic eTEP ventral hernia repairs. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for all robotic eTEP hernia surgeries at a single institution between 2019 and 2022. Analysis included patient demographics, hernia characteristics, intraoperative data, and post-operative outcomes at 30 days. ERAS protocol included: judicious use of urinary catheters with removal at end of case if placed, bilateral transversus abdominus plane (TAP) blocks, post-operative abdominal wall binder, and opioid-sparing perioperative analgesia. Patients were discharged same day from post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) if they lacked comorbidities requiring observation post-anesthesia and demonstrated stable vital signs, adequate pain control, ability to void, and ability to ambulate. Hospital length of stay (LOS) was considered 0 for same-day PACU discharges or hospitalizations < 24 h. RESULTS: 102 patients were included in this case series. 69% (70/102) of patients were discharged same-day (mean LOS 0.47 ± 0.80 days). Within 30 post-operative days, 3% (3/102) of patients presented to the ER, 2% (2/102) were readmitted to the hospital, and 1% (1/102) required reoperation. There was 1 serious complication (Clavien-Dindo grade 3/4) with an aggregate complication rate of 7.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Our initial experience with ERAS protocols and same-day discharges after robotic eTEP repair demonstrates this approach is safe and feasible with acceptable short-term patient outcomes. Compared to traditional open surgery for large ventral hernias, robotic eTEP may enable significant reductions in hospital LOS as adoption increases.


Assuntos
Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Hérnia Ventral , Hérnia Incisional , Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Hérnia Ventral/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Hérnia Incisional/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas , Laparoscopia/métodos
15.
Small ; : e2400139, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497843

RESUMO

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance of NiCo LDH electrocatalysts can be improved through fluorine doping. The roles of Ni and Co active sites in such catalysts remain ambiguous and controversial. In addressing the issue, this study draws upon the molecular orbital theory and proposes the active center competitive mechanism between Ni and Co. The doped F-atoms can directly impact the valence state of metal atoms or exert an indirect influence through the dehydrogenation, thereby modulating the active center. As the F-atoms are progressively aggregate, the eg orbitals of Ni and Co transition from e2 g to e1 g , and subsequently to e0 g . The corresponding valence state elevates from +2 to +3, and then to +4, signifying an initial increase followed by a subsequent decrease in the electrocatalytic performance. Furthermore, a series of F-NiCo LDH catalysts are synthesized to verify the eg orbital occupancy analysis, and the catalytic OER overpotentials are 303, 243, 240, and 246 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm-2 , respectively, which coincides well with the theoretical prediction. This investigation not only provides novel mechanistic insights into the transition and competition of Ni and Co in F-NiCo LDH catalysts but also establishes a foundation for the design of high-performance catalysts.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437070

RESUMO

A near-field galvanic coupled transdural telemetry ASICs for intracortical brain-computer interfaces is presented. The proposed design features a two channels transmitter and three channels receiver (2TX-3RX) topology, which introduces spatial diversity to effectively mitigate misalignments (both lateral and rotational) between the brain and the skull and recovers the path loss by 13 dB when the RX is in the worst-case blind spot. This spatial diversity also allows the presented telemetry to support the spatial division multiplexing required for a high-capacity multi-implant distributed network. It achieves a signal-to-interference ratio of 12 dB, even with the adjacent interference node placed only 8 mm away from the desired link. While consuming only 0.33 mW for each channel, the presented RX achieves a wide bandwidth of 360 MHz and a low input referred noise of 13.21 nV/√Hz. The presented telemetry achieves a 270 Mbps data rate with a BER<10-6 and an energy efficiency of 3.4 pJ/b and 3.7 pJ/b, respectively. The core footprint of the TX and RX modules is only 100 and 52 mm2, respectively, minimizing the invasiveness of the surgery. The proposed transdural telemetry system has been characterized ex-vivo with a 7-mm thick porcine tissue.

