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1.
Inorg Chem ; 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689703

RESUMO

Commercial polyketone materials are generally produced by palladium-catalyzed terpolymerization of ethylene and α-olefin with carbon monoxide (CO), and rare examples were reported regarding the incorporation of propylene into an ethylene/CO copolymer chain using a cost-effective nickel catalyst. In this study, we have developed a series of [P,O]-type cationic Pd and Ni complexes supported by a diphosphazane monoxide (PNPO) platform, and the electronic and steric effect on phosphine, amine, and phosphine oxide moieties is systematically investigated for terpolymerization in terms of activity, propylene/CO (C3) incorporation, and molecular weight control. It is observed that the melting temperature (Tm) is proportional to the number of C3 incorporations present in the polymer chain, and the incorporated propylene does not affect the degradation temperature substantially, thus broadening the processing temperature window of the resultant polyketones. Notably, in comparison with dppp-type catalysts, PNPO catalysts exhibited a higher preference for propylene consumption, which is of great importance for making more efficient use of α-olefin resources.

2.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 16(1)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678587

RESUMO

Brimonidine tartrate (BRT) is a highly selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist as treatment for patients with open angle glaucoma and high intraocular pressure. The objective of this study was to formulate an ophthalmic ion-sensitive in situ gel (ISG) of BRT to increase the retention time of the drug and its bioavailability. The optimum formulation of 2 mg/mL BRT-ISG was obtained with 0.45% gellan gum as the gel matrix. In vitro release results showed that the water-soluble drug bromonidine tartrate in ocular in situ gels exhibited a high burst effect and fast release in solution. The results of dialysis membrane permeation showed that there was a significant difference between the commercially available and BRT-ISG groups after 45 min. The results of the pre-corneal retention study indicated that gellan gum can effectively prolong ocular surface retention. Preliminary stability results showed that it should be stored in a cool and dark place, and the formulation under long-term preservation can be basically stable. The pharmacokinetic study of the BRT-ISG in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye was studied by microdialysis technique, and microdialysis samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the BRT-ISG reached Cmax (8.16 mg/L) at 93 min after administration, which was 2.7 times that of the BRT eye drops, and the AUC(0-t) (1397.08 mg·min/L) was 3.4 times that of the BRT eye drops. The optimal prescription can prolong the retention time of BRT in front of the cornea and significantly improve the bioavailability of BRT in the eye. Combined with the results of in vitro release, permeation and pre-corneal retention studies, the improvement of BRT-ISG bioavailability in rabbit eyes was found to be mainly due to the retention effect after the mixture of ISG and tears.

3.
Cell Rep ; 42(1): 112012, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680774

RESUMO

Long bones are generated by mesoderm-derived skeletal progenitor/stem cells (SSCs) through endochondral ossification, a process of sequential chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation tightly controlled by the synergy between intrinsic and microenvironment cues. Here, we report that loss of TRIM28, a transcriptional corepressor, in mesoderm-derived cells expands the SSC pool, weakens SSC osteochondrogenic potential, and endows SSCs with properties of ectoderm-derived neural crest cells (NCCs), leading to severe defects of skeletogenesis. TRIM28 preferentially enhances H3K9 trimethylation and DNA methylation on chromatin regions more accessible in NCCs; loss of this silencing upregulates neural gene expression and enhances neurogenic potential. Moreover, TRIM28 loss causes hyperexpression of GREM1, which is an extracellular signaling factor promoting SSC self-renewal and SSC neurogenic potential by activating AKT/mTORC1 signaling. Our results suggest that TRIM28-mediated chromatin silencing establishes a barrier for maintaining the SSC lineage trajectory and preventing a transition to ectodermal fate by regulating both intrinsic and microenvironment cues.

4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2023 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683014

RESUMO

AIMS: We aim to investigate the prognostic value of a right ventricular (RV) injury score based on the concept of RV dilation, RV systolic dysfunction, and RV-pulmonary arterial (PA) decoupling in septic patients and to explore whether the RV injury (RVI) score can be used to grade the severity of RV dysfunction in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Septic patients admitted to the ICU were prospectively included. We collected haemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters as well as prognostic information. RV dilation was defined as right and left ventricular end-diastolic area ratio (R/LVEDA) > 2/3. RVSD was defined as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) < 17 mm, right ventricular fractional area change (FAC) < 35%, or peak velocity of tricuspid annulus via tissue Doppler (S') < 10 cm/s. RV-PA decoupling was represented by the TAPSE/pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) ratio. RVI score were determined by the presence of the following findings: RVSD, RV dilation, and RV-PA decoupling, that is, one point for each finding. A total of 327 patients were enrolled in this study, among whom 276 survived and 51 died at 30 days after admission. Overall, 18.0% had RV dilation, 35.8% had RVSD, and 21.4% had RV-PA decoupling, with an appreciable overlap present. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that RV dilation (HR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.19-4.01, P = 0.011), RVSD (HR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.23-4.13, P = 0.009) and RV-PA decoupling (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.19-3.65, P = 0.011) were independently associated with a 30 day mortality. Furthermore, RVI score was also an independent predictor, displayed additive effect with respect to 30 day mortality (RVI score 1 vs. RVI score 0, HR: 2.94, 95% CI: 1.20-7.20, P = 0.018; RVI score 2 vs. RVI score 0, HR: 3.20, 95% CI: 1.28-7.98, P = 0.013; RVI score 3 vs. RVI score 0, HR: 7.17, 95% CI: 2.65-19.38, P < 0.001), and had the best performance in model goodness of fit, discrimination and variance explained than the other RV indices. CONCLUSIONS: The RVI score was independently related to 30 day mortality and had the potential to grade the severity of RV dysfunction in septic patients.

5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2606: 219-231, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592319

RESUMO

Base editing is a new genome editing technology that enables DNA base mutations without requiring double-stranded DNA backbone cleavage or a donor template. It has been widely used for genome engineering of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms. In this chapter, we describe a routine protocol for cytosine base editing in two model bacteria Corynebacterium glutamicum and Bacillus subtilis. The protocol can be adapted to base editing in other bacteria with modifications.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Edição de Genes/métodos , Citosina , Mutação , DNA , Bactérias/genética
6.
Theranostics ; 13(1): 391-402, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593954

RESUMO

With the surge of the high-throughput sequencing technologies, many genetic variants have been identified in the past decade. The vast majority of these variants are defined as variants of uncertain significance (VUS), as their significance to the function or health of an organism is not known. It is urgently needed to develop intelligent models for the clinical interpretation of VUS. State-of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI)-based variant effect predictors only learn features from primary amino acid sequences, leaving out information about the most important three-dimensional structure that is more related to its function. Methods: We proposed a deep convolutional neural network model named variant effect recognition network for BRCA1 (vERnet-B) to recognize the clinical pathogenicity of missense single-nucleotide variants in the BRCT domain of BRCA1. vERnet-B learned features associated with the pathogenicity from the tertiary protein structures of variants predicted by AlphaFold2. Results: After performing a series of validation and analyses on vERnet-B, we discovered that it exhibited significant advances over previous works. Recognizing the phenotypic consequences of VUS is one of the most daunting challenges in genetic informatics; however, we achieved 85% accuracy in recognizing disease BRCA1 variants with an ideal balance of false-positive and true-positive detection rates. vERnet-B correctly recognized the pathogenicity of variant A1708E, which was poorly predicted by AlphaFold2 as previously described. The vERnet-B web server is freely available from URL: http://ai-lab.bjrz.org.cn/vERnet. Conclusions: We applied protein tertiary structures to successfully recognize the pathogenic missense SNVs, which were difficult to be addressed by classical approaches based on sequences. Our work demonstrated that AlphaFold2-predicted structures were expected to be used for rich feature learning and revealed unique insights into the clinical interpretation of VUS in disease-related genes, using vERnet-B as a discovery tool.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Virulência , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteína BRCA1/genética
7.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112208, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596141

RESUMO

Aroma composition of cold-pressed walnut oil (CWO) and hot-pressed walnut oil (HWO) was analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-olfactory-mass spectrometry (GC × GC-O-MS) and headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS). A total of 83 and 197 compounds were identified in the CWO and HWO, respectively; among these, 76 and 123 compounds were sniffed exclusively by GC × GC-O-MS, respectively. A total of 36 volatile compounds were detected by HS-GC-IMS, of which 10 in CWO and 32 in HWO. Based on of flavor dilution (FD) factors, odor-activity values (OAVs), and recombination and omission experiments, 1-octen-3-ol, cyclohexanol, and benzaldehyde were found to be the key aroma-active compounds in CWO, while 3-methylbutanal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-pentanol, 1-octanol, and furfural were the key aroma-active compounds in HWO. Moreover, Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation were found to play an important role in flavor formation in HWO. This study provides a guide to improve the quality of walnut oil based on aroma characteristics.