17.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2400676, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460179

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer with a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and a typical pattern of disturbances in hepatic lipid metabolism. Long non-coding RNAs are shown to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression, but much remains unknown between tumor microenvironment and lipid metabolism as a bridging molecule. Here, long intergenic nonprotein coding RNA 01116 (LINC01116) acts as this molecular which is frequently upregulated in HCC patients and associated with HCC progression in vitro and in vivo is identified. Mechanistically, LINC01116 stabilizes EWS RNA-binding protein 1 (EWSR1) by preventing RAD18 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase (RAD18) -mediated ubiquitination. The enhanced EWSR1 protein upregulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA) and fatty acid binding protein1 (FABP1) expression, a long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) transporter, and thus cancer cells outcompete T cells for LCFAs, especially linoleic acid, for seeding their own growth, leading to T cell malfunction and HCC malignant progression. In a preclinical animal model, the blockade of LINC01116 leads to enhanced efficacy of anti-PD1 treatment accompanied by increased cytotoxic T cell and decreased exhausted T cell infiltration. Collectively, LINC01116 is an immunometabolic lncRNA and the LINC01116-EWSR1-PPARA-FABP1 axis may be targetable for cancer immunotherapy.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509309

RESUMO

Growing evidence has found the health protective effects of greenness exposure on tuberculosis (TB) and the impact of ambient air pollutants on TB drug-resistance. However, it remains unclear whether residential greenness is also beneficial to reduce TB drug-resistance, and whether air pollution modify the greenness-TB resistance relationship. We enrolled 5006 newly-diagnosed TB patients from Shandong, China, during 2014 to 2021. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in 250 m and 500 m buffer around individuals' residential zone was used to assess greenness exposure. All patients were divided by quartiles of NDVI250-m and NDVI500-m (from low to high: Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4) respectively. Six logistic regression models (NDVI, NDVI + PM2.5/PM10/SO2/NO2/O3) were used to estimate the association of NDVI and TB drug-resistance when adjusting different air pollutants or not. All models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, complications, smoking, drinking, population density, nighttime light index, road density. Compared with participants in NDVI250-m Q1 and NDVI500-m Q1, other groups had lower rates of MDR-TB, PDR-TB, RFP-resistance, SM-resistance, RFP + SM resistance, INH + RFP + EMB + SM resistance. NDVI500-m reduced the risk of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 95% confidence interval, CI) compared with NDVI500-m Q1 were 0.736 (0.547-0.991) in NDVI + PM10 model, 0.733 (0.544-0.986) in NDVI + PM2.5 model, 0.735(0.546-0.99) in NDVI + SO2 model, 0.736 (0.546-0.991) in NDVI + NO2 model, respectively, P < 0.05. NDVI500-m contributed to a decreased risk of streptomycin (SM)-resistance. The aOR of rifampicin (RFP) + SM resistance were 0.132 (NDVI250-m, Q4 vs Q1, 95% CI: 0.03-0.578), 0.199 (NDVI500-m, Q3 vs. Q1, 95% CI: 0.057-0.688) and 0.264 (NDVI500-m, Q4 vs. Q1, 95% CI: 0.087-0.799). The adjusted ORs (Q2 vs. Q1, 95% CI) of isoniazid (INH) + RFP + ethambutol (EMB) + SM resistance in 500 m buffer were 0.276 (0.119-0.639) in NDVI model, 0.279 (0.11-0.705) in NDVI + PM10 model, 0.281 (0.111-0.713) in NDVI + PM2.5 model, 0.279 (0.11-0.709) in NDVI + SO2 model, 0.296 (0.117-0.754) in NDVI + NO2 model, 0.294 (0.116-0.748) in NDVI + O3 model, respectively. The study showed, for the first time, that residential greenness exposure in 500 m buffer is beneficial for reducing newly-diagnosed DR-TB (including PDR-RB, MDR-TB, MR-TB), and ambient air pollutants may partially mediate this association.

20.
Nanoscale ; 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511991

RESUMO

Crude oil is one of the most widely used energy and industrial raw materials that is crucial to the world economy, and is used to produce various petroleum products. However, crude oil often spills during extraction, transportation and use, causing negative impacts on the environment. Thus, there is a high demand for products to remediate leaked crude oil. Among them, oleophilic and hydrophobic adsorbents can absorb crude oil through thermal effects and are research hotspots. In this review, we first present an overview of wettability theory, the heating principles of various thermal effects, and the theory of reducing crude oil viscosity by heating. Then we discuss adsorbents based on different heating methods including the photothermal effect, Joule heating effect, alternating magnetic field heating effect, and composite heating effect. Preparation methods and oil adsorption performance of adsorbents are summarized. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of various heating methods are briefly summarized, as well as the prospects for future research.

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