Assuntos
Juglans , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
8.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615573

RESUMO

Recent pharmacological studies have shown that dragon's blood has an anti-cerebral ischemia effect. Loureirin C (LC), a kind of dihydrochalcone compound in dragon's blood, is believed to be play an important role in the treatment of ischemia stroke, but fewer studies for LC have been done. In this paper, we report the first experimental and theoretical studies on the antioxidation mechanism of LC by radical scavenging. The experimental studies show that LC has almost no effect on cell viability under 15 µM for the SH-SY5Y cells without any treatments. For the SH-SY5Y cells with oxygen and glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD/R) treatment, LC increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. The results of 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and MitoSox Red experiments indicate that LC is very efficient in inhibiting the generation of the intracellular/mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) or removing these two kinds of generated ROS. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations allowed us to elucidate the antioxidation mechanisms of LC. Fukui function analysis reveals the radical scavenging of LC by hydrogen abstraction mechanism, the complex formation by e-transfer, and radical adduct formation (RAF) mechanism. Among the H-abstraction, the complex formation by e-transfer, and radical adduct formation (RAF) reactions on LC, the H-abstraction at O-H35 position by OH• is favorable with the smallest energy difference between the product and two reactants of the attack of OH• to LC of -0.0748 Ha. The bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE), proton affinities (PA), ionization potential (IP), proton dissociation enthalpy (PDE), and electron transfer enthalpy (ETE) were calculated to determine thermodynamically preferred reaction pathway for hydrogen abstraction mechanism. In water, IP and the lowest PDE value at O3-H35 position are lower than the lowest BDE value at O3-H35 position; 41.8986 and 34.221 kcal/mol, respectively, indicating that SEPT mechanism is a preferred one in water in comparison with the HAT mechanism. The PA value of O3-H35 of LC in water is -17.8594 kcal/mol, thus the first step of SPLET would occur spontaneously. The minimum value of ETE is higher than the minimum value of PDE at O3-H35 position and IP value, 14.7332 and 22.4108 kcal/mol, respectively, which suggests that the SEPT mechanism is a preferred one in water in comparison with the SPLET mechanism. Thus, we can draw a conclusion that the SEPT mechanism of is the most favorite hydrogen abstraction mechanism in water, and O-H35 hydroxyl group has the greatest ability to donate H-atoms.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Prótons , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Água/química , Hidrogênio/química , Isquemia , Termodinâmica
9.
Hortic Res ; 10(1): uhac228, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643758

RESUMO

Momordica charantia L. var. abbreviata Ser. (Mca), known as bitter gourd or bitter melon, is a Momordica variety with medicinal value and belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. In view of the lack of genomic information on bitter gourd and other Momordica species and to promote Mca genomic research, we assembled a 295.6-Mb telomere-to-telomere (T2T) high-quality Mca genome with six gap-free chromosomes after Hi-C correction. This genome is anchored to 11 chromosomes, which is consistent with the karyotype information, and comprises 98 contigs (N50 of 25.4 Mb) and 95 scaffolds (N50 of 25.4 Mb). The Mca genome harbors 19 895 protein-coding genes, of which 45.59% constitute predicted repeat sequences. Synteny analysis revealed variations involved in fruit quality during the divergence of bitter gourd. In addition, assay for transposase-accessible chromatin by high-throughput sequencing and metabolic analysis showed that momordicosides and other substances are characteristic of Mca fruit pulp. A combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis revealed the mechanisms of pigment accumulation and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in Mca fruit peels, providing fundamental molecular information for further research on Mca fruit ripening. This report provides a new genetic resource for Momordica genomic studies and contributes additional insights into Cucurbitaceae phylogeny.

10.
Cell Res ; 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646759

RESUMO

Emerging evidence demonstrates that some metabolic enzymes that phosphorylate soluble metabolites can also phosphorylate a variety of protein substrates as protein kinases to regulate cell cycle, apoptosis and many other fundamental cellular processes. However, whether a metabolic enzyme dephosphorylates protein as a protein phosphatase remains unknown. Here we reveal the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose 1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP) to fructose 6-phosphate (F-6-P) as a protein phosphatase by performing a high-throughput screening of metabolic phosphatases with molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, we identify IκBα as the substrate of FBP1-mediated dephosphorylation by performing phosphoproteomic analysis. Mechanistically, FBP1 directly interacts with and dephosphorylates the serine (S) 32/36 of IκBα upon TNFα stimulation, thereby inhibiting NF-κB activation. MD simulations indicate that the catalytic mechanism of FBP1-mediated IκBα dephosphorylation is similar to F-1,6-BP dephosphorylation, except for higher energetic barriers for IκBα dephosphorylation. Functionally, FBP1-dependent NF-κB inactivation suppresses colorectal tumorigenesis by sensitizing tumor cells to inflammatory stresses and preventing the mobilization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Our finding reveals a previously unrecognized role of FBP1 as a protein phosphatase and establishes the critical role of FBP1-mediated IκBα dephosphorylation in colorectal tumorigenesis.

11.
Respir Med ; 207: 107117, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626942

RESUMO

Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Although decades of intensive research have focused on the role of EGFR in asthma, the specific mechanisms and pathways of EGFR signaling remain unclear. Various reports have indicated that inhibition of EGFR improves the pathological features in asthma models. However, extending these experimental findings to clinical applications is difficult. Several measures can be adopted to promote clinical application of EGFR inhibitors. This review focuses on the role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of asthma and the development of a potentially novel therapeutic target for asthma.

12.
Bioeng Transl Med ; 8(1): e10327, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684067

RESUMO

Organoids hold inestimable therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine and are increasingly serving as an in vitro research platform. Still, their expanding applications are critically restricted by the canonical culture matrix and system. Synthesis of a suitable bioink of bioactivity, biosecurity, tunable stiffness, and printability to replace conventional matrices and fabricate customized culture systems remains challenging. Here, we envisaged a novel bioink formulation based on decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) from porcine small intestinal submucosa for organoids bioprinting, which provides intestinal stem cells (ISCs) with niche-specific ECM content and biomimetic microstructure. Intestinal organoids cultured in the fabricated bioink exhibited robust generation as well as a distinct differentiation pattern and transcriptomic signature. This bioink established a new co-culture system able to study interaction between epithelial homeostasis and submucosal cells and promote organoids maturation after transplantation into the mesentery of immune-deficient NODSCID-gamma (NSG) mice. In summary, the development of such photo-responsive bioink has the potential to replace tumor-derived Matrigel and facilitate the application of organoids in translational medicine and disease modeling.

13.
Anal Chem ; 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693709

RESUMO

Here, the transcriptomics and metabolomics on a model of exposure to a cocktail of neonicotinoids (Neo) containing seven commercial compounds and a synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were established. The results showed that Neo and PBO disrupted mRNA and metabolite levels in a dose-dependent manner. Neo caused tryptophan pathway-related neurotoxicity, reduced lipolysis, and promoted fat mass accumulation in the liver, while PBO induced an increase in inflammatory factors and damage to intercellular membranes. Co-exposure enhanced Neo-induced liver steatosis, focal necrosis, and oxidative stress by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Furthermore, diglycerides and metabolic biomarkers demonstrated that the activation of insulin signaling is associated with restricted OXPHOS, which commonly leads to a high risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the result of over-synthesis of lipids, low energy supply, and high thermogenesis. The study demonstrates that chronic disease can be induced by Neo and the synergist PBO at the molecular level.

14.
J Clin Med ; 12(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675359

RESUMO

Previous studies on longitudinal sensory-cognition association are limited and have yielded inconsistent conclusions in western and developed countries. The present study obtained data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2011-2018) and aimed to investigate the longitudinal effects of sensory impairments including single vision impairment (SVI), single hearing impairment (SHI), and dual sensory impairment (DSI) on cognitive decline in middle-aged and older Chinese population. In total, 11,122 participants accomplished all 4 interviews over 8 years and were included. Cognitive performances were assessed using Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and self-reported sensory status were accepted as well. Confounding variables included age, sex, educational level, marital status, medical, and lifestyle related information. The impact of sensory impairment on cognitive decline over time was assessed using linear mixed-effects models (LMM). After being adjusted for multiple confounders, SVI/SHI/DSI were all shown to be significantly associated with executive functions, episodic memory impairment, and global cognitive decline over 8 years (all p < 0.05). Such associations become less significant among female and relatively younger populations (45-59 years old). Single vision and hearing impairments, along with dual sensory impairment, are all independently associated with subsequent cognitive decline among middle-aged and older Chinese populations over 8 years of longitudinal observation.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675091

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss in the elderly population. With aging and the accumulated effects of environmental stress, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage, which can lead to retinal degeneration. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how RPE responds and progresses under oxidative damage are still largely unknown. Here, we reveal that exogenous oxidative stress led to ferroptosis characterized by Fe2+ accumulation and lipid peroxidation in RPE cells. Glutathione specific gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase 1 (Chac1), as a component of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, plays a pivotal role in oxidative-stress-induced cell ferroptosis via the regulation of glutathione depletion. These results indicate the biological significance of Chac1 as a novel contributor of oxidative-stress-induced ferroptosis in RPE, suggesting its potential role in AMD.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Degeneração Macular , Estresse Oxidativo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Idoso , Humanos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Ferroptose/genética , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Pigmentos da Retina/metabolismo
16.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(5): 1107-1117, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255000

RESUMO

Studies have found that the absence of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor may be the primary risk factor for Parkinson's disease. However, there have not been any studies conducted on the potential relationship between glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and cognitive performance in Parkinson's disease. We first performed a retrospective case-control study at the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University between September 2018 and January 2020 and found that a decreased serum level of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor was a risk factor for cognitive disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. We then established a mouse model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and analyzed the potential relationships among glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the prefrontal cortex, dopamine transmission, and cognitive function. Our results showed that decreased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the prefrontal cortex weakened dopamine release and transmission by upregulating the presynaptic membrane expression of the dopamine transporter, which led to the loss and primitivization of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons and cognitive impairment. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging data showed that the long-term lack of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor reduced the connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions, and exogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor significantly improved this connectivity. These findings suggested that decreased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the prefrontal cortex leads to neuroplastic degeneration at the level of synaptic connections and circuits, which results in cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease.

17.
J Environ Manage ; 328: 116942, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495822

RESUMO

In this study, fluoride (F) was stabilized and soluble components, namely phosphate (P), K, Ca, Cr, Mn, and Pb, were extracted from phosphorus slag (PS) by using aluminum sulfate (AS) synergistic electrokinetic. PHREEQC simulation was used to determine the occurrence form of each ion in the PS. The mechanisms by which various electrokinetic treatment methods affected conductivity and pH distribution were carefully investigated. Electrokinetic treatment increased P concentration of the anode chamber from 22.7 mg/L to 63.39 mg/L, whereas K concentration increased from 15.26 mg/L to 93.44 mg/L. After AS-enhanced electrokinetic treatments, the concentrations of the different components were as follows: P, 131.66 mg/L; K, 198.2 mg/L; and Ca, 331.3 mg/L. The removal rate of soluble P in PS slices increased to 80.88% by 1.5 V/cm of treatment, and it increased to 94.04% after AS enhancement treatment. For water-soluble F, the removal rate from the PS slices in the anode region was 86.03%, decreasing F concentration in the electrode chamber to 9.57 × 10-3 mg/L. Different extraction efficiencies and stability levels of each component in the PS were regulated at various electrode regions by using different processes such as electromigration, electro-osmotic flow, flocculation, and precipitation. Good results can be obtained if fluoride is solidified concurrently with the removal or recovery of P, K, Ca, and other elements using 2%-4% AS enhanced electrokinetic treatment. Furthermore, CaSO4·2H2O whiskers were produced in the electrode regions when AS content was 6%. The findings of this study indicated that the AS synergistic electrokinetic method is suitable for stabilizing F and removing heavy metals from PS, thus providing a promising technology for recycling valuable components such as P, K, Ca, and Sr and for the simultaneous production of CaSO4·2H2O whiskers. This study provides insights for developing novel technologies for the clean treatment and high-value utilization of PS.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Fósforo , Alumínio , Compostos de Alúmen
18.
Expert Syst Appl ; 212: 118786, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118937

RESUMO

The COVID-19 lockdown has reduced public transportation service to the disadvantaged and disabled people who urgently need adequate mobility to obtain essential suppliers. This paper aims to improve the life quality of people with disabilities and elderly people by addressing social exclusion, accessibility, and mobility issues. Demand responsive transport services are frequently offered in the context of door-to-door transportation of the elderly and persons with disabilities. We study and compare two frameworks. We apply both Sample average approximation (SAA) and Rolling Horizon (RH) to optimize a car sharing system for the total cost, including initiation cost and operation cost after fleet size is determined. The model is implemented with given geographic conditions and other local information to be tailored for specific applications for local communities. Given that no historical data is available, random sample data is generated to simulate expected demands. We consider three types of probability distributions for daily demand data, and the results generated using three different distributions are being examined and compared. The research shows that the demand data following a normal distribution results in the minimum total cost. Additionally, we study the impact of several factors on total cost, including demand fulfillment rates and operation hours. Our results suggest that the impact of fulfillment rate on fleet size is exponential after a threshold under all three types of daily demand data, and extended operation hours can significantly reduce the total cost. Finally, the paper provides applicable frameworks for city planners, NPOs, and policymakers to better allocate limited resources to implement the carsharing system when little to no historical travel information is available for low-density population areas. It is anticipated that the outcome from this research would benefit disadvantaged and disabled travelers during COVID-19 or similar difficult situations in the future.

19.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 52(2): 324-333, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deaths attributed to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are mainly due to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. Although the inflammatory storm has been considered the main pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, hypersensitivity may be another important mechanism involved in severe cases, which have a perfect response to corticosteroids (CS). METHOD: We detected the serum level of anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike S1 protein-specific IgE (SP-IgE) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein-specific IgE (NP-IgE) in COVID-19. Correlation of levels of specific IgE and clinical severity were analysed. Pulmonary function test and bronchial provocation test were conducted in early convalescence of COVID-19. We also obtained histological samples via endoscopy to detect the evidence of mast cell activation. RESULT: The levels of serum SP-IgE and NP-IgE were significantly higher in severe cases, and were correlated with the total lung severity scores (TLSS) and the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio. Nucleocapsid protein could be detected in both airway and intestinal tissues, which was stained positive together with activated mast cells, binded with IgE. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) exists in the early convalescence of COVID-19. After the application of CS in severe COVID-19, SP-IgE and NP-IgE decreased, but maintained at a high level. CONCLUSION: Hypersensitivity may be involved in severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Brônquios/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Duodeno/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brônquios/metabolismo , Brônquios/patologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Duodeno/metabolismo , Duodeno/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Hipersensibilidade/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Mastócitos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Adv ; 8(48): eabq4524, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459551

RESUMO

Stabilizing perovskite solar cells requires consideration of all defective sites in the devices. Substantial efforts have been devoted to interfaces, while stabilization of grain boundaries received less attention. Here, we report on a molecule tributyl(methyl)phosphonium iodide (TPI), which can convert perovskite into a wide bandgap one-dimensional (1D) perovskite that is mechanically robust and water insoluble. Mixing TPI with perovskite precursor results in a wrapping of perovskite grains with both grain surfaces and grain boundaries converted into several nanometer-thick 1D perovskites during the grain formation process as observed by direct mapping. The grain wrapping passivates the grain boundaries, enhances their resistance to moisture, and reduces the iodine released during light soaking. The perovskite films with wrapped grains are more stable under heat and light. The best device with wrapped grains maintained 92.2% of its highest efficiency after light soaking under 1-sun illumination for 1900 hours at 55°C open-circuit condition.

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